# Air And Aerodynamics Test Quiz

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Aerodynamics is the study of forces and the resulting motion of objects through the air. Studying the motion of air around an object allows us to measure the forces of lift, which allows an aircraft to overcome gravity. Test your understanding of this course by taking the quiz below. Good luck!

• 1.

### Jocelyn was curious about the air pressure within a volleyball. She decided to place a well stretched balloon onto an inflation needle which she then inserted into a fully inflated volleyball.What did Jocelyn observe? The volume of the balloon will

• A.

increase until the air pressure is equal in the ball and the balloon

• B.

Increase until all the air is released from the ball

• C.

Decrease as the air will be sucked into the volleyball

• D.

Not change

A. increase until the air pressure is equal in the ball and the balloon
Explanation
As long as the balloon is strong enough to hold the same pressure as the volleyball, air will fill the balloon until the pressure is equal. If the pressure in the volleyball is so strong that the balloon pops, then the pressurized air will drain out of the volleyball until the atmospheric pressure is reached. This is quite possible as the balloon is not nearly as thick as the volleyball.

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• 2.

### Air-activated heating pads work by converting oxygen and iron into iron oxide (rust). This process is exothermic (yields heat). A pad will last as long as 6 to 8 hours.If a person wanted to use a pad 6 times for one hour each time, which of the following would allow him to stop the chemical reaction quickly after each hour of use so that he reuse it again later?

• A.

Telling it to turn off

• B.

Telling it to turn off

• C.

Putting it in a sealed plastic bag

• D.

putting it in an open plastic bag

• E.

increasing the pressure around the pad

C. Putting it in a sealed plastic bag
Explanation
Oxygen composes approximately 20% of the gases in the atmosphere. Because the rusting of iron is a process that needs oxygen, if there is no oxygen, the reaction cannot occur. By placing the heating pad in an airtight plastic bag, the available oxygen in the bag will quickly run out and since no more oxygen can get in, the rest of the iron in the package will not be oxidized. This means that the leftover iron will remain un-rusted and the reaction will promptly restart the next time the package is used, releasing heat when it is needed.

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• 3.

### Air pumps are often used to pump up bicycle and vehicle tires.As Daphne pumped air into her bicycle tire she explained to her friend Daniel the reason why the tire gets firm when squeezed. Which of the following explanations correctly explains why tires get firm?

• A.

Air expands to fill the space it is in.

• B.

Air is loosely packed and can be compressed into smaller spaces, resulting in a higher pressure.

• C.

Air turns into a solid when it is squeezed into a small space.

• D.

The faster air moves, the less pressure it exerts.

B. Air is loosely packed and can be compressed into smaller spaces, resulting in a higher pressure.
Explanation
As more matter is forced in an enclosed space, the pressure increases. Each time the pump is pressed, more air is squeezed into the tire which results in higher pressure. It also becomes more difficult to pump as more and more air is struggling to escape the pressure in the tire and diffuse into the lower pressure of the atmosphere. This pressure of air trying to escape results in the tire becoming more firm as the pressure is exerted on the rubber.

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• 4.

### Clifford placed a sponge in the bottom of a glass and then turned it upside down and submersed it in a sink full of waterA property of air which explains why the sponge did not get wet is that

• A.

Air takes up space

• B.

Air contracts when cooled

• C.

air expands when heated

• D.

Air contains oxygen

A. Air takes up space
Explanation
The same volume of air can take up different amounts of space. The more pressurized the air is, the less space it takes up. This does not mean that some air disappears at high pressures, just that the existing air becomes more dense. The air inside of the plastic cup exerted enough pressure on the water outside of the cup that it only compressed slightly. If the cup were 10 or 20 meters underwater, the growing pressure from the water on top would probably pressurize the air to the extent that the water would touch the sponge. With the small pressure caused by the water in the sink, the air did not compress to a large extent, thus leaving the sponge dry

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• 5.

### The property of air best tested in a wind tunnel is that air

• A.

The property of air best tested in a wind tunnel is that air

• B.

Is invisible

• C.

Takes up space

• D.

Exerts pressure

D. Exerts pressure
Explanation
A wind tunnel tests air resistance by blowing high-speed air at various objects. This is useful in the design of aerodynamic structures ranging from cars to skis. In wind tunnel testing, the pressure that the air exerts on these objects measured. An aerodynamic design will receive the least air resistance (pressure).

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• 6.

### Hayley designed an air experiment she could perform at home to impress her family. She followed these procedures: Secure a candle in the middle of a glass baking dish with a few drops of wax. Add enough water to the pan so the height of the water is 2 cm. Add 2 drops of food coloring for added visual effect. Light the candle. Carefully placed a large jar upside down over the candle so that the top of the candle is not submerged in the water. Observe what happens. Hayley shows the results of her experiment.If Hayley was to repeat her experiment to include a smaller jar and a larger jar, which variable would be the manipulated or changing variable in this experiment?

• A.

The time taken for the flame to extinguish

• B.

The amount of air in the jars

• C.

The amount of water in the pan

• D.

The amount of water pulled into the jar when the flame is extinguished

B. The amount of air in the jars
Explanation
Controlled variables are those that remain constant. Manipulated variables are those that change. Since the amount of water in the basin stays the same, this is a constant variable while the amount of air inside the jar is a manipulated variable.

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• 7.

### Refer to the information in question 6.When the flame heats the air in the jar, the air

• A.

Expands

• B.

Contracts

• C.

Compresses

• D.

Gains mass

A. Expands
Explanation
Combustion reactions are exothermic. In other words, when ever something is burned, heat is released. As the candle burns, oxygen and wax (solidified paraffin) is converted to carbon dioxide and heat. Eventually the candle burns out as all the oxygen is gone. The air then cools down as the heat source is lost. This cooling process results in the contraction of the air as it cools. Water then fills the empty space left behind and the water level inside the jar rises.

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• 8.

### While at the zoo, Jonathan wondered why the Ostrich did not fly out of its enclosure.An ostrich can not fly because

• A.

The force of gravity is greater than the force of lift that their wings can generate

• B.

the force of gravity is less than the force of lift from their wings

• C.

Their is less pressure above their wings then below

• D.

their necks are too long

A. The force of gravity is greater than the force of lift that their wings can generate
Explanation
Animals have adaptations that allow them to live more easily in their environment. In the case of birds, there are two major adaptations that make them suited to flying. The first is the hollow bones that reduce the mass of the bird, and thus the gravitational pull downward. The second is the shape of the wings. Bird wings follow a similar shape to those of an airplane, except that the bottom side of the wing is not filled in. Because the air passing over the wing must travel over a longer curve than those below the wing, the air pressure above the wing is less than that below as faster moving air above the wing reduces air pressure. The higher pressure beneath the wings causes the bird to gain lift.

It is believed that many species of flightless birds became flightless as their natural predators became extinct or competition for resources became less fierce. As the life pattern of the ostrich changed, its bones began to become heavier and the wings to become too small to lift the heavy mass of the bird. The modern ostrich can no longer fly because the lift produced is not sufficient.

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• 9.

### A Cartesian diver uses the compressibility of air compared to water to rise and sink. Here, the diver is composed of a pen cap containing air with a piece of clay attached to the bottom. As the bottle is squeezed and released, the diver rises and sinks accordingly.This experiment demonstrates:

• A.

Bernoulli's Principle

• B.

Ohm's law

• C.

that air can be compressed more easily than water

• D.

that air can be compressed less easily than water

C. that air can be compressed more easily than water
Explanation
Water is difficult to compress, whereas air is easily compressed by hand.

The pressure exerted on the bottle when it squeezed compresses the air inside the pen cap rather than the water surrounding it. This means that the air in the pen cap takes less space and that more water can move in to take its place. Once enough water has accumulated, the buoyant force becomes insufficient to hold up all of the water in the cap, and the diver sinks. When the bottle is released, the pressure on the air in the cap subsides, and the trapped air expands once again, expelling the accumulated water and causing the cap to rise again.

Bernoulli's principle is unrelated; it states that faster moving fluids are less dense than slower moving fluids.

Ohm's law deals with electricity.

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• 10.

### On a calm spring day, Rene goes for a drive with his father to the local grocery store. On the way to the store, Rene rolls down the window and props his arm on the window sill. Rene moves his arm in the air as his dad drives.Which of Rene's hand positions is most likely to feel negative lift?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

C. C
Explanation
Air exerts pressure on objects that stand in its way. This pressure is referred to as air resistance when such pressure is seen as undesirable. While Rene was playing with the air, the efficiency of the car would have been slightly reduced as the aerodynamics of the car were compromised. Generally, an angle in the 40 to 50Â° range creates the most lift. Because Hand Position C has about a 10Â° slope downwards, it would probably cause negative lift as his hand is pulled downwards.

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• 11.

### On a calm spring day, Rene goes for a drive with his father to the local grocery store. On the way to the store, Rene rolls down the window and props his arm on the window sill. Rene moves his arm in the air as his dad drives.Rene's demonstration best shows which of the following properties of air?

• A.

Air contains oxygen

• B.

Air exerts pressure

• C.

Air expands when heated

• D.

Air can be compressed

B. Air exerts pressure
Explanation
Air exerts pressure on objects that stand in its way. This pressure is referred to as air resistance when such pressure is seen as undesirable. While Rene was playing with the air, the efficiency of the car would have been slightly reduced as the aerodynamics of the car were compromised.

Because there is almost no air in space, a spaceship will continue moving in almost uniform motion until either gravity changes its path or a thrust missile is fired off in the opposite direction of desired movement. The lack of air resistance also poses a problem to turning the spacecraft as there is no air to push off of.

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• 12.

### Stephanie recalls that air expands when heated and contracts when cooled. She decides to fill up four balloons and place them in different temperatures to test these properties of air.When testing for expansion and contraction, the two variables Stephanie would have to keep constant are the

• A.

The amount of light each balloon receives and the color of the balloons.

• B.

Type of material the balloons were made of and their color.

• C.

The color of the balloons and the time kept in the different locations

• D.

type of material the balloons were made of and the amount of air in each balloon

D. type of material the balloons were made of and the amount of air in each balloon
Explanation
Air exerts pressure on objects that stand in its way. This pressure is referred to as air resistance when such pressure is seen as undesirable. While Rene was playing with the air, the efficiency of the car would have been slightly reduced as the aerodynamics of the car were compromised. Hand Position D is not streamlined and would cause air resistance as air particles are forced to travel around the hand. It would also not create much lift as the angle is too steep. Generally, an angle in the 40 to 50 degree range creates the most lift.

The manipulated variable in this experiment is the temperature of the air in the balloon. In order to observe any change in the size of the balloon, the constant variables of the balloon composition and air volume must be the same.

If Stephanie keeps the constant variables, she will find that a balloon left at room temperature will stay the same. The balloon that is cooled will become smaller and the balloon that is heated will become bigger.

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• 13.

### A marshmallow has small bubbles of air inside allowing it to float in your hot chocolate.When heated in a microwave, the marshmallow will:

• A.

Expand

• B.

Implode

• C.

Remain unchanged

• D.

vaporize into a cloud of brown oxygen gas.

A. Expand
Explanation
Air expands as it is heated. This will cause the small bubbles in the marshmallow to grow in size and puff the marshmallow. This is nothing like the marshmallows that you roast over a camp fire and eat, but a huge puffball of solid bubbles.

Do not try this experiment at home without permission. It can ruin your microwave as the marshmallow expands and sticks to the sides of the appliance.

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• 14.

### Air pumps are often used to pump up bicycle and vehicle tires.Why are bicycle and vehicle tires not blown up with the air from your mouth?

• A.

The air from your mouth is not the right mix of gases

• B.

There is not enough force from your mouth to create the right amount of air pressure.

• C.

Your mouth can not compress air

• D.

The air from your mouth is too warm

B. There is not enough force from your mouth to create the right amount of air pressure.
Explanation
The tires made of vulcanized rubber can support a much larger pressure than your lungs. This means that it is not possible to inflate a tire to the sufficient pressure by simply using ones' breathing.

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• 15.

### One afternoon, Mrs. Peters class spent the afternoon at the airport watching the airplanes take off and land.The airplanes would speed down the runway until they lifted off the ground. Mrs. Peters once again reminded the class that planes lift off the ground because the

• A.

force of thrust is less than the force of gravity

• B.

Air resistance is equal to the force of thrust

• C.

Air below the wing is moving faster than the air above the wing

• D.

Air above the wing is moving faster than the air below the wing

B. Air resistance is equal to the force of thrust
Explanation
Bernoulli's principle states that as fluids move faster, they decrease in pressure. Lift on an airplane follows this principal because the wing is shaped such that the upper side has a curve while the lower side is flat. This causes air on top of the wing to move faster while air below moves slower since it needs to move a lesser distance to pass the wing. The lower pressure on top of the wing causes airplanes to move upward as the higher pressure below the wing pushes up on the plane.

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• 16.

### Which of the following is a role played by nitrogen in the earth's atmosphere?

• A.

It is a source of energy for human cellular function.

• B.

It is necessary for photosynthesis as plants convert it into sugar and oxygen

• C.

It regulates combustion by being a catalyst to the combustion reaction

• D.

It regulates combustion by reducing the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere

D. It regulates combustion by reducing the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere
Explanation
Combustion (burning) occurs when fuel burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. Nitrogen makes up approximately 78% of Earth's atmosphere. If the atmosphere was 100% oxygen, things would ignite very easily. Also, some metals that are somewhat stable in our current atmosphere (such as iron) would be very combustible. This is because the process of rusting converts metals and oxygen into metal-oxygen compounds (rust). Imagine having all of the iron on earth rust 5 times faster! The nitrogen in our atmosphere helps regulate combustion by limiting the amount of oxygen available in the air for combustion and corrosion reactions.

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• 17.

### The teacher prepared a water basin by filling it half full with very cold water. He placed it beside a Bunsen burner. He then measured 25 ml of water using a graduated cylinder, and poured it into an empty 355 ml pop can. He turned on the Bunsen burner and heated the can with the water in it until it began to boil. He then removed the can from the flame using tongs, quickly flipped it upside down into the basin of cold water (so that the hot water remained inside the can), and held it in place.

• A.

Explode

• B.

Implode

• C.

Increase in tempreture

• D.

Rust

B. Implode
Explanation
At the beginning of the experiment, the can is partially filled with air and partially filled with liquid water. After heating the can for a while, the can becomes filled with hot air (including water vapor) and hot liquid water. The heated contents put a lot of outward pressure on the can walls. By placing the can upside-down in the basin, he created a sudden region of low pressure in the can, because as the water and gases cool and condense they take up less room. The pressure in the can suddenly decreases but the pressure outside of the can stays the same. This causes the can to crumple under the pressure and implode because high-pressure regions move toward or push in on low-pressure regions.

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• 18.

### This is a photo of Edmonton, Alberta's 1987 tornado. During a tornado, what type of structure would be most resistant?

• A.

A rectangular building

• B.

an oil refinery

• C.

An aerodynamic car

C. An aerodynamic car
Explanation
Aerodynamic structures experience the least air resistance. This is ideal for high winds because the air will pass easily over and around the structure without exerting a large force on it.

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• 19.

### Will is climbing a high mountain. Near the summit of 3000 meters, he finds himself having a hard time breathing and feeling nauseous. This situation, called altitude sickness is caused by:

• A.

higher atmospheric pressure

• B.

being so high up that there are more UV rays

• C.

the ozone layer is poisonous

• D.

Lower atmospheric pressure

D. Lower atmospheric pressure
Explanation
Because the air at higher altitudes has less air above it, it in turn is less pressurized and thus less dense. The human body needs a good supply of oxygen in order for cellular respiration to occur, and the reduced oxygen densities at higher altitudes can cause health problems as not enough oxygen is available for the body.

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• 20.

### On a hot day in July, Neil walked off the concrete sidewalk onto the black asphalt street with bare feet. He quickly jumped back onto the concrete sidewalk when he felt the heat on his feet. As he stood on the sidewalk, he watched the heat shimmer off the asphalt.The heat appears to shimmer off the asphalt because the heat

• A.

causes the air to contract more than the surrounding air

• B.

makes the air more dense that the surrounding air

• C.

Makes the air less dense than the surrounding air

• D.

Creates steam in the air

C. Makes the air less dense than the surrounding air
Explanation
As air heats up, the particles get sent further apart. In this process, the air becomes less dense. As the hot air immediately above the asphalt convects into the cold air above, the shimmering effect occurs as the air forms small scale wind patterns.

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• 21.

### Daniel Bernoulli's experiments with fluids leads to an understanding about how

• A.

ships sail

• B.

Airplanes create lift

• C.

Parachutes float

• D.

Hot air balloons fly

B. Airplanes create lift
Explanation
Bernoulli's principle states that as fluids move faster, they decrease in pressure. Lift on an airplane follows this principal because the wing is shaped such that the upper side has a curve while the lower side is flat. This causes air on top of the wing to move faster while air below moves slower since it needs to move a lesser distance to pass the wing. The lower pressure on top of the wing causes airplanes to move upward as the higher pressure below the wing pushes up on the plane.

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• 22.

### Paintball is a growing sport that involves shooting balls filled with vegetable-oil based paint. The paintball gun operates through a compressed air or CO2 (carbon dioxide) tank.Why would carbon dioxide or compressed air be used over other gases such as oxygen?

• A.

Carbon dioxide is the most common gas in the atmosphere

• B.

• C.

Oxygen is more difficult to pressurize than other atmospheric gases

• D.

Carbon dioxide does not cause global warming

• E.

Oxygen is unstable and ignites too easily.

E. Oxygen is unstable and ignites too easily.
Explanation
Compressed gases can be very dangerous. In a sport like paintball, which is already quite dangerous, the possibility of the air tank bursting into flame is not desirable. Thus, stable gases, such as carbon dioxide, are used. Other benefits include the fact that carbon dioxide is easy to manufacture and is non-toxic in the low concentrations that are dispersed from the gun.

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• 23.

### Each morning, Monica sprays her hair with a can of hair spray. When she presses the nozzle, the mixture comes out because the hair spray is

• A.

Cooler than the air

• B.

Flammable

• C.

Stored as a gas

• D.

Under pressure

D. Under pressure
Explanation
The hair spray is pressurized.This means that particles of hair spray are forced into the can, making the particles inside the can very dense. Because the particles in the surrounding air are less tightly packed, particles from the can escape into the lower atmospheric pressure (pressure of the atmosphere) and distribute themselves outside of the can. In the process, they become less tightly packed.

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• 24.

### When using a computer keyboard cleaner, you notice that the can becomes very cold as the air is released. This is because the air:

• A.

Contracts as it escapes the can

• B.

Gets angry about being forced into a can for so long and gets cold with rage. ( this is called the djinni in a bottle effect)

• C.

Expands and adsorbs heat as it escapes the can

• D.

Expands and absorbs cold as it escapes the can

C. Expands and adsorbs heat as it escapes the can
Explanation
The keyboard cleaner is pressurized. This means that particles of air are forced into the can, making the particles inside the can very dense. Because the particles in the surrounding air are less tightly packed, particles from the can escape into the lower atmospheric pressure (pressure of the atmosphere) and distribute themselves outside of the can. In the process, they become less tightly packed and thus warmer. The process is endothermic (takes in heat) as energy is absorbed into the expanding particles.

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• 25.

### Which of the following is a role played by nitrogen in the earth's atmosphere?

• A.

It is a source of energy for human cellular function.

• B.

It is necessary for photosynthesis as plants convert it into sugar and oxygen.

• C.

It regulates combustion by being a catalyst to the combustion reaction.

• D.

It regulates combustion by reducing the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere.

D. It regulates combustion by reducing the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere.
Explanation
Combustion (burning) occurs when fuel burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. Nitrogen makes up approximately 78% of Earth's atmosphere. If the atmosphere was 100% oxygen, things would ignite very easily. Also, some metals that are somewhat stable in our current atmosphere (such as iron) would be very combustible. This is because the process of rusting converts metals and oxygen into metal-oxygen compounds (rust). Imagine having all of the iron on earth rust 5 times faster! The nitrogen in our atmosphere helps regulate combustion by limiting the amount of oxygen available in the air for combustion and corrosion reactions.

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• 26.

### Emily placed the short end of a letter-sized sheet of paper against her lower lip and then blew over the top of the paper.The results of this experiment demonstrate

• A.

Bernoulli's principle

• B.

Newton's third law

• C.

Galileo's gravitational theories

• D.

Einstein's theory of relativity

A. Bernoulli's principle
Explanation
When Emily blew over the top of the paper, the air flow created a decrease in pressure on the upper surface of the paper. According to Bernoulli's principle, as the air speed increases, the pressure decreases. This pressure difference caused the paper to lift up towards Emily's face, demonstrating the principle.

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• 27.

### Mr. Boron attended a community garage sale on the weekend. While browsing through the sale items, he noticed a number of items that were designed with air in mind.Which of the following items found at the garage sale would have likely been tested in a wind tunnel for streamlined shaping?

• A.

Lawn mower

• B.

Iron

• C.

Golf ball

• D.

Beach umbrella

C. Golf ball
Explanation
Streamlining involves the addition of curves to structural design to reduce air resistance to objects that need to be aerodynamic. Balls are fast moving structures that must be designed to be aerodynamic with the addition of streamlines. Such objects would be tested for air resistance levels with a wind tunnel.

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• 28.

### While Mrs. Peters' class watched planes take off at the airport, Wayne recalled that in order for a plane or bird to fly

• A.

lift must be equal to thrust

• B.

thrust must be less than drag

• C.

Gravity must equal drag

• D.

lift must be greater than gravity

D. lift must be greater than gravity
Explanation
In flight, lift and weight (gravity) play a tug-of-war role. If the lift force is greater than weight (gravity), then the airplane rises. If the weight (gravity) force is greater than lift, then the airplane falls (or stays on the ground). The following diagram illustrates this. Note that for our purposes, weight and gravity are synonymous.

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• 29.

### According to Bernoulli's Principle, the winds in-between buildings would be ____ than those unaffected by buildings.

• A.

More pressurized

• B.

Less pressurized

• C.

More dense

• D.

Less fast

B. Less pressurized
Explanation
Bernoulli's principle states that as fluids move faster, they decrease in pressure. Thus, the faster moving air between buildings would be of lesser pressure.

Lift on an airplane follows this principal because the wing is shaped such that the upper side has a curve while the lower side is flat. This causes air on top of the wing to move faster than the air moving the wing. The lower pressure on top of the wing causes airplanes to move upward as the higher pressure below the wing pushes up on the plane.

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• 30.

### Airplanes and sports cars are streamlined to reduce

• A.

Thrust

• B.

Drag

• C.

Gravity

• D.

Lift

B. Drag
Explanation
Drag is the opposing force against moving objects. It is caused by the air resistance as the atmosphere is displaced by a moving object. The less air that needs to be pushed out of the way, the less energy is wasted to air resistance. Streamlines are curves used in structural designs. A streamlined shape allows air to pass over an object more easily, reducing drag.

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• 31.

### The huge underground gas and oil deposits will not light on fire easily. The lack of which of the following gases protects the resource from being burnt off?

• A.

Natural gas

• B.

methane

• C.

Carbon dioxide

• D.

Oxygen

• E.

Nitrogen

D. Oxygen
Explanation
Because oxygen is necessary for combustion, the gas resources will not ignite unless air is allowed into the oil beds. Luckily, the oil beds are far from the surface and little air is available for combustion.

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• 32.

### What happens to wind as it passes in between large buildings and skyscrapers?

• A.

It speeds up

• B.

It slows down

A. It speeds up
Explanation
While some oncoming wind is diverted over buildings, the majority is forced into the channels between the buildings, causing unusually fast wind gusts as more air is forced into a smaller channel. This is why winds in the city center are often stronger than those in the suburbs.

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• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Feb 23, 2011
Quiz Created by
Harshilbhesania

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