American History II - Exam Review 4

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American History II - Exam Review 4

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too. President John F. Kennedy, September 12, 1962 Why did President Kennedy decide to focus U.S. resources on going to the moon? Unit 10
    • A. 

      The United States wanted to gain the British as allies by proving it could defeat the Soviets in space exploration.

    • B. 

      The United States wanted to seize the opportunity to land on the moon because the Soviet Union was in decline

    • C. 

      The United States wanted to win the race to the moon in the aftermath of the Soviet success with the Sputnik satelite

    • D. 

      The United States wanted to colonize the moon in order to establish missile defense bases against the Soviets

  • 2. 
    Movement has been its dominant fact, and, unless this training has no effect upon a people, the American energy will continually demand a wider field for its exercise. But never again will such gifts of free land offer themselves. . . . And now, four centuries from the discovery of America, at the end of a hundred years of life under the Constitution, the frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history. Frederick Jackson Turner, The Significance of the Frontier in American History, 1893Which kind of foreign policy does Turner′s thesis suggest as a result of the closing of the American frontier? Unit 6 & 7
    • A. 

      Imperialism

    • B. 

      Isolationism

    • C. 

      Defense alliances

    • D. 

      Disengagement

  • 3. 
    These young people . . . have been shut off from the common labor . . . which is a great source of moral and physical health. They feel a fatal want of harmony between their theory and their lives, a lack of coordination between thought and action. I think it is hard for us to realize how seriously many of them are taking to the notion of human brotherhood, how eagerly they long to give tangible expression to the democratic ideal. These young men and women, longing to socialize their democracy, are animated by certain hopes . . . that if in a democratic country nothing can be permanently achieved save through the masses of the people, it will be impossible to establish a higher political life than the people themselves crave; . . . that the blessings which we associate with a life of refinement and cultivation can be made universal and must be made universal if they are to be permanent; that the good we secure for ourselves is precarious and uncertain, is floating in midair, until it is secured for all of us. . . . There is something primordial about these motives. . . . Nothing so deadens the sympathies and shrivels the power of enjoyment as the persistent keeping away from the great opportunities for helpfulness and a continual ignoring of the starvation struggle which makes up the life of at least half the race. To shut one’s self away from that half of the race life is to shut one’s self away from the most vital part of it; it is to live out but half the humanity to which we have been born heir and to use but half our faculties. We have all had longings for a fuller life which should include the use of these faculties.Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull House, 1910 Which statement expresses Jane Addams′s stated motive for founding Hull House in the late 1800s?Unit 7
    • A. 

      Providing immigrants with social services in health, education, and safety would improve society.

    • B. 

      Providing immigrants with permanent housing and jobs would boost the economy of Chicago.

    • C. 

      Providing immigrants small plots of land would enable them to grow their own food.

    • D. 

      Providing immigrants with settlement houses would improve neighborhoods.

  • 4. 
    In the 1890s, the number of African Americans moving to the Northeast and the Midwest was double that of the previous decade. In 1910, it doubled again, then again in 1920. In the 1920s, more than 750,000 African Americans left the South, a greater movement of people than had occurred in the Irish potato famine of the 1840s.Immigration: Africans, a presentation of Library of Congress How did the Great Migration during the World War I era shape cities and society? Unit 8
    • A. 

      Quota laws were passed to restrict immigrants who were attracted to ethnic neighborhoods in cities.

    • B. 

      The International Workers of the World (IWW) used migrants to stage prosocialist strikes that damaged urban farms.

    • C. 

      The Irish were subjected to segregation by law in housing and to discrimination in educational opportunities.

    • D. 

      African-American citizens were subjected to practiced segregation in housing and job discrimination in the North

  • 5. 
    Following the end of Reconstruction, African-American people living in the South became increasingly disillusioned as they faced new Jim Crow laws, poor economic opportunities, and outright violence. Increasingly, African Americans moved to the North and West. In the 1920s alone, over 750,000 African Americans moved out of the South. How did their migration change the politics of the United States? Unit 8
    • A. 

      African Americans no longer faced racism

    • B. 

      African Americans voted in increasing numbers

    • C. 

      African Americans dominated the Democratic Party

    • D. 

      African Americans were not discriminated against politically.

  • 6. 
    Although I have grave doubts as to the wisdom of certain provisions contained in H.R. 1063 (Public Law 280), I have today signed it because its basic purpose represents still another step in granting complete political equality to all Indians in our nation. The bill confers jurisdiction on the States of California, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oregon and Wisconsin, with respect to criminal offenses and civil causes of action committed or arising on Indian reservations within such states. The bill has resulted from a process of exhaustive study of the innumerable laws and regulations applying to our several Indian groupments and was arrived at in the states affected after long negotiation in full consultation with the Indians themselves. The Indian tribes regard this as a long step forward in removing them from the status of “second class” citizens. Indeed, in the five states where state jurisdiction will soon be paramount, the Indians have enthusiastically endorsed this bill. The bill preserves the basic safeguards against loss of property rights accorded the Indians by Federal treaties, agreements and statutes, and further safeguards the tribal customs and ordinances of the tribes affected when not inconsistent with the general laws of the respective states.Dwight D. Eisenhower, August 15, 1953 Courtesy of The American Presidency ProjectBased on the excerpt, which statement summarizes the goal of H.R. 1063 (Public Law 280)? Unit 10
    • A. 

      To provide American Indian people grants for farming and small business

    • B. 

      To provide American Indian tribes complete independence from the federal government

    • C. 

      To give certain state courts the ability to decide on cases that occur on reservations

    • D. 

      To give the federal government control of American Indian relations with states

  • 7. 
    We now stand 10 years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among great nations. . . . Despite these holocausts, America is today the strongest, the most influential, and most productive nation in the world. . . . we yet realize that America′s leadership and prestige depend not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches, and military strength but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment. . . . A vital element in keeping the peace is our Military Establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction. . . . now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. Added to this, 1 2 3 million men and women are directly engaged in the Defense Establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations. This conjunction of an immense Military Establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience.President Dwight Eisenhower, “Farewell to the Nation,” January 17, 1961 Courtesy of Internet History Sourcebooks Project, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall According to Eisenhower′s speech, how did U.S. involvements in war affect the national economy?Unit 10
    • A. 

      Corporations took control of the nation′s economy away from the government

    • B. 

      The Communist Party threatened to overthrow capitalism during this period.

    • C. 

      Other nations surpassed the United States in terms of economic prestige

    • D. 

      The defense industry became a major aspect of the American economy

  • 8. 
    How did the outbreak of war in Europe in the late 1930s affect politics within the United States? Unit 8
    • A. 

      It decreased arms production.

    • B. 

      It increased military recruitment

    • C. 

      It increased support for isolationist policies.

    • D. 

      It decreased international trade with European countries.

  • 9. 
    Which act of Congress gave President Roosevelt the authority that he demonstrates in this cartoon? Unit 7
    • A. 

      Meat Inspection Act

    • B. 

      Sherman Antitrust Act

    • C. 

      Underwood Tariff Act

    • D. 

      Pure Food and Drug Act

  • 10. 
    Which statement about the period from 1918 through 1929 is most clearly supported by information in the graph?Unit 7 & 8
    • A. 

      The percentage of income controlled by the wealthiest Americans declined.

    • B. 

      The income gap between the wealthiest fifth and the rest of the population increased.

    • C. 

      The overall per capita income in the United States declined.

    • D. 

      The percentage of income controlled by the poor steadily increased.

  • 11. 
    “This Government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet Military buildup on the island of Cuba. Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere. . . .” — President John F. Kennedy, October 22, 1962The crisis described in this passage was resolved when...Unit 10 
    • A. 

      Cuba became a capitalist nation

    • B. 

      the United States seized control of Cuba

    • C. 

      Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev met with President Kennedy

    • D. 

      The Soviet Union withdrew its missiles from Cuba

  • 12. 
    Which advertising campaign represents the expanding role of the women in the workplace during World War II?Unit 9
    • A. 

      Loose Lips Sink Ships

    • B. 

      The Harvest in Plentiful

    • C. 

      Rosie the Riveter

    • D. 

      Sweetless, Meatless, Wheatless Days

  • 13. 
    What international organization was created immediately after the Second World War to promote world peace and cooperation among nations?Unit 10
    • A. 

      The Atlantic Charter

    • B. 

      The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    • C. 

      The United Nations

    • D. 

      The League of Nations

  • 14. 
    Which action did President Gerald Ford take in an attempt to end the national controversy over the Watergate affair?Unit 10
    • A. 

      Pardoning Richard Nixon

    • B. 

      Declaring a war on poverty

    • C. 

      Declining to run for reelection

    • D. 

      Asking Congress to impeach Richard Nixon

  • 15. 
    The Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944) upheld Executive Order 9066, which had authorized the...Unit 9
    • A. 

      Placement of women in combat roles

    • B. 

      Exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast

    • C. 

      limiting of freedom of speech during wartime

    • D. 

      Adoption of the military draft

  • 16. 
    The Manhattan Project led by Robert Oppenheimer was part of the World War II effort to ...Unit 9
    • A. 

      develop the atomic bomb

    • B. 

      supply the Allies with more fighter planes

    • C. 

      Ban the use of chemical and biological warfare

    • D. 

      coordinate troop movements between New York and Europe

  • 17. 
    Which legislative action, during the administration FDR, had the greatest effect on resolving the problems of the economy and protecting the elderly from poverty?Unit 8
    • A. 

      The enactment of Social Security

    • B. 

      The establishment of minimum wage

    • C. 

      The insurance of federal deposits

    • D. 

      The building of suburbs

  • 18. 
    How did economic opportunities encourage the Chinese and the Irish to immigrate to the West Coast?Unit 6
    • A. 

      The massive cattle drives lacked cowhands

    • B. 

      The transcontinental railroads needed builders

    • C. 

      Oil companies in Texas required drillers

    • D. 

      Corporate farms employed temporary farmhands

  • 19. 
    How did political bosses in major industrial cities affect the lives of immigrants to the United States in the late 1800s?Unit 6 & 7
    • A. 

      The political machines exploited immigrants by buying votes with favors, jobs, and housing

    • B. 

      The immigrants created ethnic neighborhoods to insulate themselves from controlling political bosses

    • C. 

      The political bosses were outnumbered; the immigrants seized control and passed laws similar to those in Europe

    • D. 

      The immigrants were unhappy with the corrupt political machines and joined anarchist and socialist movements instead