APUSH I Finals Review

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Before 1492, Native American societies thatexisted in what is now the United States filled their food needs by


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Alliances among the various Indian societies in what is now the United States were

    • A.

      Extremely strong due to directly shared cultures east of the Mississippi River

    • B.

      Nonexistent because the tribes fought each other almost continuously

    • C.

      Fragile because the tribes did not view themselves as part of a single civilization

    • D.

      Moderately strong because they shared similar cultures

    • E.

      Extremely strong because they were united in opposition to European encroachments on their lands

    Correct Answer
    C. Fragile because the tribes did not view themselves as part of a single civilization
    Explanation
    The correct answer is fragile because the tribes did not view themselves as part of a single civilization. This suggests that the alliances among the various Indian societies in what is now the United States were not strong. The tribes did not see themselves as part of a unified group or civilization, which would have weakened their ability to form strong alliances.

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  • 2. 

    By 1500, the incentives for Europeans to engage in overseas exploration did not include

    • A.

      Belief in fulfilling divine mission

    • B.

      Significant growth in population

    • C.

      More powerful and united governments

    • D.

      Increased prosperity & desire for commerce

    • E.

      The return of the Bubonic Plague

    Correct Answer
    E. The return of the Bubonic Plague
    Explanation
    During the 15th century, Europeans were motivated to explore overseas due to various factors. The belief in fulfilling a divine mission was one of these incentives, as many Europeans saw it as their duty to spread Christianity to other parts of the world. Significant growth in population also played a role, as it created a need for resources and new trade routes. Additionally, the desire for increased prosperity and commerce drove Europeans to seek out new markets and opportunities. However, the return of the Bubonic Plague was not a motivating factor for overseas exploration during this time period.

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  • 3. 

    By 1550, Spanish explorers had achieved all the following objects except

    • A.

      Explored much of Caribbean

    • B.

      Crossed Isthmus of Panama

    • C.

      Devoted great resources for voyages

    • D.

      Sailed around the world

    • E.

      Discovering Brazil

    Correct Answer
    E. Discovering Brazil
    Explanation
    The given question asks which objective Spanish explorers had not achieved by 1550. The correct answer is "discovering Brazil." This means that by 1550, Spanish explorers had explored much of the Caribbean, crossed the Isthmus of Panama, devoted great resources for voyages, and even sailed around the world, but they had not discovered Brazil.

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  • 4. 

    The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs was, in part, due to

    • A.

      All of the below

    • B.

      An overwhelming superiority in numbers

    • C.

      The diseases the Spaniards had given the Indians

    • D.

      The pacifism of the Aztecs

    • E.

      The Spaniards' humane treatment of the Indians

    Correct Answer
    C. The diseases the Spaniards had given the Indians
    Explanation
    The Spanish conquest of the Aztecs was partly due to the diseases the Spaniards had given the Indians. When the Spanish arrived in the Americas, they brought with them diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza, to which the indigenous people had no immunity. These diseases spread rapidly among the Aztec population, causing devastating epidemics and weakening their resistance. This allowed the Spanish to gain an advantage and ultimately conquer the Aztecs.

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  • 5. 

    When the Europeans arrived in the Americas, they brought with them all of the following things except

    • A.

      The practice of human sacrifice for religious practices

    • B.

      Diseases

    • C.

      Yearning for silver & gold

    • D.

      New crops

    • E.

      New livestock

    Correct Answer
    A. The practice of human sacrifice for religious practices
    Explanation
    When the Europeans arrived in the Americas, they brought with them diseases, a yearning for silver and gold, new crops, and new livestock. However, they did not bring the practice of human sacrifice for religious practices. This is because human sacrifice was not a common practice in European cultures during that time period.

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  • 6. 

    Between 1500 and 1600, the reasons that the Spanish traveled to the Americas included all of the following except

    • A.

      Getting rich by finding gold/silver

    • B.

      Replacing Portugal as leading seafaring nation

    • C.

      Spreading Christianity

    • D.

      To destroy large English colonies in South America

    • E.

      Profitable agricultural economy

    Correct Answer
    D. To destroy large English colonies in South America
    Explanation
    During the time period between 1500 and 1600, the Spanish traveled to the Americas for various reasons. They aimed to get rich by finding gold and silver, replace Portugal as the leading seafaring nation, spread Christianity, and establish a profitable agricultural economy. However, there is no evidence or historical record suggesting that their intention was to destroy large English colonies in South America.

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  • 7. 

    Interest in colonization grew in England because

    • A.

      All of the below

    • B.

      A desire to compete with Spain

    • C.

      Almost constant religious strife

    • D.

      Growth of merchant capitalism

    • E.

      Increasing population and decreasing food supply

    Correct Answer
    A. All of the below
    Explanation
    Interest in colonization grew in England because of a desire to compete with Spain, almost constant religious strife, growth of merchant capitalism, and increasing population with decreasing food supply. England wanted to challenge Spain's dominance in the New World and establish its own colonies. The religious conflicts in England also led some groups to seek refuge and establish colonies in the Americas. The growth of merchant capitalism created a desire for new markets and resources, which could be obtained through colonization. Additionally, England's increasing population and decreasing food supply created a need for new land and resources, which colonization could provide.

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  • 8. 

    According to the principles of mercantilism

    • A.

      The individual is key to economic progress

    • B.

      The world's supply of wealth is almost unlimited

    • C.

      Free trade is good for a country because it maximizes both imports and exports

    • D.

      A successful nation should export its own goods in exchange for gold and silver

    • E.

      Wealth should be shared by all social classes

    Correct Answer
    D. A successful nation should export its own goods in exchange for gold and silver
    Explanation
    According to the principles of mercantilism, a successful nation should export its own goods in exchange for gold and silver. This is because mercantilism emphasizes the accumulation of wealth through a favorable balance of trade. By exporting goods and receiving gold and silver in return, a nation can increase its wealth and strengthen its economy. This approach prioritizes the nation's economic growth and prosperity, rather than wealth being shared by all social classes or the belief that the world's supply of wealth is almost unlimited.

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  • 9. 

    The English believed the colonies would be

    • A.

      All of the below

    • B.

      A place to send excess population

    • C.

      A place where human settlement could start anew

    • D.

      Relieve England of dependence on foreign supply of natural resources

    • E.

      Offer new markets for the wool industry

    Correct Answer
    A. All of the below
    Explanation
    The English believed that the colonies would serve as a place to send excess population, where human settlement could start anew, relieve England of dependence on foreign supply of natural resources, and offer new markets for the wool industry.

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  • 10. 

    Because of their experiences in Ireland, English colonists came to believe they should

    • A.

      Try to rule native population

    • B.

      Civilize native population

    • C.

      Establish an English society separate from the native population

    • D.

      Brutally conquer the eastern half of North America

    • E.

      Attempt to convert the native population to Christianity

    Correct Answer
    C. Establish an English society separate from the native population
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to establish an English society separate from the native population. This is because the English colonists in Ireland had faced conflicts and tensions with the native Irish population, leading them to believe that separating themselves from the native population would be a better approach. This belief carried over to their colonization efforts in North America, where they aimed to create English settlements that were distinct and separate from the indigenous population.

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  • 11. 

    What is not true of the French colonists in North America

    • A.

      Their numbers grew rapidly because of success in building industries

    • B.

      Included Jesuit missionaries

    • C.

      Depended on fur traders

    • D.

      Developed seignuries

    • E.

      Made enemies with powerful Indian tribe

    Correct Answer
    A. Their numbers grew rapidly because of success in building industries
    Explanation
    The statement "their numbers grew rapidly because of success in building industries" is not true of the French colonists in North America. The growth of the French colonists' numbers was not primarily due to their success in building industries, but rather due to other factors such as the fur trade and the establishment of seignuries.

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  • 12. 

    The first few British expeditions to North America resulted in

    • A.

      Finding gold & silver

    • B.

      An end of Spanish explorations in Western Hemisphere

    • C.

      The overthrow of James I

    • D.

      The failure to establish successful permanent settlements

    • E.

      Britain's decision to stop exploring the coastal region of VA

    Correct Answer
    D. The failure to establish successful permanent settlements
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the failure to establish successful permanent settlements. The first few British expeditions to North America were unsuccessful in establishing permanent settlements. These early attempts, such as the Roanoke Colony, faced various challenges such as harsh weather conditions, conflicts with Native American tribes, and lack of resources. These failures eventually led to a shift in strategies and the eventual establishment of successful permanent settlements, such as Jamestown, in later expeditions.

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  • 13. 

    The religious dissatisfactions that ultimately propelled English “Separatists” into the New World can be traced back to the 1517 protests of the German priest

    • A.

      Martin Luther

    • B.

      John Calvin

    • C.

      John Wesley

    • D.

      James Stuart

    • E.

      Richard Hakluyt

    Correct Answer
    A. Martin Luther
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Martin Luther. The religious dissatisfactions of the English "Separatists" can be traced back to the 1517 protests of Martin Luther, a German priest. Luther's protests against the Catholic Church's corrupt practices and his call for reform sparked the Protestant Reformation. This movement had a significant impact on religious beliefs and practices in England, leading to the rise of various Protestant sects, including the Separatists who eventually sought religious freedom in the New World.

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  • 14. 

    The early 1600s, common characteristics of the English colonies included all of the following except

    • A.

      They were business enterprises designed to produce a profit

    • B.

      They made efforts to blend English society with native societies

    • C.

      They were part of a complex and changing society

    • D.

      They could not get things to work as they had planned

    • E.

      They were tied only indirectly to the British crown

    Correct Answer
    B. They made efforts to blend English society with native societies
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "they made efforts to blend English society with native societies". This is because during the early 1600s, the English colonies in America were primarily focused on establishing profitable business enterprises and expanding British influence. They did not prioritize blending English society with native societies, but instead sought to exploit and displace indigenous populations.

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  • 15. 

    The colony of VA was the first colony to

    • A.

      All the below

    • B.

      Hold a meeting of elected legislature

    • C.

      Import Africans as laborers

    • D.

      Use headright system

    • E.

      Engage in major warfare with natives

    Correct Answer
    A. All the below
    Explanation
    The colony of Virginia was the first colony to engage in all of the mentioned activities. It held a meeting of elected legislature known as the House of Burgesses in 1619, which marked the beginning of representative government in America. Virginia also imported Africans as laborers, marking the beginning of the slave trade in the English colonies. The colony also used the headright system, which granted 50 acres of land to anyone who paid for their own or another person's passage to Virginia. Finally, Virginia engaged in major warfare with Native Americans, including conflicts such as the Anglo-Powhatan Wars.

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  • 16. 

    Bacon’s Rebellion began as

    • A.

      A revolt by easterners against western control of government

    • B.

      A democratic movement of the tidewater region

    • C.

      A fight between Indians and frontiersmen over western lands

    • D.

      A struggle over what faction would dominate the slave trade

    • E.

      An effort by landowners to force former indentured servants to leave the settled areas

    Correct Answer
    C. A fight between Indians and frontiersmen over western lands
    Explanation
    Bacon's Rebellion began as a fight between Indians and frontiersmen over western lands. This conflict arose when the western settlers, led by Nathaniel Bacon, felt that the colonial government was not doing enough to protect them from Native American attacks. They formed an army and launched attacks against Native American tribes, as well as against the colonial government. The rebellion highlighted the tensions between the western settlers and the Native Americans, as well as the dissatisfaction of the settlers with the colonial government's policies.

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  • 17. 

    The Pilgrims of Plymouth Plantation benefited from their relationship with the Indians in that

    • A.

      All the below

    • B.

      They settled on land that had already been cleared

    • C.

      The Indians in the area were too weak to cause difficulty

    • D.

      A few Indians showed how to gather seafood/cultivate corn

    • E.

      Pilgrims were less hostile to Indians than Virginians were

    Correct Answer
    A. All the below
    Explanation
    The Pilgrims of Plymouth Plantation benefited from their relationship with the Indians in multiple ways. Firstly, they settled on land that had already been cleared by the Indians, making it easier for them to establish their colony. Secondly, the Indians in the area were too weak to cause difficulty, allowing the Pilgrims to settle without facing significant opposition. Additionally, a few Indians showed the Pilgrims how to gather seafood and cultivate corn, providing them with valuable knowledge for survival in their new environment. Lastly, compared to the Virginians, the Pilgrims were less hostile towards the Indians, which likely contributed to a more peaceful coexistence and potential trade opportunities.

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  • 18. 

    The longest and bloodiest war between whites and Indians in the 1600s was

    • A.

      King Philip’s War

    • B.

      The Pequot War

    • C.

      The Tobacco War

    • D.

      King John’s War

    • E.

      The Mohawk War

    Correct Answer
    A. King Philip’s War
    Explanation
    King Philip's War was the longest and bloodiest war between whites and Indians in the 1600s. It took place from 1675 to 1676 in New England and involved various Native American tribes, led by Metacom, also known as King Philip. The war was fought over land disputes, cultural differences, and tensions between the Native Americans and English settlers. It resulted in heavy casualties on both sides and the destruction of many Native American communities. The war marked a turning point in Native American-European relations in New England and had a lasting impact on the region.

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  • 19. 

    During the Revolution, the Americans had all of the advantages over the British except

    • A.

      Fighting on familiar ground

    • B.

      British only half-heartedly supporting war

    • C.

      British had long lines of communication and supply

    • D.

      Their troops were generally superior to the British regulars

    • E.

      Their cause was more inspired

    Correct Answer
    C. British had long lines of communication and supply
    Explanation
    During the Revolution, the Americans had several advantages over the British, such as fighting on familiar ground, the British only half-heartedly supporting the war, their cause being more inspired, and their troops being generally superior to the British regulars. However, the one advantage that the Americans did not have was long lines of communication and supply. This means that the British had better access to resources and reinforcements, which could have given them an edge in terms of logistics and support during the conflict.

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  • 20. 

    The Battle of Breed’s Hill resulted in

    • A.

      A heavy loss of life for the attacking British army

    • B.

      The withdrawal of George Washington’s forces from Long Island

    • C.

      France’s full military and financial support for the Revolution

    • D.

      Benedict Arnold being hailed as a national hero

    • E.

      The removal of William Howe as a British Commander

    Correct Answer
    E. The removal of William Howe as a British Commander
    Explanation
    The Battle of Breed's Hill resulted in the removal of William Howe as a British Commander. This can be inferred from the fact that the other options do not mention anything about the removal of William Howe. The battle was a significant defeat for the British, and the failure to capture the hill led to criticism of Howe's leadership. As a result, he was eventually replaced as the British Commander in North America.

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  • 21. 

    The legal systems that granted almost absolute authority to white masters over their slaves in the 1700s were known as

    Correct Answer
    slave codes
    slave code
    slavecode
    slavecodes
    Explanation
    In the 1700s, the legal systems that gave white masters almost complete control over their slaves were referred to as "slave codes." These codes were a set of laws that were designed to regulate and control the lives of enslaved individuals, ensuring that they remained subservient to their masters. The slave codes varied from region to region but generally aimed to maintain the institution of slavery and uphold the power dynamics between masters and slaves.

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  • 22. 

    The ability of people to move up and down the “ladder of success” is called

    Correct Answer
    social ladder
    socialladder
    social ladders
    socialladders
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "social ladder." The term "social ladder" refers to the ability of individuals to move up or down in terms of social status or success. It signifies the concept of social mobility, where individuals can improve their social standing through various factors such as education, career advancements, or financial success. The term "social ladder" is commonly used to describe the opportunities and challenges faced by individuals in their pursuit of upward social mobility.

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  • 23. 

    Five middle colonies supplied _____, an important cash crop, to NE and the S

    Correct Answer
    wheat
    Explanation
    The five middle colonies were known for supplying wheat, which was an important cash crop. This crop was in high demand in both the New England and Southern colonies. Wheat was a valuable commodity that could be traded and sold, making it a significant source of income for the middle colonies.

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  • 24. 

    _____ is the English legal principle under which the firstborn son inherits all of his father’s estate

    Correct Answer
    primogeniture
    Explanation
    Primogeniture is the English legal principle where the firstborn son inherits all of his father's estate. This practice was prevalent in English society for many centuries, ensuring that the family's wealth and property remained intact and passed down through generations. It was believed that the eldest son was the most capable and responsible for managing the family's assets. This system often excluded daughters and younger siblings from inheriting any significant portion of the estate, reinforcing the patriarchal structure of society. However, primogeniture has been largely abolished in modern times, with most countries adopting more egalitarian inheritance laws.

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  • 25. 

    The most famous outbreak of the witchcraft hysteria of the 1680s and 1690s occurred in

    Correct Answer
    Salem, MA
    Salem
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Salem, MA. Salem, Massachusetts experienced the most famous outbreak of witchcraft hysteria in the late 17th century. During this time, many people were accused of practicing witchcraft and were put on trial. The Salem witch trials resulted in the execution of several individuals and had a significant impact on the community.

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  • 26. 

    During 1777, British General Burgoyne attempted to implement a plan for dividing the colonies by capturing the

    • A.

      Hudson River Valley

    • B.

      Tidewater Region

    • C.

      St. Lawrence River Valley

    • D.

      Chesapeake Bay Region

    • E.

      Potomac River Valley

    Correct Answer
    A. Hudson River Valley
    Explanation
    During 1777, British General Burgoyne attempted to implement a plan for dividing the colonies by capturing the Hudson River Valley. This region was strategically important as it served as a major transportation route, allowing for the movement of troops and supplies between New England and the rest of the colonies. By capturing the Hudson River Valley, Burgoyne hoped to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies, isolating them and weakening their resistance. Additionally, controlling this region would have provided the British with a strong foothold in the heart of the colonies, making it easier to further divide and conquer.

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  • 27. 

    Congress appointed ______ as the Continental Army’s commander-in-chief

    Correct Answer
    George Washington
    Washington
    Explanation
    George Washington was appointed by Congress as the Continental Army's commander-in-chief. He played a crucial role in leading the army during the American Revolutionary War. As the commander-in-chief, Washington demonstrated strong leadership skills, strategic thinking, and determination, which ultimately led to the success of the American forces. His appointment as commander-in-chief was a significant decision made by Congress to entrust the leadership of the army to Washington, recognizing his capabilities and experience in military affairs.

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  • 28. 

    General ______, British commander in 1776, wanted to awe the Americans into submission rather than fight them

    Correct Answer
    Howe
    Explanation
    General Howe, the British commander in 1776, had a strategy of using overwhelming force and displays of power to intimidate the American forces and force them into submission, rather than engaging in direct combat. This approach was aimed at demoralizing the Americans and convincing them that resistance was futile. By using tactics such as large-scale troop deployments and demonstrations of military might, Howe hoped to break the American spirit and bring about a swift end to the conflict.

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  • 29. 

    By the late 1780s, many Americans had become dissatisfied with the weaknesses of the Confederation.  The Confederation government was hampered by

    • A.

      All of the below

    • B.

      Factions and instability

    • C.

      An inability to deal with economic problems

    • D.

      The lack of power to deal with social uprisings

    • E.

      Its failure to deal quickly with Shay’s Rebellion

    Correct Answer
    A. All of the below
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the below". This means that all of the mentioned factors contributed to the dissatisfaction of many Americans with the weaknesses of the Confederation government. These factors include factions and instability, an inability to deal with economic problems, the lack of power to deal with social uprisings, and its failure to quickly address Shay's Rebellion.

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  • 30. 

    Alexander Hamilton and James Madison joined forces in an attempt to

    • A.

      Call for a convention to correct the defects in the Articles of Confederation

    • B.

      Defend the power of the Confederation Congress to impose a tariff duty on imports

    • C.

      Produce a quorum in the Confederation Congress to ratify the Peace of Paris

    • D.

      Strengthen states’ rights under the Articles of Confederation

    • E.

      End slavery in the Tidewater Region

    Correct Answer
    A. Call for a convention to correct the defects in the Articles of Confederation
    Explanation
    Alexander Hamilton and James Madison joined forces in an attempt to call for a convention to correct the defects in the Articles of Confederation. This suggests that they recognized the flaws and weaknesses in the existing system of government and believed that a convention was necessary to address these issues and create a more effective and efficient government structure. By advocating for a convention, they aimed to bring about necessary reforms and improvements to the Articles of Confederation.

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  • 31. 

    One of the major differences between the VA and NJ plans for the new US Constitution was whether

    • A.

      All of the below

    • B.

      States would have equal representation in Congress

    • C.

      The national government would have the authority to levy taxes directly

    • D.

      Congress would be able to regulate commerce between the states

    • E.

      The president would be elected or appointed

    Correct Answer
    B. States would have equal representation in Congress
    Explanation
    The major difference between the Virginia (VA) and New Jersey (NJ) plans for the new US Constitution was whether all of the states would have equal representation in Congress. The VA plan, also known as the "large state" plan, proposed a bicameral legislature where representation would be based on population, favoring larger states. On the other hand, the NJ plan, also known as the "small state" plan, proposed a unicameral legislature where each state would have equal representation, regardless of population size. This difference in representation was a crucial point of contention during the Constitutional Convention.

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  • 32. 

    The “Great Compromise” at the Constit. Convention of 1787 resulted in all agreements except

    • A.

      Representation in the lower house of Congress would be based on population

    • B.

      Each slave counted as three-fifths of a free person in the determination of representation and direct taxation

    • C.

      The national government would be prohibited from exercising any powers not specifically granted in it

    • D.

      Each state would have an equal number of votes in the upper house of Congress

    • E.

      An assumption that slave labor was not as productive as free labor

    Correct Answer
    C. The national government would be prohibited from exercising any powers not specifically granted in it
    Explanation
    The "Great Compromise" at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 resulted in various agreements, including representation in the lower house of Congress being based on population, each slave being counted as three-fifths of a free person for representation and taxation purposes, and each state having an equal number of votes in the upper house of Congress. However, the idea that the national government would be prohibited from exercising any powers not specifically granted to it was not a part of the Great Compromise. This concept is instead associated with the principle of limited government, which is a fundamental aspect of the United States Constitution.

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  • 33. 

    The men who wrote the Constitution resolved the question of sovereignty by deciding that in the US political power resided ultimately with the

    • A.

      National government

    • B.

      President

    • C.

      State governments

    • D.

      Local governments

    • E.

      People

    Correct Answer
    A. National government
    Explanation
    The men who wrote the Constitution resolved the question of sovereignty by deciding that in the US political power resided ultimately with the national government. This means that the central government has the ultimate authority and control over the country as a whole. The decision to give power to the national government was a deliberate choice to ensure a strong and unified nation, rather than dispersing power among various state or local governments. The Constitution established a federal system in which the national government has specific powers while also allowing state and local governments to have their own areas of authority.

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  • 34. 

    The Republican vision of America as proposed by Jefferson included the ideal of

    • A.

      A diversified and complex economy

    • B.

      A large and powerful federal government

    • C.

      A society of sturdy, independent farmers

    • D.

      An urbanized nation with cities to rival those of Europe

    • E.

      A sole emphasis on education of the elite

    Correct Answer
    A. A diversified and complex economy
    Explanation
    Jefferson's vision of America included a diversified and complex economy. This means that he believed in promoting various industries and economic activities, rather than relying on a single sector. He believed that a diverse economy would lead to greater prosperity and opportunities for all citizens. By encouraging economic growth and innovation, Jefferson aimed to create a strong and self-sufficient nation.

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  • 35. 

    In the early 1800s, women were

    • A.

      All of the answers below

    • B.

      Commonly encourages to join professional fields

    • C.

      Frequently admitted to secondary schools

    • D.

      Occasionally admitted to colleges and universities

    • E.

      Often educated to be better wives and mothers

    Correct Answer
    E. Often educated to be better wives and mothers
    Explanation
    In the early 1800s, women were often educated to be better wives and mothers. During this time period, societal norms and expectations placed a strong emphasis on women's roles within the domestic sphere. As a result, their education primarily focused on skills and knowledge that would be useful in managing a household and raising children. This included learning tasks such as cooking, sewing, and childcare. Women's education was often limited and did not typically include opportunities to pursue professional careers or higher education.

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  • 36. 

    During the Jeffersonian era, American education exhibited the characteristic of

    • A.

      Males and females being granted a free public education until the age of twelve

    • B.

      Most states creating a system of free public schools

    • C.

      Private institutions dominating the educational system

    • D.

      Nearly one-half of the white male population gaining access to a college education

    • E.

      African-Americans finally receiving equal opportunity

    Correct Answer
    C. Private institutions dominating the educational system
    Explanation
    During the Jeffersonian era, private institutions dominated the educational system. This means that the majority of education in America was provided by private schools rather than public schools. This dominance of private institutions suggests that education was not widely accessible to the general population and was likely only available to those who could afford to pay for it. This limited access to education may have resulted in disparities in educational opportunities and outcomes for different social and economic groups during this time period.

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  • 37. 

    Many early American literary figures

    • A.

      Wrote stories about horror and deviant behavior

    • B.

      Provided criticism of European cultures

    • C.

      Glorified the virtues of American political leaders

    • D.

      Portrayed the weaknesses of American political leaders

    • E.

      Gave a realistic and unemotional evaluation of the events of American history

    Correct Answer
    C. Glorified the virtues of American political leaders
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that many early American literary figures wrote stories that praised and celebrated the positive qualities and achievements of American political leaders.

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  • 38. 

    Overall, the Second Great Awakening resulted in

    • A.

      Increased belief in salvation attained through faith and good works

    • B.

      A greater number of male converts than female converts

    • C.

      Renewed acceptance of the doctrine of predestination

    • D.

      The growth of “rational theology

    • E.

      Less active piety and an acceptance of the rational religions

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased belief in salvation attained through faith and good works
    Explanation
    The Second Great Awakening was a religious revival movement that took place in the United States during the early 19th century. It emphasized the importance of personal salvation and the role of faith and good works in achieving it. As a result of this movement, there was an increased belief among people that salvation could be attained through a combination of faith and good works. This belief led to a greater emphasis on personal piety and a desire to actively engage in religious practices.

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  • 39. 

    To protect the country from the problems of concentrated authority, the writers of the Constitution used the idea of a

    • A.

      All of the answers below

    • B.

      Separation of powers

    • C.

      System of checks and balances

    • D.

      Federal structure of government

    • E.

      Government that derives its authority from below

    Correct Answer
    A. All of the answers below
    Explanation
    The writers of the Constitution used the idea of a separation of powers, a system of checks and balances, and a federal structure of government to protect the country from the problems of concentrated authority. By dividing the powers among different branches of government, such as the executive, legislative, and judicial branches, they ensured that no single branch could become too powerful. The system of checks and balances further prevented any one branch from dominating the others, as each branch had the ability to limit the powers of the other branches. Additionally, the federal structure of government, with power shared between the national government and state governments, helped to prevent the concentration of authority in one central government.

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  • 40. 

    The “Revolution of 1800” refers to

    • A.

      The social upheaval that occurred when America became more democratic at the turn of the century

    • B.

      The attempt by revolutionaries to overthrow the govt. after the passage of the Alien & Sedition Acts

    • C.

      The belief of Thomas Jefferson that the Republican victory signaled a fundamental change in American politics

    • D.

      The control of the judiciary branch that Federalists seized after the election

    • E.

      The violent resistance of western farmers to the excise tax on whiskey

    Correct Answer
    C. The belief of Thomas Jefferson that the Republican victory signaled a fundamental change in American politics
    Explanation
    The "Revolution of 1800" refers to the belief of Thomas Jefferson that the Republican victory signaled a fundamental change in American politics. This term is used to describe the peaceful transfer of power from the Federalist Party to the Democratic-Republican Party in the presidential election of 1800. It marked the first time in American history that power had been transferred from one political party to another, demonstrating the strength and stability of the young nation's democratic system. Jefferson saw this victory as a revolution in the sense that it represented a shift away from the elitist and centralized government of the Federalists towards a more democratic and decentralized government.

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  • 41. 

    Because of opposition to the War of 1812, a movement toward succession was made by

    • A.

      Carolina Federalists

    • B.

      Western Republicans

    • C.

      New England Federalists

    • D.

      Chesapeake Republicans

    • E.

      Mid-Atlantic Republicans

    Correct Answer
    C. New England Federalists
    Explanation
    During the War of 1812, New England Federalists opposed the conflict due to its negative impact on their trade and economy. They believed that the war would harm their interests and preferred to maintain peaceful relations with Britain. As a result, they began to consider secession as a means to protect their economic interests and distance themselves from the war efforts. This movement towards secession was driven by the New England Federalists' opposition to the war and their desire to protect their region's economic prosperity.

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  • 42. 

    The "Great Compromise" at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 resulted in all the following agreements except

    • A.

      Representation in the lower house of Congress would be based on population

    • B.

      Each slave would be counted as 3/5's of a free person in the determination of representation and direct taxation

    • C.

      The national government would be prohibited from exercising any powers not specifically granted to it

    • D.

      Each state would have an equal number of votes in the upper house of Congress

    • E.

      An assumption that slave labor was not as productive as free labor

    Correct Answer
    C. The national government would be prohibited from exercising any powers not specifically granted to it
    Explanation
    The Great Compromise at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 resulted in various agreements, such as representation in the lower house of Congress being based on population, each slave being counted as 3/5's of a free person in the determination of representation and direct taxation, and each state having an equal number of votes in the upper house of Congress. Additionally, an assumption that slave labor was not as productive as free labor was made. However, the agreement did not include the provision that the national government would be prohibited from exercising any powers not specifically granted to it.

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  • 43. 

    During the Jeffersonian era, American education exhibited all the following characteristics except

    • A.

      Many schools became available to the poor

    • B.

      The number of colleges and universities increased

    • C.

      Professional education did not increase significantly

    • D.

      Private institutions were more common than public

    • E.

      The Republican party’s commitment to public education

    Correct Answer
    A. Many schools became available to the poor
    Explanation
    During the Jeffersonian era, American education exhibited the characteristics of an increased number of colleges and universities, a lack of significant increase in professional education, and a prevalence of private institutions over public ones. However, it did not include the availability of many schools to the poor. This means that while education opportunities expanded in certain areas, they were not necessarily accessible to the lower socioeconomic classes.

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  • 44. 

    Alexander Hamilton believed in all of the following ideas except

    • A.

      The country should be governed by an elite ruling class

    • B.

      A large and permanent national debt is a good idea

    • C.

      The federal government should assume state debts incurred during the war

    • D.

      One bank should have a monopoly of the federal government’s own banking business

    • E.

      The nat’l govt. should reward only those who had originally loaned it money during Revolution

    Correct Answer
    D. One bank should have a monopoly of the federal government’s own banking business
    Explanation
    Alexander Hamilton believed in all of the ideas listed except for the idea that one bank should have a monopoly of the federal government's own banking business. Hamilton was a proponent of a strong central government and believed in the importance of a national bank, but he did not advocate for a single bank to have exclusive control over the government's banking operations.

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  • 45. 

    Aaron Burr’s trial for treason ended in

    • A.

      His conviction, following which he was sentenced to a long prison term

    • B.

      A hung jury, not being retried because the govt. believed it would not get a conviction

    • C.

      His acquittal, because he was clearly innocent

    • D.

      His acquittal, because the judge imposed strict standards of evidence that the govt. could not meet

    • E.

      His conviction, which was hailed as a victory for the Jefferson administration

    Correct Answer
    D. His acquittal, because the judge imposed strict standards of evidence that the govt. could not meet
  • 46. 

    President Jefferson’s embargo was intended to

    • A.

      Minimize losses by American merchants

    • B.

      Promote growth of American industry

    • C.

      Punish all European powers

    • D.

      Force Britain and France into leaving American ships alone

    • E.

      Benefit northeastern merchants

    Correct Answer
    D. Force Britain and France into leaving American ships alone
    Explanation
    President Jefferson’s embargo was intended to force Britain and France into leaving American ships alone. This was a response to the ongoing conflict between Britain and France, as they were seizing American ships and impressing American sailors. By imposing the embargo, Jefferson hoped to pressure Britain and France into respecting American neutrality and stop interfering with American trade. This action was aimed at protecting American interests and asserting the nation's sovereignty in the face of European aggression.

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  • 47. 

    The slave culture of the large plantations

    • A.

      All of the below

    • B.

      Place special emphasis on extended kinship networks

    • C.

      Developed a religion that blended Christianity with African folklore

    • D.

      Was subject to constant intrusion from and interaction with white society

    • E.

      Included a strong and elaborate family structure

    Correct Answer
    A. All of the below
    Explanation
    The slave culture of the large plantations included all of the mentioned characteristics. It placed special emphasis on extended kinship networks, which helped slaves maintain a sense of community and support. They developed a religion that blended Christianity with African folklore, creating a unique spiritual practice that provided solace and resistance. The constant intrusion from and interaction with white society affected every aspect of their lives. Lastly, the slave culture had a strong and elaborate family structure, as families were often separated due to the slave trade, and maintaining connections became crucial for survival and resistance.

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  • 48. 

    The Declaration of Independence contained

    • A.

      All of the below

    • B.

      An indictment against the king of Britain for crimes against Americans

    • C.

      An endorsement of the idea that all men are created equal

    • D.

      A statement of the contract theory of government

    • E.

      Beliefs that influenced the French Revolution

    Correct Answer
    A. All of the below
    Explanation
    The Declaration of Independence contained an indictment against the king of Britain for crimes against Americans, an endorsement of the idea that all men are created equal, a statement of the contract theory of government, and beliefs that influenced the French Revolution.

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  • 49. 

    During the 1800s, the Second Great Awakening featured

    • A.

      All of the below

    • B.

      The creation of the camp meeting

    • C.

      The spread of highly emotional behavior at religious revivals

    • D.

      An increase in religious fervor across the nation

    • E.

      The decline of widespread belief in predestination

    Correct Answer
    A. All of the below
    Explanation
    The Second Great Awakening during the 1800s was characterized by several key features. One of these was the creation of the camp meeting, which provided a space for large gatherings of people to engage in religious worship and revival. Additionally, the Second Great Awakening saw the spread of highly emotional behavior at religious revivals, with individuals expressing their religious fervor through intense displays of emotion. This period also witnessed an increase in religious fervor across the nation, as more people became actively involved in religious practices and sought spiritual revival. Lastly, the Second Great Awakening led to the decline of widespread belief in predestination, as individuals began to emphasize personal agency and the ability to shape their own spiritual destinies.

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  • 50. 

    In the second phase of the American Revolution, between early 1776 and early 1778, the fighting resulted in the British forces

    • A.

      Being on the verge of total defeat

    • B.

      Doing very little, because they remained in their city fortresses

    • C.

      Achieving several important victories but failing to crush the Americans because of mistakes and blunders

    • D.

      Almost succeeding in achieving total victory

    • E.

      Surrendering key positions in Canada

    Correct Answer
    C. Achieving several important victories but failing to crush the Americans because of mistakes and blunders
    Explanation
    During the second phase of the American Revolution, the British forces were able to achieve several important victories. However, despite these victories, they were unable to completely defeat the Americans due to their own mistakes and blunders. This suggests that while the British had some success on the battlefield, their errors prevented them from achieving total victory.

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