Anatomy Class Test 1: Digestive System, (Muscles Of The Face, Neck And Head)

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Anatomy Class Test 1: Digestive System, (Muscles Of The Face, Neck And Head) - Quiz

The questions in this bank have been compiled by senior students at Masaryk University, and are intended to help better prepare you for your final exam.

Please note, these questions are NOT past papers. The questions were put together using the Course Syllabus, Lectures, and the faculty recommended text books 'Clinically Orientated Anatomy', 'Internal Organs, Vol 2', and 'Instant Anatomy'.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The diaphragma oris (floor of the mouth) contains:

    • A.

      Mylohyoid muscles, Geniohyoid muscles

    • B.

      Mylohyoid muscles, Geniohyoid muscles, Palatoglossus muscle

    • C.

      Myloyoid muscles, Geniohyiod muscles, Anterior Belly of the Digastric muscle

    • D.

      Myloyoid muscles, Geniohyiod muscles, Genioglossus muscle

    • E.

      Myloyoid muscles, Geniohyiod muscles, Hyoglossus muscle

    Correct Answer
    C. Myloyoid muscles, Geniohyiod muscles, Anterior Belly of the Digastric muscle
    Explanation
    The diaphragma oris, also known as the floor of the mouth, contains the mylohyoid muscles, geniohyoid muscles, and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle. These muscles play important roles in various functions such as swallowing, speech, and maintaining the position of the hyoid bone. The mylohyoid muscles help elevate the floor of the mouth during swallowing, while the geniohyoid muscles help depress the mandible. The anterior belly of the digastric muscle assists in opening the mouth and depressing the mandible.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following statement is correct:

    • A.

      The oral cavity contains the diaphragma oris, glandula submandibularis, glandula sublingualis

    • B.

      The oral cavity contains the diaphragma oris, glandula salivariae minores

    • C.

      The hard palate is formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bone.

    • D.

      Musculus uvulae arises from the posterior nasal spine of the palatine bones and from the palatine aponeurosis.

    • E.

      All statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All statements are correct
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that all statements are correct. This means that all of the statements mentioned in the options are true and accurate. The oral cavity does contain the diaphragma oris, glandula submandibularis, and glandula sublingualis. The hard palate is indeed formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone. Musculus uvulae does arise from the posterior nasal spine of the palatine bones and from the palatine aponeurosis.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following statement is incorrect:

    • A.

      The hard palate is formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bone.

    • B.

      The hard palate contains the papilla incisiva, plicae palatinae transversae, and glandulae palatinae

    • C.

      The soft palate contains the aponeurosis palatina uvula palatina arcus palatoglossus and arcus palatopharyngeus

    • D.

      Musculus levator veli palatini is located in the hard palate.

    • E.

      Musculus levator veli palatini is located in the soft palate.

    Correct Answer
    D. Musculus levator veli palatini is located in the hard palate.
    Explanation
    The musculus levator veli palatini is actually located in the soft palate, not the hard palate. The hard palate is formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bone. The hard palate contains the papilla incisiva, plicae palatinae transversae, and glandulae palatinae. The soft palate contains the aponeurosis palatina, uvula palatina, arcus palatoglossus, and arcus palatopharyngeus.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is not an intrinsic muscle of the tongue:

    • A.

      Superior longitudinal muscle

    • B.

      Transversus muscle

    • C.

      Genioglossus muscle

    • D.

      Verticalis muscle

    • E.

      Inferior longitudinal muscle

    Correct Answer
    C. Genioglossus muscle
    Explanation
    The genioglossus muscle is not an intrinsic muscle of the tongue. The intrinsic muscles of the tongue are responsible for controlling its shape and movement, while the genioglossus muscle is an extrinsic muscle that helps to move the tongue forward and protrude it out of the mouth.

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  • 5. 

    In the deciduous dentition:

    • A.

      Lateral incisors errupt at 3 -6 months

    • B.

      First molars errupt at 9-11 months

    • C.

      Second molars errupt at 13 - 18 months

    • D.

      Canine teeth errupt at 9-14 months

    • E.

      Central inscisors errupt at 6-12 months

    Correct Answer
    E. Central inscisors errupt at 6-12 months
    Explanation
    The deciduous dentition refers to the set of teeth that children have before their permanent teeth come in. The eruption times mentioned in the question are the typical age ranges for when these specific teeth come in. The central incisors, which are the front teeth in the middle of the mouth, usually erupt between 6-12 months of age.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following statements is incorrect:

    • A.

      M. tensor veli palatini is innervated by trigeminal nerve

    • B.

      M. palatopharyngeus is innervated by plexus pharyngeus

    • C.

      M. levator veli palatini is innervated by plexus pharyngeus

    • D.

      M. palatoglossus is innervated by the sphenopalatine nerve

    • E.

      Musculus uvulae is innervated by plexus pharyngeus

    Correct Answer
    D. M. palatoglossus is innervated by the sphenopalatine nerve
    Explanation
    The incorrect statement is that the M. palatoglossus is innervated by the sphenopalatine nerve. In reality, the M. palatoglossus is innervated by the pharyngeal plexus. The sphenopalatine nerve does not innervate the M. palatoglossus.

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  • 7. 

    M. levator veli palatini:

    • A.

      Is innervated by plexus pharyngeus

    • B.

      Originates at the temporal bone

    • C.

      Elevates the soft palate

    • D.

      Is supplied by the facial artery

    • E.

      All statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All statements are correct
    Explanation
    The M. levator veli palatini is a muscle that is innervated by the plexus pharyngeus. It originates at the temporal bone and its main function is to elevate the soft palate. Additionally, it is supplied by the facial artery. Therefore, all of the statements provided in the question are correct.

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  • 8. 

    Pars nasalis pharyngis (nasopharynx) does not contain:

    • A.

      Choane

    • B.

      Tonsilla tubaria

    • C.

      Waldeyer’s lympfoepithelial ring

    • D.

      Recessus piriformis

    • E.

      Ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae

    Correct Answer
    D. Recessus piriformis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Recessus piriformis." The pars nasalis pharyngis, also known as the nasopharynx, is a part of the pharynx located behind the nasal cavity. It contains various structures such as the choanae, which are the openings that connect the nasal cavity to the nasopharynx, the tonsilla tubaria, which is a collection of lymphoid tissue near the opening of the auditory tube, and Waldeyer's lymphoepithelial ring, which is a ring of lymphoid tissue that includes the adenoids. However, the recessus piriformis is not found in the nasopharynx. It is a recess or pocket-like structure located in the larynx, specifically in the area of the vocal folds.

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  • 9. 

    The borders of the anterior triangle of the neck are:

    • A.

      Anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid, posterior belly of digastric, and the superior omohyoid

    • B.

      Anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior belly of digastric, and supeior omohyoid

    • C.

      Anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid, inferior border of the mandible, and midline of the neck

    • D.

      Inferior border of the mandible, anterior and posterior belly of the digastric

    • E.

      None of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. Anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid, inferior border of the mandible, and midline of the neck
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid, inferior border of the mandible, and midline of the neck. The borders of the anterior triangle of the neck are defined by anatomical landmarks. The anterior border is formed by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the inferior border is formed by the mandible, and the midline of the neck completes the triangle. These borders help to identify and locate structures within the anterior triangle of the neck during medical examinations and procedures.

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  • 10. 

    M. constrictor pharyngis superior does not include:

    • A.

      Pars ceratopharyngea

    • B.

      Pars buccopharyngea

    • C.

      Pars mylopharyngea

    • D.

      Pars glossopharyngea

    • E.

      Pars pterygopharyngea

    Correct Answer
    A. Pars ceratopharyngea
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Pars ceratopharyngea. This is because M. constrictor pharyngis superior is a muscle that forms a circular constriction in the pharynx. It is composed of five parts: Pars ceratopharyngea, Pars buccopharyngea, Pars mylopharyngea, Pars glossopharyngea, and Pars pterygopharyngea. However, Pars ceratopharyngea is not included in M. constrictor pharyngis superior.

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  • 11. 

    M. constrictor pharyngis medius includes:

    • A.

      Pars buccopharyngea

    • B.

      Pars pterygopharyngea

    • C.

      Pars mylopharyngea

    • D.

      Pars glossopharyngea

    • E.

      None of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the statements are correct
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "None of the statements are correct" because none of the options listed (Pars buccopharyngea, Pars pterygopharyngea, Pars mylopharyngea, and Pars glossopharyngea) are included in M. constrictor pharyngis medius.

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  • 12. 

    Submandibular triangle contains:

    • A.

      Facial artery and vein

    • B.

      Submandibular gland

    • C.

      Internal jugular vein

    • D.

      Internal and external carotid artery

    • E.

      All statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All statements are correct
    Explanation
    The submandibular triangle is a region of the neck that contains several structures. The facial artery and vein, which supply blood to the face, are found in this triangle. The submandibular gland, which produces saliva, is also located in this area. Additionally, the internal jugular vein, which drains blood from the head and neck, runs through the submandibular triangle. Finally, both the internal and external carotid arteries, which supply blood to the head and neck, can be found in this region. Therefore, all of the statements provided in the answer are correct.

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  • 13. 

    The floor of the submental triangle is composed of:

    • A.

      Mylohyoid muscle

    • B.

      Digastric muscle

    • C.

      Platysma muscle

    • D.

      Sternocleidomastoid muscle

    • E.

      None of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. Mylohyoid muscle
    Explanation
    The floor of the submental triangle is composed of the mylohyoid muscle. The mylohyoid muscle is a paired muscle that forms the floor of the mouth and helps in various functions such as swallowing and speaking. It originates from the mandible and inserts into the hyoid bone. It plays a crucial role in supporting the floor of the mouth and maintaining its shape.

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  • 14. 

    Zygomaticus Minor muscle:

    • A.

      Originates anterior to zygomaticotemporal suture, inserts lateral surface of the upper lip

    • B.

      Originates posterior to zygomaticotemporal suture, inserts lateral surface of the upper lip

    • C.

      Originates anterior to zygomaticus major, inserts lateral surface of the upper lip

    • D.

      Originates posterior to zygomaticotemporal suture, inserts at the angle of the mouth

    • E.

      Originates anterior to zygomaticus major, inserts at the angle of the mouth

    Correct Answer
    C. Originates anterior to zygomaticus major, inserts lateral surface of the upper lip
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Originates anterior to zygomaticus major, inserts lateral surface of the upper lip". This means that the Zygomaticus Minor muscle originates in front of the Zygomaticus Major muscle and inserts into the lateral surface of the upper lip.

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  • 15. 

    Depressor Labii Inferioris:

    • A.

      Originates on the mandible between the symphysis and the mental foramen

    • B.

      Originates on the mandible along the external oblique line

    • C.

      Originates anterior to zygomaticus major

    • D.

      Originates on the incisive fossa of the mandible

    • E.

      None of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. Originates on the mandible between the symphysis and the mental foramen
    Explanation
    The Depressor Labii Inferioris muscle originates on the mandible between the symphysis and the mental foramen.

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  • 16. 

    Procerus muscle:

    • A.

      Is innervated by buccal branches of the facial nerve

    • B.

      Is innervated by occipital branches of the facial nerve

    • C.

      Insertion is on the nasal septum

    • D.

      Insertion is on the nasal cartilage

    • E.

      None of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. Is innervated by buccal branches of the facial nerve
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Is innervated by buccal branches of the facial nerve." The procerus muscle is a small muscle located between the eyebrows. It is innervated by the buccal branches of the facial nerve, which provide motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression. The other statements are incorrect because the procerus muscle does not insert on the nasal septum or nasal cartilage.

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  • 17. 

    Platysma muscle:

    • A.

      Is innervated by cervical branches of the facial nerve

    • B.

      Wrinkles skin of the neck

    • C.

      Originates from the fascia of upper part of pectoralis major and deltoid

    • D.

      Insertion is on inferior border of mandible

    • E.

      All statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All statements are correct
    Explanation
    The Platysma muscle is innervated by cervical branches of the facial nerve. It is responsible for wrinkling the skin of the neck. It originates from the fascia of the upper part of the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles. Its insertion is on the inferior border of the mandible. All of these statements are correct.

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  • 18. 

    Platysma muscle:

    • A.

      Is innervated by cervical branches of the facial nerve

    • B.

      Wrinkles skin of the neck

    • C.

      Originates from the fascia of upper part of pectoralis major and deltoid

    • D.

      Insertion is on inferior border of mandible

    • E.

      All statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All statements are correct
    Explanation
    The Platysma muscle is innervated by cervical branches of the facial nerve, which means that the facial nerve supplies the nerve fibers to this muscle. The muscle is responsible for wrinkling the skin of the neck, which helps in expressions like grimacing or tensing the neck. It originates from the fascia of the upper part of the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles, and it inserts on the inferior border of the mandible. All of these statements accurately describe the Platysma muscle.

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  • 19. 

    The carotid triangle of the neck contains:

    • A.

      Common carotid artery

    • B.

      Internal and external carotid artery

    • C.

      Vagal nerve

    • D.

      Hypoglossal nerve

    • E.

      All of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the statements are correct
    Explanation
    The carotid triangle of the neck is an anatomical region that contains several structures. The common carotid artery, which is a major blood vessel supplying the head and neck, is located in this triangle. Additionally, both the internal and external carotid arteries, which are branches of the common carotid artery, are also found in this region. The vagal nerve, which is responsible for controlling various functions in the body, including the heart rate and digestion, is another structure present in the carotid triangle. Lastly, the hypoglossal nerve, which controls the movement of the tongue, is also located in this area. Therefore, all of the statements in the answer are correct.

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  • 20. 

    The oesophagus:

    • A.

      In the adult measures aproximately 25-30cm

    • B.

      Has three physiological narrowings

    • C.

      Contains cervical, thoracic, and abdominal parts

    • D.

      Begins at the level of vertebra C6

    • E.

      All of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the statements are correct
    Explanation
    The esophagus is a muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. In adults, it measures approximately 25-30 cm in length. It has three physiological narrowings, which are points where the diameter of the esophagus is narrower than the rest of the tube. These narrowings help to prevent food from regurgitating back up into the throat. The esophagus is divided into three parts: cervical (located in the neck), thoracic (located in the chest), and abdominal (located in the abdomen). It begins at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. All of the statements provided in the question are correct.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following statements is incorrect:

    • A.

      The cardiac portion of the stomach is the continuation of the orifice of the oesophagus

    • B.

      The cardiac notch lies between the fundus of the stomach and the oesophaus

    • C.

      The gastrocolic ligament connects the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon

    • D.

      The gastrosplenic ligament connects the lesser curvature of the stomach to the hilum of the spleen

    • E.

      All of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. The gastrosplenic ligament connects the lesser curvature of the stomach to the hilum of the spleen
    Explanation
    The gastrosplenic ligament connects the greater curvature of the stomach to the hilum of the spleen, not the lesser curvature.

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  • 22. 

    The lesser omentum (omentum minus):

    • A.

      Extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach

    • B.

      Covers the antero-superior surface of the stomach

    • C.

      Contains ligamentum hepatogastricum

    • D.

      Contains ligamentum phernicogastricum

    • E.

      All of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the statements are correct
    Explanation
    The lesser omentum extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach, covering the antero-superior surface of the stomach. It contains the ligamentum hepatogastricum and the ligamentum phrenicogastricum.

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  • 23. 

    The greater omentum (omentum major):

    • A.

      Contains ligamentum hepatoduodenale

    • B.

      Extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach

    • C.

      Contains ligamentum gastrocolicum, and ligamentum gastrolienale

    • D.

      Contains ligamentum phernicogastricum

    • E.

      None of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. Contains ligamentum gastrocolicum, and ligamentum gastrolienale
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the greater omentum contains ligamentum gastrocolicum and ligamentum gastrolienale. The greater omentum is a fold of peritoneum that hangs down from the greater curvature of the stomach. It extends from the stomach to cover the intestines and other abdominal organs. The ligamentum gastrocolicum connects the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon, while the ligamentum gastrolienale connects the greater curvature to the spleen. These ligaments help to support and stabilize the abdominal organs.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following statements is incorrect:

    • A.

      The occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle originates on the medial third of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone

    • B.

      The frontal belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle is supplied by branches of the opthalmic artery

    • C.

      The occipitofrontalis muscle is innervated by the facial nerve

    • D.

      The medial fibres of the occipitofrontalis muscle are continuous with those of the procerus muscle

    • E.

      The occipitofrontalis muscle inserts at the galea aponeurotica

    Correct Answer
    A. The occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle originates on the medial third of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone
    Explanation
    The occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle does not originate on the medial third of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following statements is incorrect:

    • A.

      The jejunum occupies the upper left part of the inframesocolic space

    • B.

      The jejunum occupies the lower right part of the inframesocolic space

    • C.

      The ileum occupies the lower right part of the inframesocolic space

    • D.

      The jejunum has more plicae circularis than the ileum

    • E.

      The jejunum is wider than the ileum

    Correct Answer
    B. The jejunum occupies the lower right part of the inframesocolic space
  • 26. 

    The scalene muscles:

    • A.

      They are innervated by the spinal nerves C1-C3

    • B.

      Are a group of four pairs of muscles in the lateral neck

    • C.

      Are inserted on the first and second ribs

    • D.

      Are supplied by the superior thyroid artery

    • E.

      All of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. Are inserted on the first and second ribs
    Explanation
    The scalene muscles are a group of four pairs of muscles located in the lateral neck. These muscles are responsible for various movements of the neck and are inserted on the first and second ribs. This means that they attach to and have their origin on the first and second ribs. Therefore, the given answer is correct.

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  • 27. 

    The scalene muscles:

    • A.

      They are innervated by the spinal nerves C1-C3

    • B.

      Are a group of four pairs of muscles in the lateral neck

    • C.

      Are inserted on the first and second ribs

    • D.

      Are supplied by the superior thyroid artery

    • E.

      All of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. Are inserted on the first and second ribs
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the scalene muscles are inserted on the first and second ribs. This means that the muscles attach to these ribs, allowing them to perform their functions, such as aiding in breathing and neck movements. The other options provided in the question are incorrect explanations for the scalene muscles.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following statements is correct:

    • A.

      The ileocecal valve is a sphincter located between the ileum and the jejunum

    • B.

      The vermiform appendix is located in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen

    • C.

      Tenia omentalis is located on the anterior surface of the transverse colon

    • D.

      The left colic flexure is adjacent to the liver

    • E.

      All of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. Tenia omentalis is located on the anterior surface of the transverse colon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Tenia omentalis is located on the anterior surface of the transverse colon." The tenia omentalis is a longitudinal muscle band that runs along the anterior surface of the transverse colon. It serves to provide support and helps to maintain the shape of the colon.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is not considered retroperitoneal:

    • A.

      Kidneys

    • B.

      Bladder

    • C.

      Oesophagus

    • D.

      Rectum

    • E.

      Liver

    Correct Answer
    E. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver is not considered retroperitoneal because it is located in the abdominal cavity, specifically in the upper right quadrant. Retroperitoneal organs are located behind the peritoneum, which is a membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. The kidneys, bladder, esophagus, and rectum are all retroperitoneal organs, meaning they are located behind the peritoneum.

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  • 30. 

    The intestinum caecum contains:

    • A.

      Recessus retrocaecalis

    • B.

      Caecum liberum

    • C.

      Ostium ileocaecale

    • D.

      Valva ileocaecalis

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above." The intestinum caecum, also known as the cecum, is a pouch-like structure located at the beginning of the large intestine. It contains the recessus retrocaecalis, which is a recess behind the cecum, the caecum liberum, which is the free part of the cecum, the ostium ileocaecale, which is the opening between the ileum and the cecum, and the valva ileocaecalis, which is a valve that regulates the flow of contents between the ileum and the cecum. Therefore, all of these structures are present in the intestinum caecum.

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  • 31. 

    McBurney's point is:

    • A.

      One third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbillicus

    • B.

      Two thirds of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbillicus

    • C.

      One half of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbillicus

    • D.

      One third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the xiphoid process

    • E.

      Two thirds of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the xiphoid process

    Correct Answer
    A. One third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbillicus
    Explanation
    McBurney's point is a specific anatomical landmark used in clinical practice to locate the appendix. It is located approximately one third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the umbilicus. This point is important in diagnosing and assessing patients with suspected appendicitis.

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  • 32. 

    Monro's line is:

    • A.

      From the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbillicus

    • B.

      From the posterior superior iliac spine to the umbillicus

    • C.

      From the anterior superior iliac spine to the xiphoid process

    • D.

      From the posterior superior iliac spine to the xiphoid process

    • E.

      None of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. From the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbillicus
    Explanation
    Monro's line is a reference point used in abdominal surgery to locate the umbilicus (belly button). It is a line that extends from the anterior superior iliac spine (the bony prominence at the front of the pelvis) to the umbilicus. This line helps surgeons determine the appropriate incision site for procedures involving the abdominal region.

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  • 33. 

    Lanz's Point:

    • A.

      Is one third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbillicus

    • B.

      Is located at the junction of the right and middle third of a line connecting both anterior superior spines.

    • C.

      Is one third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the xiphoid process

    • D.

      Is half way between the posterior superior iliac spine and the umbillicus

    • E.

      None of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. Is located at the junction of the right and middle third of a line connecting both anterior superior spines.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that Lanz's Point is located at the junction of the right and middle third of a line connecting both anterior superior spines. This means that if you draw a line connecting the two anterior superior iliac spines (the bony prominences on the front of the pelvis), Lanz's Point will be where the line is divided into three equal parts, with the junction of the right and middle third being the location of Lanz's Point.

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  • 34. 

    The rectum:

    • A.

      Is aproximately 12cm long

    • B.

      Contains the rectal ampulla where faeces are stored

    • C.

      Is supplied by the superior and middle rectal arteries

    • D.

      Is located retroperitoneally

    • E.

      All of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the statements are correct
    Explanation
    The rectum is approximately 12cm long and contains the rectal ampulla where feces are stored. It is supplied by the superior and middle rectal arteries. It is also located retroperitoneally.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the statements about the liver is incorrect:

    • A.

      Area nuda is located on the superior part

    • B.

      Peritoneum covers the anterior part

    • C.

      The falciform ligament attaches the liver to the anterior body wall

    • D.

      The left triangular ligament connects the left lobe of the liver to the diaphragm

    • E.

      The coronary ligament attaches the liver to the transverse colon

    Correct Answer
    E. The coronary ligament attaches the liver to the transverse colon
    Explanation
    The statement "The coronary ligament attaches the liver to the transverse colon" is incorrect. The coronary ligament actually attaches the liver to the diaphragm, not the transverse colon.

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  • 36. 

    Intrahepatic bile ducts include:

    • A.

      Ductus cysticus

    • B.

      Ductus bilifer intralobularis

    • C.

      Ductus choledochus

    • D.

      Ductus hepaticus dexter

    • E.

      Ductus hepaticus communis

    Correct Answer
    B. Ductus bilifer intralobularis
    Explanation
    Intrahepatic bile ducts are the ducts that are present within the liver. The given options include different ducts, but only "Ductus bilifer intralobularis" specifically refers to an intrahepatic bile duct. Therefore, "Ductus bilifer intralobularis" is the correct answer.

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  • 37. 

    Extrahepatic bile ducts include:

    • A.

      Ductus cysticus

    • B.

      Ductus hepaticus communis

    • C.

      Ductus choledochus

    • D.

      Ductus hepaticus dexter

    • E.

      All of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the statements are correct
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the statements are correct". This means that all of the statements about the extrahepatic bile ducts are true. The extrahepatic bile ducts include the ductus cysticus, ductus hepaticus communis, ductus choledochus, and ductus hepaticus dexter.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the statements about the pancreas is incorrect:

    • A.

      It is found in the epigastrium and left hypochondrium

    • B.

      The tail lies within the concavity of the duodenum.

    • C.

      The body lies behind the stomach

    • D.

      The uncinate process emerges from the lower part of head

    • E.

      The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just prior to the ampulla of Vater

    Correct Answer
    B. The tail lies within the concavity of the duodenum.
    Explanation
    The pancreas is a gland that is found in the epigastrium and left hypochondrium. The body of the pancreas is located behind the stomach, and the uncinate process emerges from the lower part of the head. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct just prior to the ampulla of Vater. However, the statement that the tail lies within the concavity of the duodenum is incorrect. The tail of the pancreas extends towards the left side of the body, away from the duodenum.

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  • 39. 

    The common bile duct:

    • A.

      Is formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct

    • B.

      Runs through the pancreas before reaching the small intestine

    • C.

      Empties into the duodenum

    • D.

      Is joined by the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of Vater

    • E.

      All of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the statements are correct
    Explanation
    The common bile duct is formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct. It runs through the pancreas before reaching the small intestine. It empties into the duodenum. It is also joined by the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of Vater. Therefore, all of the statements provided are correct.

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  • 40. 

    The suboccipital triangle contains:

    • A.

      Vertebral artery, vertebral vein

    • B.

      Greater occipital nerve, suboccipital nerve

    • C.

      Rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor

    • D.

      Obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitits inferior

    • E.

      All of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the statements are correct
    Explanation
    The suboccipital triangle contains the vertebral artery, vertebral vein, greater occipital nerve, suboccipital nerve, rectus capitis posterior major, rectus capitis posterior minor, obliquus capitis superior, and obliquus capitits inferior.

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  • 41. 

    The borders of the suboccipital triangle are:

    • A.

      Obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior, rectus capitis posterior major

    • B.

      Obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior, rectus capitis posterior minor

    • C.

      Obliquus capitis superior, rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major

    • D.

      Obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitits inferior, Sternocleidomastoid muscle

    • E.

      None of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. Obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior, rectus capitis posterior major
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior, rectus capitis posterior major. The suboccipital triangle is a region located at the base of the skull, and its borders are formed by these three muscles. The obliquus capitis superior and obliquus capitis inferior are two of the suboccipital muscles, while the rectus capitis posterior major is a muscle that extends from the spine to the base of the skull. These three muscles define the boundaries of the suboccipital triangle.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the statements about the geniohyoid muscle is incorrect:

    • A.

      Originates from the inferior mental spine, on the back of the symphysis menti

    • B.

      Innervated by the facial nerve

    • C.

      Inserts on the body of the hyoid

    • D.

      Is situated superior to the medial border of the mylohyoid muscle

    • E.

      Helps move the hyoid and tongue anteriorly

    Correct Answer
    B. Innervated by the facial nerve
    Explanation
    The geniohyoid muscle is not innervated by the facial nerve. Instead, it is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII). The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) innervates the muscles of facial expression.

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  • 43. 

    The spleen:

    • A.

      Reaches from the 7th to the 9th rib

    • B.

      The anterior pole crosses the costoarticular line

    • C.

      Is normally palpapable on a healthy person

    • D.

      The posterior pole is about 4cm from the 10th rib

    • E.

      None of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. The posterior pole is about 4cm from the 10th rib
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the posterior pole of the spleen is about 4cm from the 10th rib. This means that the spleen is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, between the 9th and 11th ribs. It is important to note that the spleen is not normally palpable in a healthy person, so the statement that it is palpable is incorrect.

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  • 44. 

    The buccinator muscle:

    • A.

      Occupies the space between the maxilla and the mandible

    • B.

      Originates from the alveolar processes of the maxillary bone and mandible

    • C.

      Is supplied by the buccal artery

    • D.

      Is innervated by the facial nerve

    • E.

      All of the statements are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the statements are correct
    Explanation
    The buccinator muscle is a facial muscle that occupies the space between the maxilla and the mandible. It originates from the alveolar processes of the maxillary bone and mandible. It is supplied by the buccal artery and innervated by the facial nerve.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following is not considered a muscle of mastication:

    • A.

      Massater

    • B.

      Buccinator

    • C.

      Medial Pterygoid

    • D.

      Temporalis

    • E.

      Lateral pterygoid

    Correct Answer
    B. Buccinator
    Explanation
    The buccinator muscle is not considered a muscle of mastication because its primary function is to assist in the actions of the cheeks, such as compressing and retracting them during activities like blowing air or sucking. The muscles of mastication, on the other hand, are responsible for the movement of the jaw during chewing and biting. These include the masseter, medial pterygoid, temporalis, and lateral pterygoid muscles.

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  • 46. 

    The peritoneum:

    • A.

      The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity

    • B.

      Is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue

    • C.

      Outer layer (parietal peritoneum) is attached to the abdominal wall

    • D.

      Inner layer (visceral peritoneum) is wrapped around internal organs

    • E.

      All of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the answers are correct
    Explanation
    The peritoneum is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity. It is composed of a layer of mesothelium supported by a thin layer of connective tissue. The outer layer, known as the parietal peritoneum, is attached to the abdominal wall, while the inner layer, called the visceral peritoneum, wraps around the internal organs. Therefore, all of the given statements about the peritoneum are correct.

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  • 47. 

    The duodenum:

    • A.

      Is the narrowest part of the small intestine

    • B.

      Superior part is located at level L3

    • C.

      Descending part is located at level L1 to L3

    • D.

      The Horizontal part is located at level L1

    • E.

      All of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. Descending part is located at level L1 to L3
    Explanation
    The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine and is divided into four parts: superior, descending, horizontal, and ascending. The superior part is located at level L3, the descending part is located at level L1 to L3, and the horizontal part is located at level L1. Therefore, the correct answer is that all of the answers are correct.

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  • 48. 

    The superior part of the duodenum is related:

    • A.

      Anteriorly with the liver and gall bladder

    • B.

      Posteriorly with the stomach

    • C.

      Inferiorly to the right kidney

    • D.

      Superiorly to the hepatorenal ligament

    • E.

      None of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    A. Anteriorly with the liver and gall bladder
    Explanation
    The superior part of the duodenum is related anteriorly to the liver and gall bladder. This means that it is located in front of these structures in the abdominal cavity. This relationship is important for understanding the anatomical position and function of the duodenum in relation to the liver and gall bladder.

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  • 49. 

    The superficial fascia of the neck does not contain:

    • A.

      Platysma

    • B.

      Cutaneus Nerves

    • C.

      Subcutaneous fat

    • D.

      Sheaths for carotid vessels

    • E.

      None of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Sheaths for carotid vessels
    Explanation
    The superficial fascia of the neck is a layer of connective tissue that lies just beneath the skin. It contains various structures such as the platysma muscle, cutaneous nerves, and subcutaneous fat. However, it does not contain sheaths for the carotid vessels. These sheaths are located deeper, within the deep fascia of the neck, and provide support and protection for the carotid arteries and internal jugular veins.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following statements is correct:

    • A.

      The ileocecal valve is a sphincter located between the ileum and the jejunum

    • B.

      The vermiform appendix is located in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen

    • C.

      Tenia omentalis is located on the anterior surface of the transverse colon

    • D.

      The left colic flexure is adjacent to the liver

    • E.

      All of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. Tenia omentalis is located on the anterior surface of the transverse colon
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Tenia omentalis is located on the anterior surface of the transverse colon." The tenia omentalis is a longitudinal muscle band that runs along the anterior surface of the transverse colon. It is one of the three bands of muscle that make up the taenia coli, which are responsible for the formation of the haustra (pouches) in the large intestine.

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