American History II - Exam Review 4

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American History II - Exam Review 4 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too. President John F. Kennedy, September 12, 1962 Why did President Kennedy decide to focus U.S. resources on going to the moon? Unit 10

    • A.

      The United States wanted to gain the British as allies by proving it could defeat the Soviets in space exploration.

    • B.

      The United States wanted to seize the opportunity to land on the moon because the Soviet Union was in decline

    • C.

      The United States wanted to win the race to the moon in the aftermath of the Soviet success with the Sputnik satelite

    • D.

      The United States wanted to colonize the moon in order to establish missile defense bases against the Soviets

    Correct Answer
    C. The United States wanted to win the race to the moon in the aftermath of the Soviet success with the Sputnik satelite
    Explanation
    President Kennedy decided to focus U.S. resources on going to the moon because the United States wanted to win the race to the moon in the aftermath of the Soviet success with the Sputnik satellite. This was a response to the Soviet Union's advancements in space exploration and a way for the United States to assert its dominance in the field. By reaching the moon first, the United States aimed to showcase its technological superiority and establish itself as the leader in space exploration.

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  • 2. 

    Movement has been its dominant fact, and, unless this training has no effect upon a people, the American energy will continually demand a wider field for its exercise. But never again will such gifts of free land offer themselves. . . . And now, four centuries from the discovery of America, at the end of a hundred years of life under the Constitution, the frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history. Frederick Jackson Turner, The Significance of the Frontier in American History, 1893Which kind of foreign policy does Turner′s thesis suggest as a result of the closing of the American frontier? Unit 6 & 7

    • A.

      Imperialism

    • B.

      Isolationism

    • C.

      Defense alliances

    • D.

      Disengagement

    Correct Answer
    A. Imperialism
    Explanation
    The closing of the American frontier, as suggested by Turner's thesis, implies that the American energy and desire for movement will seek a wider field for its exercise. Since there are no more free lands available, this suggests that the United States will need to expand its influence beyond its borders. Therefore, the correct answer is imperialism, which refers to a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, military conquest, or economic dominance over other nations.

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  • 3. 

    These young people . . . have been shut off from the common labor . . . which is a great source of moral and physical health. They feel a fatal want of harmony between their theory and their lives, a lack of coordination between thought and action. I think it is hard for us to realize how seriously many of them are taking to the notion of human brotherhood, how eagerly they long to give tangible expression to the democratic ideal. These young men and women, longing to socialize their democracy, are animated by certain hopes . . . that if in a democratic country nothing can be permanently achieved save through the masses of the people, it will be impossible to establish a higher political life than the people themselves crave; . . . that the blessings which we associate with a life of refinement and cultivation can be made universal and must be made universal if they are to be permanent; that the good we secure for ourselves is precarious and uncertain, is floating in midair, until it is secured for all of us. . . . There is something primordial about these motives. . . . Nothing so deadens the sympathies and shrivels the power of enjoyment as the persistent keeping away from the great opportunities for helpfulness and a continual ignoring of the starvation struggle which makes up the life of at least half the race. To shut one’s self away from that half of the race life is to shut one’s self away from the most vital part of it; it is to live out but half the humanity to which we have been born heir and to use but half our faculties. We have all had longings for a fuller life which should include the use of these faculties.Jane Addams, Twenty Years at Hull House, 1910 Which statement expresses Jane Addams′s stated motive for founding Hull House in the late 1800s?Unit 7

    • A.

      Providing immigrants with social services in health, education, and safety would improve society.

    • B.

      Providing immigrants with permanent housing and jobs would boost the economy of Chicago.

    • C.

      Providing immigrants small plots of land would enable them to grow their own food.

    • D.

      Providing immigrants with settlement houses would improve neighborhoods.

    Correct Answer
    A. Providing immigrants with social services in health, education, and safety would improve society.
    Explanation
    Jane Addams states in the passage that young people who have been shut off from common labor feel a lack of coordination between their theory and their lives. She believes that these young people are eager to give tangible expression to the democratic ideal and long to socialize their democracy. Addams also emphasizes the importance of establishing a higher political life that aligns with the desires of the people themselves. Therefore, providing immigrants with social services in health, education, and safety would address their needs and improve society as a whole.

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  • 4. 

    In the 1890s, the number of African Americans moving to the Northeast and the Midwest was double that of the previous decade. In 1910, it doubled again, then again in 1920. In the 1920s, more than 750,000 African Americans left the South, a greater movement of people than had occurred in the Irish potato famine of the 1840s.Immigration: Africans, a presentation of Library of Congress How did the Great Migration during the World War I era shape cities and society? Unit 8

    • A.

      Quota laws were passed to restrict immigrants who were attracted to ethnic neighborhoods in cities.

    • B.

      The International Workers of the World (IWW) used migrants to stage prosocialist strikes that damaged urban farms.

    • C.

      The Irish were subjected to segregation by law in housing and to discrimination in educational opportunities.

    • D.

      African-American citizens were subjected to practiced segregation in housing and job discrimination in the North

    Correct Answer
    D. African-American citizens were subjected to practiced segregation in housing and job discrimination in the North
    Explanation
    During the Great Migration, African-American citizens faced segregation in housing and job discrimination in the North. As they moved to the Northeast and Midwest in large numbers, they encountered racial segregation in housing, with limited options for where they could live. Additionally, they faced job discrimination, with limited opportunities for employment and lower wages compared to their white counterparts. This had a significant impact on cities and society, perpetuating racial inequality and creating segregated communities.

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  • 5. 

    Following the end of Reconstruction, African-American people living in the South became increasingly disillusioned as they faced new Jim Crow laws, poor economic opportunities, and outright violence. Increasingly, African Americans moved to the North and West. In the 1920s alone, over 750,000 African Americans moved out of the South. How did their migration change the politics of the United States? Unit 8

    • A.

      African Americans no longer faced racism

    • B.

      African Americans voted in increasing numbers

    • C.

      African Americans dominated the Democratic Party

    • D.

      African Americans were not discriminated against politically.

    Correct Answer
    B. African Americans voted in increasing numbers
    Explanation
    The migration of African Americans from the South to the North and West in the 1920s led to a significant increase in their political participation. As they moved to areas with more favorable conditions, such as less racial discrimination and better economic opportunities, African Americans were able to exercise their right to vote more freely. This resulted in a higher number of African Americans participating in the political process and having a greater impact on the politics of the United States.

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  • 6. 

    Although I have grave doubts as to the wisdom of certain provisions contained in H.R. 1063 (Public Law 280), I have today signed it because its basic purpose represents still another step in granting complete political equality to all Indians in our nation. The bill confers jurisdiction on the States of California, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oregon and Wisconsin, with respect to criminal offenses and civil causes of action committed or arising on Indian reservations within such states. The bill has resulted from a process of exhaustive study of the innumerable laws and regulations applying to our several Indian groupments and was arrived at in the states affected after long negotiation in full consultation with the Indians themselves. The Indian tribes regard this as a long step forward in removing them from the status of “second class” citizens. Indeed, in the five states where state jurisdiction will soon be paramount, the Indians have enthusiastically endorsed this bill. The bill preserves the basic safeguards against loss of property rights accorded the Indians by Federal treaties, agreements and statutes, and further safeguards the tribal customs and ordinances of the tribes affected when not inconsistent with the general laws of the respective states.Dwight D. Eisenhower, August 15, 1953 Courtesy of The American Presidency ProjectBased on the excerpt, which statement summarizes the goal of H.R. 1063 (Public Law 280)? Unit 10

    • A.

      To provide American Indian people grants for farming and small business

    • B.

      To provide American Indian tribes complete independence from the federal government

    • C.

      To give certain state courts the ability to decide on cases that occur on reservations

    • D.

      To give the federal government control of American Indian relations with states

    Correct Answer
    C. To give certain state courts the ability to decide on cases that occur on reservations
    Explanation
    The goal of H.R. 1063 (Public Law 280) is to give certain state courts the ability to decide on cases that occur on reservations. This can be inferred from the statement that the bill confers jurisdiction on specific states with respect to criminal offenses and civil causes of action committed or arising on Indian reservations within those states. The bill aims to grant these states the authority to handle legal matters that occur within the reservations.

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  • 7. 

    We now stand 10 years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among great nations. . . . Despite these holocausts, America is today the strongest, the most influential, and most productive nation in the world. . . . we yet realize that America′s leadership and prestige depend not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches, and military strength but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment. . . . A vital element in keeping the peace is our Military Establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction. . . . now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. Added to this, 1 2 3 million men and women are directly engaged in the Defense Establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations. This conjunction of an immense Military Establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience.President Dwight Eisenhower, “Farewell to the Nation,” January 17, 1961 Courtesy of Internet History Sourcebooks Project, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall According to Eisenhower′s speech, how did U.S. involvements in war affect the national economy?Unit 10

    • A.

      Corporations took control of the nation′s economy away from the government

    • B.

      The Communist Party threatened to overthrow capitalism during this period.

    • C.

      Other nations surpassed the United States in terms of economic prestige

    • D.

      The defense industry became a major aspect of the American economy

    Correct Answer
    D. The defense industry became a major aspect of the American economy
    Explanation
    During his speech, President Eisenhower states that the United States has been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. He also mentions that 1 2 3 million men and women are directly engaged in the Defense Establishment and that the country annually spends more on military security than the net income of all United States corporations. This indicates that the defense industry has become a major aspect of the American economy, suggesting that U.S. involvements in war have affected the national economy by leading to the growth and prominence of the defense industry.

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  • 8. 

    How did the outbreak of war in Europe in the late 1930s affect politics within the United States? Unit 8

    • A.

      It decreased arms production.

    • B.

      It increased military recruitment

    • C.

      It increased support for isolationist policies.

    • D.

      It decreased international trade with European countries.

    Correct Answer
    C. It increased support for isolationist policies.
    Explanation
    The outbreak of war in Europe in the late 1930s increased support for isolationist policies within the United States. This means that Americans became more inclined to avoid involvement in foreign conflicts and focus on domestic issues instead. The war served as a reminder of the devastation and loss caused by World War I, leading many Americans to believe that staying out of international conflicts was in their best interest. As a result, there was a decrease in arms production, as the country did not want to be seen as preparing for war, and a decrease in international trade with European countries, as Americans sought to distance themselves from the conflict.

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  • 9. 

    Which act of Congress gave President Roosevelt the authority that he demonstrates in this cartoon? Unit 7

    • A.

      Meat Inspection Act

    • B.

      Sherman Antitrust Act

    • C.

      Underwood Tariff Act

    • D.

      Pure Food and Drug Act

    Correct Answer
    B. Sherman Antitrust Act
    Explanation
    The Sherman Antitrust Act gave President Roosevelt the authority that he demonstrates in this cartoon. This act was passed in 1890 and aimed to prevent monopolies and promote fair competition in business. It allowed the president to break up and regulate large corporations that were engaging in anti-competitive practices. In the cartoon, President Roosevelt is shown wielding a large stick labeled "Sherman Act" to symbolize his power and authority in enforcing this legislation.

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  • 10. 

    Which statement about the period from 1918 through 1929 is most clearly supported by information in the graph?Unit 7 & 8

    • A.

      The percentage of income controlled by the wealthiest Americans declined.

    • B.

      The income gap between the wealthiest fifth and the rest of the population increased.

    • C.

      The overall per capita income in the United States declined.

    • D.

      The percentage of income controlled by the poor steadily increased.

    Correct Answer
    B. The income gap between the wealthiest fifth and the rest of the population increased.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "The income gap between the wealthiest fifth and the rest of the population increased." This is supported by the information in the graph because it shows that the percentage of income controlled by the top 5% of Americans increased significantly during the period from 1918 to 1929, while the percentage of income controlled by the rest of the population decreased. This indicates a widening income gap between the wealthiest Americans and the rest of the population during that time period.

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  • 11. 

    “This Government, as promised, has maintained the closest surveillance of the Soviet Military buildup on the island of Cuba. Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere. . . .” — President John F. Kennedy, October 22, 1962The crisis described in this passage was resolved when...Unit 10 

    • A.

      Cuba became a capitalist nation

    • B.

      the United States seized control of Cuba

    • C.

      Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev met with President Kennedy

    • D.

      The Soviet Union withdrew its missiles from Cuba

    Correct Answer
    D. The Soviet Union withdrew its missiles from Cuba
    Explanation
    During the Cuban Missile Crisis, the United States discovered that the Soviet Union was building offensive missile sites in Cuba, which posed a direct threat to the Western Hemisphere. In order to resolve this crisis, negotiations took place between Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev and President Kennedy. Eventually, an agreement was reached, and the Soviet Union agreed to withdraw its missiles from Cuba. This resolution prevented a potential nuclear strike and diffused the tension between the two superpowers.

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  • 12. 

    Which advertising campaign represents the expanding role of the women in the workplace during World War II?Unit 9

    • A.

      Loose Lips Sink Ships

    • B.

      The Harvest in Plentiful

    • C.

      Rosie the Riveter

    • D.

      Sweetless, Meatless, Wheatless Days

    Correct Answer
    C. Rosie the Riveter
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Rosie the Riveter. Rosie the Riveter is an iconic advertising campaign that represents the expanding role of women in the workplace during World War II. The campaign featured a strong and confident female character, Rosie, who was shown working in factories and doing traditionally male-dominated jobs. This campaign aimed to encourage women to join the workforce and support the war effort while challenging traditional gender roles. Rosie the Riveter became a symbol of women's empowerment and their ability to contribute to the war effort and the workforce in general.

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  • 13. 

    What international organization was created immediately after the Second World War to promote world peace and cooperation among nations?Unit 10

    • A.

      The Atlantic Charter

    • B.

      The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

    • C.

      The United Nations

    • D.

      The League of Nations

    Correct Answer
    C. The United Nations
    Explanation
    The United Nations was created immediately after the Second World War to promote world peace and cooperation among nations. It was established to replace the ineffective League of Nations and has since played a crucial role in maintaining global peace, resolving conflicts, and addressing global issues such as poverty, climate change, and human rights. The United Nations is composed of member states from around the world and operates through various specialized agencies, programs, and initiatives.

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  • 14. 

    Which action did President Gerald Ford take in an attempt to end the national controversy over the Watergate affair?Unit 10

    • A.

      Pardoning Richard Nixon

    • B.

      Declaring a war on poverty

    • C.

      Declining to run for reelection

    • D.

      Asking Congress to impeach Richard Nixon

    Correct Answer
    A. Pardoning Richard Nixon
    Explanation
    President Gerald Ford took the action of pardoning Richard Nixon in an attempt to end the national controversy over the Watergate affair. This decision was controversial and faced criticism, but Ford believed that it was necessary to move the country forward and heal the divisions caused by the scandal. The pardon meant that Nixon would not face criminal charges for his involvement in the Watergate scandal, which some viewed as an act of forgiveness and others saw as a way to avoid further political turmoil.

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  • 15. 

    The Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944) upheld Executive Order 9066, which had authorized the...Unit 9

    • A.

      Placement of women in combat roles

    • B.

      Exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast

    • C.

      limiting of freedom of speech during wartime

    • D.

      Adoption of the military draft

    Correct Answer
    B. Exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast
    Explanation
    During World War II, the United States government issued Executive Order 9066, which authorized the exclusion and internment of Japanese Americans from the West Coast. The Supreme Court's decision in Korematsu v. United States upheld this order, stating that it was justified by military necessity. This decision allowed for the violation of the constitutional rights and civil liberties of Japanese Americans, leading to their forced relocation and internment in camps. The exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast was a discriminatory and unjust action taken during the war.

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  • 16. 

    The Manhattan Project led by Robert Oppenheimer was part of the World War II effort to ...Unit 9

    • A.

      develop the atomic bomb

    • B.

      supply the Allies with more fighter planes

    • C.

      Ban the use of chemical and biological warfare

    • D.

      coordinate troop movements between New York and Europe

    Correct Answer
    A. develop the atomic bomb
    Explanation
    The Manhattan Project, led by Robert Oppenheimer, was a top-secret research project during World War II aimed at developing the atomic bomb. The project brought together scientists, engineers, and military personnel to harness the power of nuclear fission and create a weapon of immense destructive capability. The successful development of the atomic bomb ultimately led to its use in the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, effectively ending the war in the Pacific.

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  • 17. 

    Which legislative action, during the administration FDR, had the greatest effect on resolving the problems of the economy and protecting the elderly from poverty?Unit 8

    • A.

      The enactment of Social Security

    • B.

      The establishment of minimum wage

    • C.

      The insurance of federal deposits

    • D.

      The building of suburbs

    Correct Answer
    A. The enactment of Social Security
    Explanation
    The enactment of Social Security during the administration of FDR had the greatest effect on resolving the problems of the economy and protecting the elderly from poverty. Social Security provided a safety net for retired workers by establishing a system of old-age pensions, unemployment insurance, and disability benefits. This legislation helped alleviate poverty among the elderly population and provided a sense of security for individuals during times of economic hardship. It remains one of the most significant and enduring social welfare programs in the United States.

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  • 18. 

    How did economic opportunities encourage the Chinese and the Irish to immigrate to the West Coast?Unit 6

    • A.

      The massive cattle drives lacked cowhands

    • B.

      The transcontinental railroads needed builders

    • C.

      Oil companies in Texas required drillers

    • D.

      Corporate farms employed temporary farmhands

    Correct Answer
    B. The transcontinental railroads needed builders
    Explanation
    The transcontinental railroads needed builders, which created economic opportunities for immigrants. The construction of railroads required a large workforce, and both the Chinese and the Irish saw this as an opportunity to find work and improve their economic prospects. They were attracted by the promise of steady employment and the chance to earn wages that were higher than what they could expect in their home countries. The demand for builders on the railroads provided a strong incentive for both groups to immigrate to the West Coast.

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  • 19. 

    How did political bosses in major industrial cities affect the lives of immigrants to the United States in the late 1800s?Unit 6 & 7

    • A.

      The political machines exploited immigrants by buying votes with favors, jobs, and housing

    • B.

      The immigrants created ethnic neighborhoods to insulate themselves from controlling political bosses

    • C.

      The political bosses were outnumbered; the immigrants seized control and passed laws similar to those in Europe

    • D.

      The immigrants were unhappy with the corrupt political machines and joined anarchist and socialist movements instead

    Correct Answer
    A. The political machines exploited immigrants by buying votes with favors, jobs, and housing
    Explanation
    In the late 1800s, political bosses in major industrial cities exploited immigrants by using favors, jobs, and housing as a means to buy their votes. These political machines took advantage of the vulnerable position of immigrants, who often lacked resources and support networks, by offering them these incentives in exchange for political support. This allowed the political bosses to maintain their power and control over the immigrant population.

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