Alfalfa and wine grapes
Imperial guards from various kingdoms along the way for protection of merchants.
Steppe agriculturalists who sold food products to travelers
Pastoralists who provided animals, handlers and protection along the road.
Ferengi merchants who initiated standardized currency rates.
The war elephant, hardtack, and Arabian horses
Chariot warfare, mounted bowmen, and the stirrup
The field hospital, the broadsword, and the poison arrow
The lance, chain mail, and gunpowder
Portable felt huts
All Africans from the sub-Saharan region.
A multilingual and multiethnic group.
Almost exclusively of Indian background.
Primarily Arabic and Persian.
Russia, India, and China.
Morocco, Arabia, and the Mediterranean Sea.
Greece, Turkey, Arabia, and Persia.
East Africa, Arabia, India, China, and Southeast Asia.
The Greeks were not interested in long-distance trade.
They could take advantage of monsoon winds to drive their ships.
The Greeks had to cover a larger amount of territory for colonies to support their homeland.
Greek ships used square sails, which weighed more.
Indian Ocean traders usually established colonies.
Mediterranean seamen rarely sailed far from shore.
Mediterranean seamen were interested only in economic gains.
Mediterranean ships relied on lateen sails.
Triangular lanteen sails.
Bitumen calk of boat bottoms.
Rare use of oars.
Pierced planks tied together.
All of these
The dense forests of Central Africa.
The Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia.
The Indian subcontinent.
The islands of Southeast Asia.
Maize and beans.
Coffee and beer
Oranges and plums
Yams and bananas.
There were no women in port cities, so sailors didn't want to stop there.
Religious differences did not allow trade between cultures.
Ports had better access to fresh water and could sustain a permanent settlement.
There were more mountains in western Asia and fewer ports.
They were not economically tied to agriculture.
Women were allowed to hold political offices.
It was wealthier.
Blended families were bicultural and bilingual.
A vast number of rock paintings and engravings.
The oral histories of Saharan nomads.
The diary of a wandering Islamic scholar.
Accounts by European travelers.
North Africa and the Mediterranean coast.
India, via the Indian Ocean trade.
Prairie and plains.
A lush paradise.
Connected North and South Africa.
Linked the Silk Road to the Sand Routes.
Spread Islam as a unifying force.
Allowed expansion of the Mediterranean trade market for African gold.
Tropical rain forests
Long grasses and scattered forests.
Thick groves of trees.
Mainly internal folk migrations within sub-Saharan Africa.
The trade across the Sahara.
Taking place only in North Africa.
The Indian Ocean network.
Common legal and belief systems
A written language
Cultivation by hoe and digging stick
Concepts of kingship
Distinctive musical characteristics
A common language
Protection from invaders.
Better natural resources.