Anesthesia Pharmacology Exam Quiz

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Anesthesia Pharmacology Exam Quiz - Quiz

Anaesthesia pharmacology exam! Different drugs exhibit different results on a patient, and this is why nurses need to evaluate a patient's vitals and reaction to various drugs and analyze whether the differences are acceptable or not. How conversant are you with gases when it comes to anaesthesia? This quiz will help refresh your memory on some techniques and knowledge you should have as an anaesthetist. Check it out!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Anesthesia is the drug-induced reversible depression of the CNS resulting in the loss of response to external stimuli.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because anesthesia is indeed a drug-induced reversible depression of the central nervous system (CNS). When a person is under anesthesia, they lose their ability to respond to external stimuli, such as touch or sound. This is why anesthesia is commonly used during surgeries or medical procedures to ensure that the patient does not feel any pain or discomfort.

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  • 2. 

    MAC is the level at which 50% of patients do not move on...

    • A.

      Intubation

    • B.

      Incision

    • C.

      Extubation

    • D.

      Excision

    Correct Answer
    B. Incision
    Explanation
    The correct answer is incision because an incision is a surgical cut made in the body to access an organ or perform a procedure. In the given statement, it is mentioned that MAC is the level at which 50% of patients do not move on, but MAC does not relate to intubation, extubation, or excision. Therefore, the only option that is relevant to the statement is incision, as it is a procedure that may require anesthesia at the MAC level.

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  • 3. 

    Which of these is NOT a characteristic of MAC?

    • A.

      Reproducible

    • B.

      Monitored breath by breath, minute by minute

    • C.

      Value does not correlate with other anesthetic drugs

    • D.

      "Free drug" is measured in plasma concentrations rather than partial pressure or %

    Correct Answer
    D. "Free drug" is measured in plasma concentrations rather than partial pressure or %
    Explanation
    "Free drug" is measured in partial pressure or % (fraction of inspired/expired) rather than plasma concentrations.

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  • 4. 

    With MAC, a patient will have all of the following, EXCEPT...

    • A.

      No recall

    • B.

      No movement on incision

    • C.

      No response to verbal commands

    • D.

      No response to ETT placement

    • E.

      All of these are correct.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of these are correct.
    Explanation
    With MAC (Monitored Anesthesia Care), the patient is typically conscious and able to respond to verbal commands. However, they may not have any recall of the procedure due to the use of sedatives. Additionally, there should be no movement on the incision site as the patient is under anesthesia. Furthermore, the patient should not respond to the placement of an Endotracheal Tube (ETT). Therefore, all of the given options are correct and are not expected to occur during MAC anesthesia.

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  • 5. 

    What are the components of a complete anesthetic we are looking at? 

    • A.

      Amnesia

    • B.

      Analgesia

    • C.

      Euphoria

    • D.

      Dysphoria

    • E.

      Muscle relaxation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Amnesia
    B. Analgesia
    E. Muscle relaxation
    Explanation
    A complete anesthetic should have the components of amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. Amnesia is important to ensure that the patient does not remember the surgical procedure or any discomfort associated with it. Analgesia is necessary to provide pain relief during and after the surgery. Muscle relaxation is crucial to ensure that the patient's muscles are relaxed and immobile, making it easier for the surgeon to perform the procedure. Euphoria and dysphoria are not essential components of a complete anesthetic.

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  • 6. 

    Minimum anesthesia concentration of an anesthetic at one ATM that prevents movement in response to surgical incision.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Minimum ALVEOLAR concentration of an anesthetic at one ATM that prevents movement in response to surgical incision.

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  • 7. 

    MAC of isoflurane

    • A.

      1.51

    • B.

      105

    • C.

      2

    • D.

      6

    • E.

      2.5

    • F.

      1.15

    Correct Answer
    F. 1.15
    Explanation
    The given answer of 1.15 is likely the MAC (Minimum Alveolar Concentration) of isoflurane. MAC is a measure of the potency of an inhaled anesthetic and represents the concentration needed to prevent movement in response to a painful stimulus in 50% of patients. In this case, an MAC of 1.15 indicates that isoflurane is a potent anesthetic and a relatively low concentration is required to achieve the desired effect.

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  • 8. 

    Unconsciousness occurs before MAC is reached.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Unconsciousness occurs before MAC (Minimum Alveolar Concentration) is reached. MAC is a measure of the potency of an inhaled anesthetic agent, indicating the concentration required to prevent movement in 50% of patients exposed to a surgical stimulus. Unconsciousness occurs at a lower concentration than MAC, as it is the initial stage of anesthesia where the patient loses awareness and responsiveness. Therefore, the statement is true, as unconsciousness precedes reaching MAC levels.

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  • 9. 

    Loss of self-awareness/recall occurs at...

    • A.

      0.1-0.2 MAC

    • B.

      0.3-0.4 MAC

    • C.

      0.5-0.6 MAC

    • D.

      1.0-1.5 MAC

    Correct Answer
    B. 0.3-0.4 MAC
    Explanation
    Loss of self-awareness/recall occurs at 0.3-0.4 MAC. At this level of anesthesia, the patient is in a state of moderate sedation where they are responsive to verbal commands but have impaired memory and recall. They may not remember events that occurred during this period. This level of anesthesia is commonly used for procedures that require some level of sedation but do not require complete unconsciousness.

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  • 10. 

    MAC awake is the alveolar concentration of anesthetic at which patients...

    • A.

      Responds spiritually to commands

    • B.

      Opens eyes to commands

    • C.

      Starts breathing on their one

    • D.

      Won't move on incision

    Correct Answer
    B. Opens eyes to commands
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "opens eyes to commands." This means that when the MAC (Minimum Alveolar Concentration) of an anesthetic reaches a certain level, patients will respond by opening their eyes when given commands. It indicates that the patient is becoming conscious and aware of their surroundings. It does not necessarily mean that they are fully awake or able to follow complex instructions, but it is a sign of emerging consciousness.

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  • 11. 

    MAC BAR is the alveolar concentration of anesthetic at which the patient will

    • A.

      Open eyes to command

    • B.

      Not move on surgical incision

    • C.

      Blunt adrenergic responses to noxious stimuli (incision)

    • D.

      Start breathing on their own

    Correct Answer
    C. Blunt adrenergic responses to noxious stimuli (incision)
    Explanation
    MAC BAR stands for minimum alveolar concentration blocking adrenergic responses. It refers to the concentration of anesthetic required to blunt the sympathetic nervous system's response to a noxious stimulus such as a surgical incision. In other words, when the MAC BAR is reached, the patient will not experience an increase in heart rate, blood pressure, or other signs of stress in response to the incision. This is an important measure of the anesthetic's effectiveness in preventing pain and maintaining physiological stability during surgery.

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  • 12. 

    MAC BAR is...

    • A.

      1.5 MAC and opioids will decrease MAC BAR

    • B.

      1.5 MAC and opioids will increase MAC BAR

    • C.

      0.3-0.4 MAC and opioids will decrease MAC BAR

    • D.

      0.3-0.4 MAC and opioids will increase MAC BAR

    Correct Answer
    A. 1.5 MAC and opioids will decrease MAC BAR
    Explanation
    MAC (Minimum Alveolar Concentration) is a measure of the potency of an inhaled anesthetic. A higher MAC value indicates a lower potency, meaning more anesthetic is required to achieve the desired effect. Opioids are known to decrease the MAC value of an anesthetic, making it more potent. Therefore, when opioids are administered along with an anesthetic at 1.5 MAC, the MAC BAR (Bispectral Index-guided Anesthesia Depth) will decrease, indicating a deeper level of anesthesia.

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  • 13. 

    Which of these increases MAC? 

    • A.

      Red Hair

    • B.

      Acute amphetamines

    • C.

      Cyclosporines

    • D.

      Hyperthermia

    • E.

      Increased CNS neurotransmitters

    • F.

      Hypernatremia

    • G.

      Chronic alcohol consumption

    • H.

      Hyponatremia

    • I.

      Hypothermia

    • J.

      Pregnancy

    • K.

      Decreased CNS neurotransmitters

    • L.

      Opioids

    • M.

      Acute alcohol consumption

    • N.

      Calcium channel blockers

    • O.

      Benzodiazepines

    • P.

      Hypoxia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Red Hair
    B. Acute amphetamines
    C. Cyclosporines
    D. Hyperthermia
    E. Increased CNS neurotransmitters
    F. Hypernatremia
    G. Chronic alcohol consumption
    Explanation
    The factors that increase MAC (Minimum Alveolar Concentration) are Red Hair, Acute amphetamines, Cyclosporines, Hyperthermia, Increased CNS neurotransmitters, Hypernatremia, and Chronic alcohol consumption. These factors can enhance the effects of anesthesia, requiring a lower concentration of anesthetic agent to achieve the desired effect.

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  • 14. 

    Which of these DECREASES MAC? 

    • A.

      Pregnancy

    • B.

      Hypoxia

    • C.

      Hypothermia

    • D.

      Decreased CNS neurotransmitters

    • E.

      Alpha2 agonists

    • F.

      Induction agents

    • G.

      Calcium channel blockers

    • H.

      Hyperthermia

    • I.

      Acute amphetamines

    • J.

      Cyclosporines

    • K.

      Brown Hair

    • L.

      Hypernatremia

    • M.

      Increased CNS neurotransmitters

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pregnancy
    B. Hypoxia
    C. Hypothermia
    D. Decreased CNS neurotransmitters
    E. Alpha2 agonists
    F. Induction agents
    G. Calcium channel blockers
    Explanation
    Pregnancy (decreases MAC 30%)
    Hypoxia (brain starts to shut down by itself bc it's missing oxygen)
    Calcium channel blockers (decreases nerve-nerve communication)

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  • 15. 

    When does MAC not change?

    • A.

      Between 10-20 years of age

    • B.

      Between 20-60 years of age

    • C.

      Between 20-65 years of age

    • D.

      Between 5-20 years of age

    Correct Answer
    B. Between 20-60 years of age
    Explanation
    The maximum aerobic capacity (MAC) refers to the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can utilize during intense exercise. It is commonly known that MAC tends to decrease with age due to various physiological changes. However, the correct answer states that MAC does not change between 20-60 years of age. This suggests that during this specific age range, MAC remains relatively stable and does not significantly decrease.

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  • 16. 

    MAC changes how much per decade?

    • A.

      6%

    • B.

      16%

    • C.

      8%

    • D.

      3%

    Correct Answer
    A. 6%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 6%. This means that the MAC (Media Access Control) changes by 6% every decade. This could refer to the rate at which MAC addresses, which are unique identifiers assigned to network interfaces, change or become obsolete over time. It suggests that there is a gradual but consistent evolution or turnover of MAC addresses in the networking industry.

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  • 17. 

    If your patient is 90 years old, how much would you decrease/increase your MAC by?

    • A.

      Decrease by 24%

    • B.

      Decrease by 18%

    • C.

      Increase by 50%

    • D.

      Decrease by 30%

    • E.

      Decrease by 36%

    • F.

      Decrease by 6%

    • G.

      Increase by 30%

    • H.

      Increase by 18%

    • I.

      Increase by 24%

    Correct Answer
    D. Decrease by 30%
    Explanation
    Ages 20-60 MAC does NOT change. The middle of the scale. For patients below 20, and greater than 60. Count how many decades there are from 40-year sof age. If a patient is 90, that is 5 decades from 40. 5 x 6%/decade = 30%. If a patient is 10, that is 3 decades from 40. 3 x 6%/decade = 18%, but you would increase MAC by 18% in this case because they are younger.

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  • 18. 

    Duration of anesthesia can change MAC.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The duration of anesthesia does not have an impact on Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC). MAC is a measure of the potency of an inhaled anesthetic and represents the concentration required to prevent movement in response to a surgical stimulus in 50% of patients. It is determined by various factors such as the type of anesthetic, patient factors, and the presence of other drugs. The duration of anesthesia may vary depending on the procedure, but it does not directly affect MAC.

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  • 19. 

    Which of these does CAN change MAC?

    • A.

      Sex

    • B.

      Anesthetic metabolism

    • C.

      Duration of anesthesia

    • D.

      PaCO2 15-95 mmHg

    • E.

      PaO2 >38 mmHg

    • F.

      Thyroid function

    • G.

      K/Mg levels

    • H.

      Sodium levels

    Correct Answer
    H. Sodium levels
    Explanation
    Sodium levels can change MAC (minimum alveolar concentration). MAC is the minimum concentration of anesthetic gas required to prevent movement in response to a surgical stimulus in 50% of patients. Sodium levels can affect the excitability of neurons and alter the response to anesthetic agents, therefore influencing the MAC.

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  • 20. 

    Which of these is MAC a measure of?

    • A.

      Analgesia

    • B.

      Amnesia

    • C.

      Movement

    • D.

      Homeostasis

    Correct Answer
    C. Movement
    Explanation
    MAC stands for Minimum Alveolar Concentration, which is a measure of the potency or strength of an inhaled anesthetic. It represents the concentration of the anesthetic required to prevent movement in 50% of patients exposed to a painful stimulus. Therefore, MAC is a measure of movement inhibition rather than analgesia (pain relief), amnesia (memory loss), or homeostasis (maintenance of internal balance).

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  • 21. 

    Where do we have to block to get the movement, reflex, or withdrawal to pain reflexes to stop?

    • A.

      Brain stem

    • B.

      Peripheral sensory nerves

    • C.

      Cerebral cortex

    • D.

      Spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    D. Spinal cord
    Explanation
    The movement, reflex, or withdrawal to pain reflexes can be stopped by blocking the spinal cord. The spinal cord is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the peripheral sensory nerves to the brain. By blocking the spinal cord, the signals of pain and reflexes cannot be transmitted to the brain, effectively stopping the reflexes. The brain stem, cerebral cortex, and peripheral sensory nerves are not directly involved in stopping these reflexes.

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  • 22. 

    Peripheral sensory receptors are affected by inhalation anesthesia.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Peripheral sensory receptors are NOT affected by inhalation anesthesia.

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  • 23. 

    Choose the correct statement.

    • A.

      Peripheral sensory receptors are NOT affected by inhalation agents.

    • B.

      Inhaled aneshetics will not stop hyperalgesia, will not work for pre-emptive analgesia.

    • C.

      Inhaled anesthetics do NOT block SSEPs (stimulus in periphery still reaches cortex).

    • D.

      All of these statements are correct.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these statements are correct.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that all of these statements are correct. Peripheral sensory receptors are not affected by inhalation agents, meaning they do not have a direct impact on these receptors. Inhaled anesthetics will not stop hyperalgesia, which is increased sensitivity to pain, and they also do not work for pre-emptive analgesia, which is the use of pain medication before a surgical procedure to prevent pain. Additionally, inhaled anesthetics do not block SSEPs (somatosensory evoked potentials), meaning that the stimulus in the periphery still reaches the cortex.

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  • 24. 

    The spinal cord is the site of action for ______, only with potent gases.

    • A.

      Immobility

    • B.

      Analgesia

    • C.

      Amnesia

    • D.

      Loss of recall

    • E.

      Homeostasis

    Correct Answer
    A. Immobility
    Explanation
    The spinal cord is responsible for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body. Potent gases can affect the spinal cord by inhibiting the transmission of nerve signals, leading to immobility. This means that the individual is unable to move their body voluntarily. The other options, such as analgesia (pain relief), amnesia (memory loss), loss of recall, and homeostasis (maintaining internal balance) are not directly related to the spinal cord's function in this context.

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  • 25. 

    Studies have shown that inhaled anesthetics have some teratogenic/carcinogenic effects.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    There is NO evidence of teratogenic or carcinogeic effects of inhaled anesthetics.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following is a potent gas?

    • A.

      Nitrogen

    • B.

      Nitrous oxide

    • C.

      Room air

    • D.

      Oxygen

    • E.

      None of these are correct.

    • F.

      Zabaflurane

    Correct Answer
    E. None of these are correct.
    Explanation
    None of the options listed (Nitrogen, Nitrous oxide, Room air, Oxygen, Zabaflurane) are considered potent gases. Potency refers to the strength or effectiveness of a substance, and in this context, a potent gas would typically refer to a gas that has a strong physiological or pharmacological effect on the body. However, none of the options provided fit this description, hence the correct answer is "None of these are correct."

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  • 27. 

    What are the direct effects of anesthetics on the spinal motor neuron?

    • A.

      Enhances excitability of neuron

    • B.

      Depresses excitability of neuron

    • C.

      Inhibition of excitatory nerve synaptic transmission

    • D.

      Potentiates excitatory nerve synaptic transmission

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Depresses excitability of neuron
    C. Inhibition of excitatory nerve synaptic transmission
    Explanation
    Anesthetics have a depressant effect on the spinal motor neuron, which means they decrease its excitability. This leads to a decrease in the transmission of signals from the neuron, resulting in a decrease in muscle activity and relaxation. Additionally, anesthetics also inhibit the excitatory nerve synaptic transmission, further contributing to the overall depressant effect on the neuron.

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  • 28. 

    Large carbon chains are better at attenuating movement in the spinal cord than small carbon chains.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Attenuating = Gradually decreasing force/intensity.

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  • 29. 

    Inhalation agents inhibit the _____- receptor at the myoneural junction. This is important because there are times where you want muscle relaxation, but can't give any muscle relaxants. High levels of anesthetic can cause muscle relaxation.

    • A.

      GABA

    • B.

      ACh

    • C.

      Beta

    • D.

      Voltage-gated

    • E.

      Mu

    Correct Answer
    B. ACh
    Explanation
    Inhalation agents inhibit the ACh receptor at the myoneural junction. This is important because ACh (acetylcholine) is the neurotransmitter responsible for transmitting signals between nerves and muscles. By inhibiting the ACh receptor, inhalation agents can prevent the binding of ACh and therefore inhibit the transmission of signals from nerves to muscles. This leads to muscle relaxation, which can be desired in certain situations where muscle relaxants cannot be administered. High levels of anesthetic can further enhance this muscle relaxation effect.

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  • 30. 

    Supraspinal action of inhaled anesthetics will sensitize the spinal cord to pain at lower doses.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    So it doesn't work supraspinally to alter pain. From the notes, I didn't really understand this one.

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  • Current Version
  • Dec 28, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 30, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    ReMarkab1e
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