AP Environmental Science - Reading Quiz (AP Review)

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AP Environmental Science - Reading Quiz (AP Review) - Quiz

A short quiz to double check that you have done the reading. There is a time limit, so make sure you have read before you begin. � Spelling counts, so make sure you spell the answers correctly!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following laws of thermodynamics states that energy is neither created or destroyed?

    • A.

      1st

    • B.

      2nd

    • C.

      3rd

    • D.

      4th

    • E.

      5th

    Correct Answer
    A. 1st
    Explanation
    The first law of thermodynamics, also known as the law of conservation of energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transferred or converted from one form to another. This law is based on the principle of energy conservation, which states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant. In other words, the amount of energy in a system is always conserved, even though it may change from one form to another.

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  • 2. 

    Cellular respiration releases which of the following gases

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      O2

    • C.

      CH4

    Correct Answer
    A. CO2
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into energy, carbon dioxide, and water. During this process, glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen, releasing energy in the form of ATP and producing carbon dioxide as a waste product. Therefore, the correct answer is CO2.

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  • 3. 

    Which level or organization includes all individuals of a single species in  a defined area?

    • A.

      Population

    • B.

      Community

    • C.

      Ecosystem

    Correct Answer
    A. Population
    Explanation
    A population refers to a group of individuals of the same species that live in a specific area. It includes all the members of that species within the defined area, regardless of their interactions with other species. This level of organization focuses on studying the dynamics, size, and distribution of a particular species in a given area, allowing researchers to understand factors that may affect the population's growth or decline.

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  • 4. 

    Approximately what percent of biomass at one trophic level is transferred as biomass to the next trophic level?

    • A.

      5%

    • B.

      10%

    • C.

      20%

    • D.

      25%

    Correct Answer
    B. 10%
    Explanation
    Approximately 10% of biomass at one trophic level is transferred as biomass to the next trophic level. This is known as the 10% rule, which states that only a small fraction of energy is passed on from one trophic level to the next. This is due to the inefficiency of energy transfer and the loss of energy through metabolic processes, heat, and waste.

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  • 5. 

    the type of evolution that occurs when two unrelated species develop similar traits because they live in similar environments

    Correct Answer
    convergent
    convergent evolution
    Explanation
    Convergent evolution refers to the process in which two unrelated species develop similar traits due to living in similar environments. This can happen when different species face similar selective pressures, such as adapting to the same climate or ecological niche. Over time, these unrelated species independently evolve similar characteristics to better survive and thrive in their shared environment. This phenomenon highlights the power of natural selection in shaping the diversity of life on Earth.

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  • 6. 

    Name the country that the introduced species KUDZU is from

    Correct Answer
    Japan
    japan
    japanese
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Japan. Kudzu is an introduced species that originated from Japan. It is a fast-growing vine that was brought to other countries for erosion control and as a decorative plant. However, it has become invasive in many areas, including the United States, where it is considered a noxious weed.

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  • 7. 

    What does CITES stand for?

    Correct Answer
    Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
    Explanation
    CITES stands for Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. This international agreement aims to ensure that international trade in wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. CITES regulates the international trade of certain species by implementing measures to control and monitor their trade, including issuing permits and certificates. The agreement also promotes cooperation between countries to protect endangered species and their habitats, ultimately contributing to their conservation and sustainability.

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  • 8. 

    The competition that occurs between members of the same species

    • A.

      Intraspecific competition

    • B.

      Interspecific competition

    • C.

      I don't know

    Correct Answer
    A. Intraspecific competition
    Explanation
    Intraspecific competition refers to the competition that takes place between individuals of the same species. This competition arises when individuals compete for limited resources such as food, territory, mates, or nesting sites. It can lead to various outcomes, such as the development of specialized traits or behaviors that allow individuals to outcompete others and increase their chances of survival and reproduction. Intraspecific competition is an important factor in regulating population size and can influence the evolution and adaptation of species over time.

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  • 9. 

    The type of mimicry exhibited by organisms that have similar color patterns and are both toxic (it is an advantage because predators are more likely to remember certain colors or patterns if several toxic species have these colors - like yellow and black of bees, wasps, butterflies etc. )

    • A.

      Mullerian

    • B.

      Batesian

    • C.

      Camouflage

    Correct Answer
    A. Mullerian
    Explanation
    Mullerian mimicry is the correct answer because it refers to the type of mimicry exhibited by organisms that have similar color patterns and are both toxic. In Mullerian mimicry, multiple toxic species share similar warning coloration, which helps predators remember and avoid them. This is advantageous because predators are more likely to remember certain colors or patterns if several toxic species have these colors, like the yellow and black colors of bees, wasps, and butterflies.

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  • 10. 

    According to the law of __________ exclusion, no two species in the same ecosystem can occupy the same niche, one will always outcompete the other.

    • A.

      Synergistic

    • B.

      Agonistic

    • C.

      Competitive

    Correct Answer
    C. Competitive
    Explanation
    The correct answer is competitive. According to the law of competitive exclusion, two species in the same ecosystem cannot occupy the same niche because they will compete for the same resources. One species will inevitably outcompete the other and drive it to extinction or force it to adapt and find a different niche. This principle helps to explain the diversity and balance of species within an ecosystem.

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  • 11. 

    A two word answer.   What is it called when species divide up resources so that they can co-exist in the same ecosystem. For example Hawks and Owls, Tree Frogs and leaf litter frogs

    Correct Answer
    resource partitioning
    resource partition
    Explanation
    Resource partitioning refers to the division of resources among different species in order to coexist in the same ecosystem. This allows species with similar ecological requirements to reduce competition and share resources more efficiently. In the given example, hawks and owls as well as tree frogs and leaf litter frogs divide up resources such as prey and habitat to minimize direct competition and maximize their chances of survival. This strategy promotes biodiversity and allows different species to occupy specific niches within the ecosystem.

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  • 12. 

    What is the term for the transitional zone between two different ecosystems?

    • A.

      Succession

    • B.

      Primary succession

    • C.

      Ecotone

    • D.

      Epithelial

    Correct Answer
    C. Ecotone
    Explanation
    An ecotone refers to the transitional zone between two different ecosystems. It is the area where the characteristics of both ecosystems blend and interact, creating a unique combination of species and environmental conditions. This zone often exhibits a higher level of biodiversity compared to the surrounding ecosystems, as it supports species from both habitats. Ecotones play a crucial role in facilitating species migration, promoting genetic exchange, and influencing ecological processes.

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  • 13. 

    The warmer water layer on the surface of a lake that absorbs sunlight

    • A.

      Hypolimnion

    • B.

      Epilimnion

    • C.

      Thermocline

    Correct Answer
    B. Epilimnion
    Explanation
    The epilimnion refers to the warmer water layer on the surface of a lake that absorbs sunlight. This layer is responsible for the majority of biological activity in the lake as it provides the necessary conditions for photosynthesis and supports the growth of aquatic plants and algae. The epilimnion is typically well-mixed and has a higher concentration of dissolved oxygen compared to the deeper layers of the lake.

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  • 14. 

    What is the term for the shallow area on the outside of a lake that supports rooted vegetation?

    • A.

      Littoral

    • B.

      Limnetic

    • C.

      Bathyal

    • D.

      Profundal

    Correct Answer
    A. Littoral
    Explanation
    The term "littoral" refers to the shallow area on the outside of a lake that supports rooted vegetation. This area is characterized by its proximity to the shoreline and the presence of plants that are able to take root in the water and soil. The littoral zone is important for providing habitat and food sources for many organisms, as well as for filtering and stabilizing the water.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following types of species often have large numbers of offspring, with few that survive to adulthood

    • A.

      R - selected

    • B.

      K - selected

    • C.

      P - selected

    Correct Answer
    A. R - selected
    Explanation
    R-selected species often have large numbers of offspring, with few that survive to adulthood. This reproductive strategy is characterized by rapid reproduction, early maturation, and high mortality rates among offspring. R-selected species typically have a short life span and invest little parental care in their offspring. They prioritize quantity over quality, producing many offspring in the hopes that a few will survive and reproduce. This strategy is common in unstable or unpredictable environments where resources are limited and competition for survival is high.

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  • 16. 

    What is the doubling time for a population of 100,000 that is growing at 3.5% a year?

    Correct Answer
    20 years
    20
    twenty
    twenty years
    Explanation
    The doubling time for a population can be calculated using the rule of 70, which states that the doubling time is approximately equal to 70 divided by the growth rate. In this case, the population is growing at 3.5% per year, so the doubling time would be approximately 70 divided by 3.5, which is 20 years. Therefore, the correct answer is 20 years.

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  • 17. 

    Who wrote "Essay on the principle of population"   - hint: 18th century

    Correct Answer
    malthus
    Thomas Malthus
    thomas malthus
    Explanation
    Thomas Malthus wrote the "Essay on the principle of population" in the 18th century. This work is considered one of the foundational texts in the field of demography and population studies. In his essay, Malthus argued that population growth tends to outpace the availability of resources, leading to social and economic problems. His ideas sparked debates and influenced subsequent discussions on population dynamics and the relationship between population and resources.

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  • 18. 

    The author of "The tragedy of the commons"

    • A.

      Aldo Leopold

    • B.

      John Muir

    • C.

      Garrett Hardin

    • D.

      Lars Soderbergh

    Correct Answer
    C. Garrett Hardin
    Explanation
    Garrett Hardin is the correct answer because he is the author of the essay titled "The tragedy of the commons." This essay, published in 1968, discusses the concept of overexploitation of shared resources and the need for regulation and responsibility to prevent their depletion. Aldo Leopold, John Muir, and Lars Soderbergh are not associated with this particular essay or concept.

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  • 19. 

    Famous for his "land ethics" he wrote "A sand county almanac"

    • A.

      Aldo Leopold

    • B.

      John Muir

    • C.

      Garrett Hardin

    • D.

      Parker Berg

    Correct Answer
    A. Aldo Leopold
    Explanation
    Aldo Leopold is the correct answer because he is famous for his "land ethics" and wrote the book "A Sand County Almanac." This book is a collection of essays that explores Leopold's ideas on conservation and environmental ethics, emphasizing the importance of understanding and respecting the land and its ecosystems. Leopold's work has had a significant impact on the field of environmentalism and has influenced many subsequent environmental thinkers and activists.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following was an international agreement to phase out CFC's.  Remember that CFC's destroy the ozone layer by single chlorines ripping off an oxygen atom from O3 (ozone)

    • A.

      Kyoto protocol

    • B.

      Cites

    • C.

      London Dumping convention

    • D.

      Basel convention

    • E.

      Montreal protocol

    Correct Answer
    E. Montreal protocol
    Explanation
    The Montreal Protocol was an international agreement that aimed to phase out the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other substances that deplete the ozone layer. CFCs are known to destroy the ozone layer by breaking down ozone molecules. The protocol was signed in 1987 and has been successful in reducing the production and consumption of CFCs globally. It has played a crucial role in protecting the ozone layer and has been hailed as a landmark environmental agreement.

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  • 21. 

    The scientist that is famous for writing "A Silent Spring", which documented the downfall of predatory birds due to exposure to DDT (pesticide) and the resulting thinning of egg shells.

    • A.

      Teddy Roosevelt

    • B.

      John Muir

    • C.

      Gifford Pinchot

    • D.

      Rachel Carson

    • E.

      Connor Curtis

    Correct Answer
    D. Rachel Carson
    Explanation
    Rachel Carson is the correct answer because she is the scientist who wrote "A Silent Spring," a groundbreaking book that exposed the detrimental effects of the pesticide DDT on predatory birds and their eggs. Carson's work brought attention to the environmental and health risks associated with pesticide use, leading to the banning of DDT and the birth of the modern environmental movement. Teddy Roosevelt, John Muir, Gifford Pinchot, and Connor Curtis are not associated with "A Silent Spring" or the issue of DDT.

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  • 22. 

    Reusing waste heat for other purposes, such as warmer a greenhouse or water.

    • A.

      Synergy

    • B.

      Cogeneration

    • C.

      Coevolution

    Correct Answer
    B. Cogeneration
    Explanation
    Cogeneration refers to the simultaneous production of electricity and useful heat from the same energy source. It involves reusing waste heat generated during electricity production for other purposes, such as heating a greenhouse or water. This process increases energy efficiency and reduces waste, making it an environmentally friendly solution. The term "synergy" refers to the combined effect of two or more elements working together, but it does not specifically relate to the simultaneous production of electricity and heat. Coevolution, on the other hand, refers to the mutual influence and adaptation between two or more species over time.

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  • 23. 

    The most commonly used fuel in nuclear powerplants

    • A.

      U - 235

    • B.

      U - 234

    • C.

      Plutonium - 266

    Correct Answer
    A. U - 235
    Explanation
    U-235 is the correct answer because it is the most commonly used fuel in nuclear power plants. It is a fissile isotope of uranium and can sustain a chain reaction, making it ideal for generating nuclear energy. U-234 is also a uranium isotope but is not commonly used as a fuel. Plutonium-266 is not a naturally occurring isotope and is not commonly used as a fuel in nuclear power plants.

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  • 24. 

    The hardest and most desirable coal is

    • A.

      Lignite

    • B.

      Hematite

    • C.

      Biuminous

    • D.

      Anthracite

    Correct Answer
    D. Anthracite
    Explanation
    Anthracite is the hardest and most desirable coal because it has the highest carbon content and the lowest moisture and impurity levels. It is formed through a long process of coalification, which results in a dense, hard, and shiny coal. Due to its high carbon content, anthracite produces a high amount of heat when burned, making it an excellent fuel for heating and industrial processes. Its low moisture and impurity levels also contribute to its desirability as it burns cleanly and efficiently.

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  • 25. 

    The term for treated water being released  (think back to our field trip - aslo in the reading)

    • A.

      Biomass

    • B.

      Effluent

    • C.

      Leaching

    • D.

      Activated sludge

    Correct Answer
    B. Effluent
    Explanation
    Effluent refers to the treated water that is released after undergoing a treatment process. This term was likely mentioned during a field trip or in the reading material, indicating that it is the correct answer. Biomass refers to the total mass of living organisms in a given area, which is unrelated to treated water. Leaching refers to the process of minerals being washed out of soil or rock, also unrelated to treated water. Activated sludge is a process used in wastewater treatment, but it does not specifically refer to the treated water being released. Therefore, effluent is the most appropriate term for the given question.

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  • Mar 15, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
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    AndrewBrinker
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