The Ultimate World History Exam Practice Test!

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AP World History Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    During the early modern era, which non-European peoples explored the Indian Ocean?

    • A.

      Japanese

    • B.

      Chinese

    • C.

      Mongols

    • D.

      Filipinos

    Correct Answer
    B. Chinese
    Explanation
    During the early modern era, the Chinese were one of the non-European peoples who explored the Indian Ocean. The Chinese had a long history of maritime exploration and trade, and during this era, they expanded their reach to the Indian Ocean region. Chinese explorers like Zheng He led several expeditions to Southeast Asia, India, and even Africa, establishing trade networks and diplomatic relations. Their exploration of the Indian Ocean contributed to the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultures between China and other regions, making them an important non-European player in the exploration of the Indian Ocean during that time.

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  • 2. 

    The Portuguese viewed the Atlantic Ocean islands as the perfect location for the cultivation of what crop?

    • A.

      Cotton

    • B.

      Indigo

    • C.

      Maize

    • D.

      None of these is correct

    Correct Answer
    D. None of these is correct
    Explanation
    The question asks about the crop that the Portuguese viewed the Atlantic Ocean islands as the perfect location for cultivation. However, none of the options provided (cotton, indigo, maize) are correct. Therefore, the answer is "none of these is correct".

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  • 3. 

    Columbus’ decision to sail west to reach Asia was based on…

    • A.

      Assistance from an experienced Muslim sailor

    • B.

      Secret information on trade routes that he had received indirectly from Chinese sources

    • C.

      Legends left over from the earlier Viking voyages

    • D.

      His miscalculation of the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan

    Correct Answer
    D. His miscalculation of the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan
    Explanation
    Columbus' decision to sail west to reach Asia was based on his miscalculation of the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan. He believed that the Earth was smaller than it actually is, and therefore thought that by sailing west, he could reach Asia faster than by sailing east. This miscalculation led him to embark on his famous voyage, which ultimately resulted in his discovery of the Americas.

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  • 4. 

    In the end, Portugal was unable to maintain its early domination of trade because

    • A.

      It was a small country with a small population

    • B.

      A Chinese resurgence of naval exploration forced the Portuguese to desist

    • C.

      A late outbreak of the plague in the 17th century killed most mariners

    • D.

      The English, French, and Dutch formed an alliance designed to break Portugal

    Correct Answer
    A. It was a small country with a small population
    Explanation
    Portugal's inability to maintain its early domination of trade can be attributed to its small size and population. As a small country, Portugal may have lacked the resources and manpower necessary to sustain its trade dominance over a prolonged period. Additionally, larger and more powerful nations such as England, France, and the Netherlands may have formed alliances to challenge and break Portugal's monopoly in trade. This would have further weakened Portugal's position and hindered its ability to maintain control over trade routes and markets.

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  • 5. 

    Under the Spanish rule of the Philippines, what happened to the native population?

    • A.

      They were pressured to convert to Roman Catholicism and many died in warfare

    • B.

      They were converted to Islam and lived a subsistence lifestyle

    • C.

      They were encouraged to pursue a syncretic brand of Christianity

    • D.

      They followed a classical European north-south Protestant-Catholic geographic split

    Correct Answer
    A. They were pressured to convert to Roman Catholicism and many died in warfare
    Explanation
    During the Spanish rule of the Philippines, the native population was subjected to pressure to convert to Roman Catholicism. Additionally, they also experienced high mortality rates due to warfare. This suggests that the Spanish colonizers enforced their religious beliefs on the native population and engaged in conflicts that resulted in significant loss of life.

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  • 6. 

    Russian merchants and explorers began the expansion into Siberia in the quest for

    • A.

      Lumber

    • B.

      Gold

    • C.

      Oil

    • D.

      Furs

    Correct Answer
    D. Furs
    Explanation
    Russian merchants and explorers started expanding into Siberia in search of furs. Furs were highly valued and in demand during that time, especially in Europe, where they were used for clothing and accessories. The vast forests of Siberia were home to various fur-bearing animals such as sable, fox, and beaver, making it a lucrative region for fur trade. The pursuit of furs drove the Russian exploration and colonization of Siberia, leading to the establishment of fur trading posts and the eventual annexation of the territory by the Russian Empire.

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  • 7. 

    From 1500 to 1800, the largest contingent of migrants consisted of

    • A.

      Enslaved Africans

    • B.

      Hindu Indians fleeing religious persecution

    • C.

      Chinese peasant families fleeing outbreaks of disease

    • D.

      Southern Europeans seeking political freedom in the Americas

    Correct Answer
    A. Enslaved Africans
    Explanation
    During the period from 1500 to 1800, the largest contingent of migrants consisted of enslaved Africans. This is because during this time, the transatlantic slave trade was at its peak, with millions of Africans being forcibly transported to the Americas to work on plantations and in mines. The demand for labor in the New World led to a massive influx of enslaved Africans, making them the largest group of migrants during this period.

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  • 8. 

    By 1750, all parts of the world participated in a global trade network in which Europeans played dominant roles EXCEPT 

    • A.

      Ottoman Empire

    • B.

      Korea

    • C.

      South Africa

    • D.

      Australia

    Correct Answer
    D. Australia
    Explanation
    Australia is the correct answer because by 1750, Australia was still largely unexplored and uninhabited by Europeans. It was not until the late 18th century that British explorers began to colonize Australia, with the establishment of the first European settlement in 1788. Therefore, Australia did not participate in the global trade network dominated by Europeans by 1750.

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  • 9. 

    Luther’s initial stimulus for formulating the Ninety-Five Theses was

    • A.

      None of these is correct

    • B.

      His objection to the requirement of daily prayers

    • C.

      The inaccurate King James translation of the Bible

    • D.

      The dogma of Mary as a saint

    Correct Answer
    A. None of these is correct
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that Luther's initial stimulus for formulating the Ninety-Five Theses was not any of the options provided. This implies that the options given (objection to daily prayers, inaccurate King James translation of the Bible, and the dogma of Mary as a saint) are incorrect in relation to Luther's motivation for formulating the Theses.

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  • 10. 

    To what purpose was the Council of Trent convened?

    • A.

      As opposition to the Protestant Reformation

    • B.

      Discuss the sale of indulgences

    • C.

      Debate the celibacy and education of priests

    • D.

      All of these purposes are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these purposes are correct
    Explanation
    The Council of Trent was convened for multiple purposes. Firstly, it was called as a response to the Protestant Reformation, aiming to address the theological and doctrinal issues raised by the reformers. Additionally, the council discussed the controversial practice of selling indulgences, which was a major concern during that time. Furthermore, the celibacy and education of priests were also debated and addressed during the council. Therefore, all of these purposes are correct in explaining why the Council of Trent was convened.

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  • 11. 

    What was the final result of the religious struggle in the Dutch provinces?

    • A.

      A geographic split between the Protestant north and Catholic south

    • B.

      A total union of Christian believers

    • C.

      A compromise wherein the king remained Catholic but the Protestants were allowed to remain

    • D.

      The loss of Dutch independence to Spanish control

    Correct Answer
    A. A geographic split between the Protestant north and Catholic south
    Explanation
    The final result of the religious struggle in the Dutch provinces was a geographic split between the Protestant north and Catholic south. This means that the northern provinces became predominantly Protestant, while the southern provinces remained predominantly Catholic. This division had significant political and social implications for the Dutch provinces, as it contributed to the formation of separate identities and political entities within the region.

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  • 12. 

    The most destructive European conflict before the twentieth century was…

    • A.

      Seven Years War

    • B.

      Thirty Years War

    • C.

      Pugachev's Rebellion

    • D.

      Self-Strengthening Movement

    Correct Answer
    C. Pugachev's Rebellion
    Explanation
    Pugachev's Rebellion was a major revolt that occurred in Russia from 1773 to 1775. Led by the Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev, it aimed to overthrow the Russian government and abolish serfdom. The rebellion resulted in widespread violence and destruction, with villages being burned and thousands of people being killed. It posed a significant threat to the stability of the Russian Empire and was ultimately crushed by government forces. This makes Pugachev's Rebellion the most destructive European conflict before the twentieth century.

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  • 13. 

    Catherine the Great’s attempts at reform in Russia were essentially ended by

    • A.

      The Great Northern War

    • B.

      The "Time of Troubles"

    • C.

      The English Civil War

    • D.

      Pugachev's Rebellion

    Correct Answer
    D. Pugachev's Rebellion
    Explanation
    Catherine the Great's attempts at reform in Russia were essentially ended by Pugachev's Rebellion. Pugachev's Rebellion, which took place from 1773 to 1775, was a major peasant uprising against the Russian government. It was led by Emelian Pugachev, who claimed to be Catherine's late husband, Peter III. The rebellion posed a significant threat to Catherine's rule and ultimately forced her to abandon her plans for further reforms. The rebellion highlighted the deep-seated social and economic issues within Russia and demonstrated the limitations of Catherine's attempts at modernization and reform.

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  • 14. 

    The usual victims of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century witch-hunts were women, but what other characteristic did they share?

    • A.

      A marginalized position in society

    • B.

      A belief in witchcraft

    • C.

      A prominent and threatening role in society

    • D.

      A religious threat to the local parish

    Correct Answer
    A. A marginalized position in society
    Explanation
    During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, women were the usual victims of witch-hunts. This suggests that they shared a marginalized position in society. Women were often seen as inferior and had limited rights and opportunities compared to men. This societal position made them more vulnerable to accusations and persecution during the witch-hunt era.

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  • 15. 

    Why was Charles V ultimately unable to strengthen the Holy Roman Empire?

    • A.

      He was distracted by the internal demands of the Spanish government.

    • B.

      He was confronted with religious and political problems.

    • C.

      The Holy Roman Empire was too loosely connected.

    • D.

      He was Spanish and the empire was German.

    Correct Answer
    B. He was confronted with religious and political problems.
    Explanation
    Charles V was ultimately unable to strengthen the Holy Roman Empire because he was confronted with religious and political problems. These problems, such as the Protestant Reformation and conflicts with other European powers, diverted his attention and resources away from efforts to strengthen the empire. Additionally, the religious and political divisions within the empire made it difficult for Charles V to effectively govern and unite the various territories under his rule.

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  • 16. 

    For the Spanish, the greatest attraction of the Americas was

    • A.

      Gold

    • B.

      Slaves and sugar

    • C.

      Precious metals

    • D.

      Tobacco and sugar

    Correct Answer
    C. Precious metals
    Explanation
    The correct answer is precious metals. This is because the Spanish were primarily interested in acquiring gold and other valuable metals from the Americas. These precious metals were seen as a symbol of wealth and power, and the Spanish sought to exploit the resources of the New World to increase their own wealth and influence.

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  • 17. 

    The most important factor in explaining the Spanish victory over the Aztecs and Incas was

    • A.

      The overwhelming Spanish superiority in guns and cannons

    • B.

      The devastating loss of life caused by European-borne diseases

    • C.

      The military strength in numbers

    • D.

      The Spanish alliance with the Maya

    Correct Answer
    B. The devastating loss of life caused by European-borne diseases
    Explanation
    The devastating loss of life caused by European-borne diseases was the most important factor in explaining the Spanish victory over the Aztecs and Incas. These diseases, such as smallpox, were introduced by the Spanish and had a catastrophic impact on the native populations who had no immunity to them. The diseases spread rapidly and caused widespread death, weakening the Aztec and Inca civilizations and making them more vulnerable to Spanish conquest. This factor played a crucial role in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires.

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  • 18. 

    The ENCOMENDEROS were

    • A.

      Aztec priests who viewed the Spanish as visiting gods

    • B.

      People of mixed indigenous and European heritage

    • C.

      The Spanish administrative officials who ruled over the colonies

    • D.

      Spanish settlers

    Correct Answer
    D. Spanish settlers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Spanish settlers. The encomenderos were Spanish settlers who were granted land and indigenous labor by the Spanish crown in the colonies. They were responsible for establishing and maintaining the encomienda system, which was a form of forced labor and tribute extraction from the indigenous population. The encomenderos played a crucial role in the colonization and exploitation of the Americas by the Spanish.

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  • 19. 

    What did the Portuguese do to provide labor for their plantations?

    • A.

      Offered higher wages than their Spanish counterparts

    • B.

      Copied the Spanish REPARTIMENTO system

    • C.

      Relied on imported African slaves as laborers

    • D.

      Made extensive use of indentured servants

    Correct Answer
    C. Relied on imported African slaves as laborers
    Explanation
    The Portuguese relied on imported African slaves as laborers for their plantations. This means that they brought in African individuals to work on their plantations, rather than using other methods such as offering higher wages or using indentured servants. This was a common practice during the time period, as European powers sought to exploit the labor of Africans for economic gain.

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  • 20. 

    The last emperor of the Inca empires was

    • A.

      Motecuzoma II

    • B.

      Viracocha

    • C.

      Pachakuti

    • D.

      Atahualpa

    Correct Answer
    D. Atahualpa
    Explanation
    Atahualpa is the correct answer because he was the last emperor of the Inca empire. He ruled from 1532 until his capture and execution by the Spanish conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro. Atahualpa's reign marked the end of the Inca empire and the beginning of Spanish colonization in the region. His capture and subsequent death were significant events in the history of the Inca civilization and the conquest of the Americas by the Spanish.

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  • 21. 

    In the English colonies a higher percentage of women settlers ensured that the migrants mainly married among themselves. This situation is similar to what Spanish or Portuguese colonial area?

    • A.

      Chile

    • B.

      Medico

    • C.

      Brazil

    • D.

      Peru

    Correct Answer
    D. Peru
    Explanation
    In Peru, similar to the English colonies, a higher percentage of women settlers led to a situation where migrants mainly married among themselves. This resulted in a similar pattern of social and cultural integration as seen in the English colonies.

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  • 22. 

    The Indian population in the present-day United States stood at five million to ten million in 1492 and at ____ in 1800.

    • A.

      60,000

    • B.

      600,000

    • C.

      6,000,000

    • D.

      60,000,000

    Correct Answer
    B. 600,000
    Explanation
    The Indian population in the present-day United States increased from 5-10 million in 1492 to 600,000 in 1800. This suggests a significant decline in the Indian population over time, possibly due to factors such as disease, warfare, displacement, and colonization by European settlers.

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  • 23. 

    The term MESTIZO refers to

    • A.

      The Aztec term for a person who betrayed the king

    • B.

      Coins that were used by the Inca

    • C.

      An individual of indigenous American and European parentage

    • D.

      A person of black African and European parentage

    Correct Answer
    C. An individual of indigenous American and European parentage
    Explanation
    The term MESTIZO refers to an individual of indigenous American and European parentage. This term is commonly used in Latin America to describe people of mixed ancestry, particularly those with indigenous American and European heritage. Mestizos have a unique cultural and ethnic identity, representing the blending of different cultures and histories. This term is significant in understanding the diverse population and heritage of Latin America.

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  • 24. 

    A key difference between the indigenous peoples of North America and those of South America was

    • A.

      English common law offered the indigenous peoples of North America more protection than did the viceroys of South America

    • B.

      The conquistadores were much more interested in claiming individual landownership than were the English farmers.

    • C.

      The Indians of North America were more resistant to European-borne diseases and therefore were better able to resist the European settlers than were the decimated Aztecs and Incas

    • D.

      The Indians of North America were farmers and hunters who frequently moved their villages, rather than residents of large centralized empires as in South America

    • E.

      The Indians of North America welcomed the Europeans as fellow farmers, rather than perceiving them as military enemies

    Correct Answer
    D. The Indians of North America were farmers and hunters who frequently moved their villages, rather than residents of large centralized empires as in South America
    Explanation
    The key difference between the indigenous peoples of North America and those of South America was that the Indians of North America were farmers and hunters who frequently moved their villages, rather than residents of large centralized empires as in South America. This distinction in lifestyle and settlement patterns contributed to various cultural, social, and political differences between the two regions. While the indigenous peoples of South America had established complex empires like the Aztecs and Incas, the indigenous peoples of North America had a more nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle, relying on agriculture and hunting for sustenance. This fundamental difference in societal structure shaped their interactions with European settlers and their subsequent histories.

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  • 25. 

    Throughout the period of trans-Atlantic slavery, the mortality rate for the middle passage was

    • A.

      15 percent

    • B.

      25 percent

    • C.

      35 percent

    • D.

      50 percent

    Correct Answer
    B. 25 percent
    Explanation
    During the trans-Atlantic slavery period, the mortality rate for the middle passage was 25 percent. This means that one out of every four enslaved individuals died during the journey from Africa to the Americas. The conditions on the slave ships were extremely harsh, with overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, and limited access to food and water. These factors, along with the physical and emotional abuse endured by the enslaved individuals, contributed to the high mortality rate.

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  • 26. 

    In 1505 all the Swahili city-states were subdued by

    • A.

      The Dutch

    • B.

      The French

    • C.

      The Italians

    • D.

      The Portuguese

    Correct Answer
    D. The Portuguese
    Explanation
    The Portuguese were responsible for subduing all the Swahili city-states in 1505.

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  • 27. 

     The first European nation to abolish the slave trade was

    • A.

      Denmark

    • B.

      Portugual

    • C.

      France

    • D.

      Spain

    Correct Answer
    A. Denmark
    Explanation
    Denmark was the first European nation to abolish the slave trade. In 1792, Denmark passed a law banning the importation of slaves into its colonies, making it the first European country to do so. This decision was influenced by the growing abolitionist movement and Denmark's recognition of the inhumane treatment of slaves. The Danish government also provided financial compensation to slave owners who freed their slaves. This abolitionist stance set an important precedent and paved the way for other European nations to follow suit in the years to come.

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  • 28. 

    As part of the triangular slave trade, the Europeans usually picked up slaves in African in return for

    • A.

      Rum

    • B.

      Gold or silver

    • C.

      Sugar or cotton

    • D.

      None of these are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. None of these are correct
    Explanation
    The given question is asking about what the Europeans usually traded with African slaves as part of the triangular slave trade. The correct answer is "none of these are correct" because the Europeans typically traded goods such as guns, textiles, and manufactured goods in exchange for African slaves, rather than rum, gold or silver, or sugar or cotton.

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  • 29. 

    During the early modern period in Africa, the basis of social organization continued to be

    • A.

      Religious organizations of a syncretic nature

    • B.

      Kinship groups

    • C.

      Modern European-style nuclear family groups

    • D.

      Craft guilds

    Correct Answer
    B. Kinship groups
    Explanation
    During the early modern period in Africa, the basis of social organization continued to be kinship groups. This means that people were primarily organized and identified themselves based on their familial relationships. Kinship groups played a crucial role in various aspects of African society, including political, economic, and social structures. These groups provided support, protection, and a sense of identity for individuals within the community. They also determined social status, inheritance, and marriage alliances. Overall, kinship groups were the foundation of social organization in Africa during this period.

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  • 30. 

    The most important American crop introduced into Africa in the 16th century was

    • A.

      Tobacco

    • B.

      Sugar

    • C.

      Manioc

    • D.

      Bananas

    Correct Answer
    C. Manioc
    Explanation
    Maioc, also known as cassava, was the most important American crop introduced into Africa in the 16th century. It was brought by Portuguese traders and quickly became a staple food crop in many African countries. Manioc is highly adaptable to different climates and soils, making it an ideal crop for African farmers. It provided a reliable source of carbohydrates and was able to withstand droughts and other harsh conditions. The introduction of manioc played a significant role in improving food security and nutrition in Africa.

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  • 31. 

    What was the most significant reason for the decline in slavery as a labor system?

    • A.

      It became more profitable to use wage labor

    • B.

      Disgust in European cultures ended slavery in the Americas

    • C.

      Anti-slavery groups publicized its wretched conditions

    • D.

      Sugar produced in the Americas became less desirable

    Correct Answer
    A. It became more profitable to use wage labor
    Explanation
    The most significant reason for the decline in slavery as a labor system was that it became more profitable to use wage labor. This suggests that economic factors played a crucial role in the shift away from slavery. As industries and economies evolved, the use of wage labor became a more efficient and cost-effective option for many businesses. This change in profitability likely incentivized the transition away from slavery and towards a wage-based labor system.

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  • 32. 

    What were the components of Japanese foreign policy from the 1630s and enduring for the next two centuries?

    • A.

      Closure of almost all ports to foreign trade and persecution of Christians

    • B.

      Destruction of all Western books (especially scientific books) and music

    • C.

      Limiting adoption of Western culture to only French and German culture

    • D.

      Immediate execution of any foreigners found on Japanese shores and exile for those who sheltered them

    Correct Answer
    A. Closure of almost all ports to foreign trade and persecution of Christians
    Explanation
    From the 1630s and enduring for the next two centuries, Japanese foreign policy involved the closure of almost all ports to foreign trade and the persecution of Christians. This policy was known as the Sakoku policy and aimed to maintain isolation and protect Japan from foreign influence. The government restricted contact with foreigners and prohibited the practice of Christianity, as they saw it as a threat to their authority. This policy remained in place until the mid-19th century when Japan was forced to open up to foreign trade due to external pressures.

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  • 33. 

    What did the Manchus do after conquering China?

    • A.

      Forbade the Chinese from learning Manchurian or traveling to Manchuria

    • B.

      Required the men to grow and wear the queue as a sign of submission

    • C.

      Carefully guarded their own cultural identity

    • D.

      All of these statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these statements are correct
    Explanation
    After conquering China, the Manchus implemented several measures to solidify their control. They forbade the Chinese from learning Manchurian language or traveling to Manchuria, which aimed to prevent any cultural assimilation. Additionally, they required Chinese men to grow and wear the queue hairstyle as a symbol of submission to Manchu authority. Lastly, the Manchus carefully guarded their own cultural identity, ensuring that their traditions and customs remained distinct from the Chinese population. Therefore, all of the statements mentioned in the answer are correct.

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  • 34. 

    Why were the Chinese hesitant to convert to Christianity?

    • A.

      Matteo Ricci refused to respect Chinese tradition

    • B.

      Islam had already made important inroads into China

    • C.

      Christianity was exclusionary

    • D.

      They knew of the problems Koreans encountered when embracing Christianity

    Correct Answer
    C. Christianity was exclusionary
    Explanation
    The Chinese were hesitant to convert to Christianity because Christianity was exclusionary. This means that Christianity did not accept or include people who did not believe in its teachings. The Chinese might have felt that their own beliefs and traditions would not be respected or accepted by the Christian faith, leading to a reluctance to convert.

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  • 35. 

    China fell behind technologically during the Ming and Qing dynasties because… 

    • A.

      Extreme nationalism prevented Chinese rulers from accepting any new technology

    • B.

      The Ming and Qing rulers considered political and social stability more important than progress

    • C.

      Internal wars prevented the spread of any technology that developed

    • D.

      There was insufficient intellectual infrastructure to spread the technology

    Correct Answer
    B. The Ming and Qing rulers considered political and social stability more important than progress
    Explanation
    During the Ming and Qing dynasties, China fell behind technologically because the rulers prioritized political and social stability over progress. This means that they were more focused on maintaining control and order within the country, rather than embracing new technologies and advancements. As a result, China did not actively seek or adopt new technologies, leading to a technological stagnation during this period.

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  • 36. 

    What were the societal effects of the arrival of Europeans in China?

    • A.

      Under the influence of missionaries, more marriages were celebrated in the Christian faith

    • B.

      With the missionary schools, millions of Chinese became literate in Latin and proficient in algebra

    • C.

      There were little effects - only 200,000 of nearly 225 million Chinese converted to Christianity

    • D.

      Groups of Chinese began to petition the emperor for religious tolerance

    Correct Answer
    C. There were little effects - only 200,000 of nearly 225 million Chinese converted to Christianity
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the arrival of Europeans in China had little societal effects, as only a small fraction of the Chinese population converted to Christianity. This implies that the influence of missionaries and the spread of the Christian faith did not have a significant impact on the overall religious landscape or cultural practices in China.

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  • 37. 

    With regard to ruling philosophy and techniques, what influenced the Qing?

    • A.

      Persian techniques

    • B.

      Patterns established by the Ming

    • C.

      The Manchu approach

    • D.

      The centralizing technique of the Tokugawa shogunate

    Correct Answer
    B. Patterns established by the Ming
    Explanation
    The Qing dynasty was influenced by the patterns established by the Ming dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty in China before the Qing, and their governance and administrative techniques had a significant impact on the Qing rulers. The Qing dynasty adopted and continued many of the political, social, and cultural practices of the Ming dynasty, which helped to shape their ruling philosophy and techniques.

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  • 38. 

    Which group is most responsible for bringing social change to China during the Qing era and to Japan during the Tokugawa Shogunate?

    • A.

      Workers

    • B.

      Government administrators

    • C.

      Nobles or elites

    • D.

      Merchants

    Correct Answer
    D. Merchants
    Explanation
    During the Qing era in China and the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan, merchants played a crucial role in bringing social change. As trade and commerce flourished, merchants gained wealth and influence, allowing them to challenge the traditional social hierarchy. They introduced new ideas, technologies, and cultural influences from foreign countries, contributing to the modernization and transformation of both societies. Merchants also funded and supported intellectual and artistic endeavors, promoting education and cultural exchange. Their economic power and entrepreneurial spirit made them a driving force behind social change in both China and Japan during these periods.

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  • 39. 

    In which area of governance did the influence of the Mongols on the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires prove to be the most problematic? 

    • A.

      Reliance on a central, dominant military leader

    • B.

      Independent division of territories as a solution to succession

    • C.

      Lack of a clearly designated successor to the imperial throne

    • D.

      Military tactics dependent upon cavalry and siege

    Correct Answer
    C. Lack of a clearly designated successor to the imperial throne
    Explanation
    The influence of the Mongols on the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires proved to be most problematic in the area of the lack of a clearly designated successor to the imperial throne. This meant that there was often uncertainty and conflict over who would inherit the throne after the death of the ruler, leading to power struggles and instability within the empires. This issue of succession weakened the empires and made them vulnerable to internal conflicts and external threats.

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  • 40. 

    What factor produced large population increases in Mughal India but was missing in the other empires?

    • A.

      Increased dependence on American crops as dietary staples

    • B.

      The incidence of disease declined as nutrition increased

    • C.

      Rulers' concern for the public welfare increased medical facilities

    • D.

      A rise in intensive farming practices of traditional crops

    Correct Answer
    D. A rise in intensive farming practices of traditional crops
    Explanation
    The factor that produced large population increases in Mughal India but was missing in the other empires was a rise in intensive farming practices of traditional crops. This means that Mughal India implemented more efficient and productive farming techniques for their traditional crops, which led to increased agricultural output and ultimately supported a larger population. The other empires may not have adopted these intensive farming practices, resulting in slower population growth.

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  • 41. 

    What was the most important factor in making the world trade network less influential in the Mughal empire?

    • A.

      Geographic position put the Ottomans and Safavids at the crossroads of global trade

    • B.

      The Ottoman and Safavid governments actively sought to dominate world trade

    • C.

      The Mughals depended on their huge manufacturing capacity rather than trade

    • D.

      European countries preferred to trade with the Ottomans and Safavids

    Correct Answer
    C. The Mughals depended on their huge manufacturing capacity rather than trade
    Explanation
    The Mughals depended on their huge manufacturing capacity rather than trade, which means that they focused more on producing goods within their empire rather than relying on international trade. This made the world trade network less influential in the Mughal empire because they were not as heavily involved in global trade compared to other empires like the Ottomans and Safavids.

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  • 42. 

    To what can one attribute the vast expansion and continued control of Ottoman territories into southern Europe and northern Africa?

    • A.

      The conquered lands were in a position to negotiate extended legal and political rights

    • B.

      The Ottomans used a similar form of conquest with autonomy and citizenship privileges as the Romans had

    • C.

      The Ottomans inherited the Byzantine lands and effective governmental apparatus

    • D.

      The Ottomans combined a strong military presence with accommodation of local religious traditions

    Correct Answer
    D. The Ottomans combined a strong military presence with accommodation of local religious traditions
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the Ottomans were able to expand and maintain control over their territories by combining a strong military presence with accommodation of local religious traditions. This approach allowed them to exert their military power while also respecting and incorporating the religious beliefs and practices of the conquered peoples. By doing so, the Ottomans were able to gain the support and loyalty of the local populations, making it easier for them to expand their territories and maintain control over them.

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  • 43. 

    What role did religious tolerance play in the Mughal empire?

    • A.

      Early rulers showed little interest in conversion but later rulers became so focused on it that they persecuted other religions

    • B.

      Early leaders considered their military role as one of the ghazi or spiritual warriors so they pushed strongly for conversion

    • C.

      Since Islam had been promoted in India by the Sultanate of Delhi, Mughal leaders were content to allow its continued slow spread

    • D.

      The Mughal persecution of Buddhists and Hindus in the early era was a constant irritant to the dominant population of Hindus

    Correct Answer
    A. Early rulers showed little interest in conversion but later rulers became so focused on it that they persecuted other religions
    Explanation
    The early rulers of the Mughal empire did not prioritize conversion and were tolerant of other religions. However, as time passed, later rulers became more focused on converting people to Islam and even persecuted those who practiced other religions. This shift in attitude towards religious tolerance played a significant role in the Mughal empire's history.

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  • 44. 

    When comparing the domain of the Mughals with that of earlier states controlled by Muslim conquerors, what was the largest difference?

    • A.

      The Sultanate of Delhi came with more intent to convert Indians to Islam and found greater success in it as well

    • B.

      The Sultanate of Delhi had much more participation in the Indian Ocean trade system than the Mughals since they had a policy of encouraging trade

    • C.

      Mahmud of Ghazni ruled for a much shorter period of time since the Hindu kingdoms of southern India allied to push the foreigners out

    • D.

      Despite the fact that the Sultanate had enormous standing armies, they had much less success in conquering the subcontinent

    Correct Answer
    D. Despite the fact that the Sultanate had enormous standing armies, they had much less success in conquering the subcontinent
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that despite the Sultanate of Delhi having enormous standing armies, they were not as successful in conquering the subcontinent compared to the Mughals. This implies that the Mughals were more successful in expanding their domain and exerting control over a larger territory.

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  • 45. 

    A political conservative in the 19th century would be likely to advocate

    • A.

      Censorship and restoration of the monarchy

    • B.

      Government support of the church and suffrage to men of property

    • C.

      Religious toleration and constitutional monarchy

    • D.

      All of the statements are correct

    • E.

      Censorship, restoration of the monarchy, government support of the church, and suffrage to men of property

    Correct Answer
    E. Censorship, restoration of the monarchy, government support of the church, and suffrage to men of property
    Explanation
    A political conservative in the 19th century would likely advocate for censorship to maintain social order and control over ideas, restoration of the monarchy to preserve traditional power structures, government support of the church to uphold religious values and social cohesion, and suffrage to men of property to maintain the existing social hierarchy and prevent radical changes in governance.

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  • 46. 

    What is cultural nationalism?

    • A.

      Collecting folktales and supporting anti-Semitism

    • B.

      The study of language and history in a culture

    • C.

      The growth of societal norms and support of such norms by the nation

    • D.

      All of the above statements are correct

    • E.

      Collecting folktales, supporting anti-Semitism, the study of language and history in a culture

    Correct Answer
    E. Collecting folktales, supporting anti-Semitism, the study of language and history in a culture
    Explanation
    Cultural nationalism refers to the promotion and preservation of a particular culture within a nation. This includes activities such as collecting folktales, which helps in preserving the cultural heritage. Additionally, it involves the study of language and history in a culture, which helps in understanding and preserving the cultural identity. However, the statement also includes supporting anti-Semitism, which is not a characteristic of cultural nationalism. Therefore, the correct answer is collecting folktales and the study of language and history in a culture.

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  • 47. 

    In which place was slavery ended with revolution rather than by government decree?

    • A.

      Brazil

    • B.

      Haiti

    • C.

      United States

    • D.

      Mexico

    Correct Answer
    B. Haiti
    Explanation
    Haiti is the correct answer because it is the only country in the given options where slavery was ended through a revolution rather than through a government decree. In 1791, enslaved people in Haiti revolted against their French colonizers, leading to a long and bloody revolution that ultimately resulted in the abolition of slavery in 1804. This revolution, known as the Haitian Revolution, was the first and only successful slave revolt in history, making Haiti a significant landmark in the fight against slavery.

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  • 48. 

    Which multinational empire provided the greatest impediment to Italian and German unification?

    • A.

      Roman Empire

    • B.

      Ottoman Empire

    • C.

      Mughal Empire

    • D.

      Holy Roman Empire

    Correct Answer
    D. Holy Roman Empire
    Explanation
    The Holy Roman Empire provided the greatest impediment to Italian and German unification. This is because the Holy Roman Empire was a decentralized and fragmented political entity, consisting of numerous independent states and territories. Its complex structure and lack of central authority made it difficult for Italy and Germany to unify under a single government. Additionally, the Holy Roman Empire often interfered in the affairs of Italian and German states, further impeding their efforts towards unification.

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  • 49. 

    What did victory in the Seven Years' War ensure?

    • A.

      The prosperity of British colonies and that Britain would dominate global trade in the coming century

    • B.

      The domination of Britain as a land and sea power and that her colonies would move rapidly toward independence

    • C.

      The demise of Britain as a colonial power and the rise of the United States as the dominant force in global commerce

    • D.

      The demise of European colonial powers and the rise of the Americas as the dominant hemisphere in the 18th, 19th , and 20th centuries

    Correct Answer
    A. The prosperity of British colonies and that Britain would dominate global trade in the coming century
    Explanation
    Victory in the Seven Years' War ensured the prosperity of British colonies and the dominance of Britain in global trade in the coming century. This implies that the war outcome led to economic benefits for the British colonies and established Britain as a powerful force in international trade.

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  • 50. 

    This excerpt “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinction may be based only on common utility…The goal of every political association is the preservation of the natural and inalienable rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression…The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the most previous rights of man: every citizen may thus speak, write and publish freely…”  is most likely from 

    • A.

      Declaration of Independence

    • B.

      Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen

    • C.

      Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

    • D.

      The United States Constitution

    Correct Answer
    C. Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
    Explanation
    The excerpt mentions that men are born free and equal in rights, and that social distinction should only be based on common utility. It also states that the goal of every political association is to preserve the natural and inalienable rights of man, including liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance of free communication of thoughts and opinions. These ideas align with the principles outlined in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, making it the most likely source of the excerpt.

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