AHS 110 Cumulative Review I

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AHS 110 Cumulative Review I - Quiz


Contains information from lectures 1-9 (Midterm I material). I didn't go into depth on the individual vitamins and minerals. Dern it, I need a matching option on this thing.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Fat is stored as a chemical called:

    • A.

      Triacylglycerol

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Glycogen

    Correct Answer
    A. Triacylglycerol
    Explanation
    Fat is stored in the body as a chemical called triacylglycerol. Triacylglycerol is a type of lipid that consists of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule. It is the primary form in which excess dietary fat is stored in adipose tissue for later use as energy. This storage form allows the body to efficiently store large amounts of energy in a compact and stable form.

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  • 2. 

    The breakdown of nutrients, generating energy and heat, is called:

    • A.

      Catabolism

    • B.

      Anabolism

    • C.

      Metabolism

    Correct Answer
    A. Catabolism
    Explanation
    Catabolism refers to the breakdown of nutrients in the body to generate energy and heat. It is the process by which complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones, releasing energy in the process. Anabolism, on the other hand, is the process of building complex molecules from simpler ones. Metabolism, however, is a broader term that encompasses both catabolism and anabolism, as it refers to all the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain life.

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  • 3. 

    The chemical inter-conversion of nutrients to supply energy for life or to build cellular and organ structures is called:

    • A.

      Catabolism

    • B.

      Anabolism

    • C.

      Metabolism

    Correct Answer
    C. Metabolism
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur within an organism to convert nutrients into energy or to build cellular and organ structures. It encompasses both catabolism, which involves the breakdown of complex molecules to release energy, and anabolism, which involves the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones. Therefore, metabolism is the correct answer as it encompasses both catabolism and anabolism.

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  • 4. 

    The synthesis of new compounds is called:

    • A.

      Catabolism

    • B.

      Anabolism

    • C.

      Metabolism

    Correct Answer
    B. Anabolism
    Explanation
    Anabolism refers to the process of synthesizing new compounds in an organism. It involves the building up of complex molecules from simpler ones, typically requiring energy input. This process is essential for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body's tissues. Catabolism, on the other hand, is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, releasing energy in the process. Metabolism is a broader term that encompasses both anabolism and catabolism, referring to all the chemical reactions that occur in an organism to maintain life.

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  • 5. 

    Glucose is:

    • A.

      Blood sugar

    • B.

      Table sugar

    • C.

      Fruit sugar

    Correct Answer
    A. Blood sugar
    Explanation
    Glucose is referred to as blood sugar because it is the primary source of energy for the body's cells and is transported through the bloodstream. It is produced when carbohydrates are broken down during digestion and is then used by cells for various metabolic processes. Therefore, glucose is commonly measured in blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels, which can indicate conditions such as diabetes.

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  • 6. 

    Fructose is:

    • A.

      Blood sugar

    • B.

      Table sugar

    • C.

      Fruit sugar

    Correct Answer
    C. Fruit sugar
    Explanation
    Fructose is a type of sugar that is naturally found in fruits. It is commonly referred to as "fruit sugar" because it is the primary sugar found in most fruits. Unlike table sugar, which is a combination of glucose and fructose, fructose is a simple sugar that is easily digested and absorbed by the body. It is often used as a sweetener in processed foods and beverages.

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  • 7. 

    Sucrose

    • A.

      Blood sugar

    • B.

      Table sugar

    • C.

      Fruit sugar

    Correct Answer
    B. Table sugar
    Explanation
    Table sugar, also known as sucrose, is the correct answer. Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose. It is commonly found in table sugar and is often used as a sweetener in food and beverages. When consumed, sucrose is broken down into glucose and fructose, which can then be used as a source of energy by the body. Therefore, table sugar can impact blood sugar levels when consumed.

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  • 8. 

    The building blocks of carbohydrates are:

    • A.

      Polypeptides

    • B.

      Monosaccharides

    • C.

      Amino Acids

    Correct Answer
    B. Monosaccharides
    Explanation
    Monosaccharides are the correct answer because they are the basic units or building blocks of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into smaller sugar molecules. They are the main source of energy for the body and can be found in foods like fruits, vegetables, and grains. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose.

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  • 9. 

    Major essential fatty acids are:

    • A.

      Ascorbic acid

    • B.

      Linoleic acid

    • C.

      Arachidonic acid

    • D.

      Linolenic acid

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Linoleic acid
    C. Arachidonic acid
    D. Linolenic acid
    Explanation
    The major essential fatty acids are linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and linolenic acid. These fatty acids are essential for the body as they cannot be synthesized and must be obtained from the diet. Linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, regulating metabolism, and supporting the immune system. Arachidonic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid that is important for brain development, inflammation response, and the production of hormones. Linolenic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid that is important for brain function, reducing inflammation, and supporting heart health.

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  • 10. 

    The order of energy utilization is:

    • A.

      Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids

    • B.

      Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids

    • C.

      Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins

    Correct Answer
    C. Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are the first source of energy because they are easily broken down into glucose, which is the preferred fuel for the body. Lipids are the second source of energy because they are more complex and take longer to break down, but they provide a longer-lasting and sustained energy. Proteins are the last source of energy because they are primarily used for building and repairing tissues, and are only used as an energy source when carbohydrates and lipids are not available.

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  • 11. 

    Vitamins are organic, energy-producing, chemical cofactors of metabolic reactions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Vitamins are organic, NON-energy producing, chemical cofactors of metabolic reactions.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following are TRUE about minerals

    • A.

      Non-energy producing

    • B.

      Organic

    • C.

      Efficiently stored by the body

    • D.

      Cofactors of metabolic reactions

    • E.

      Classified as fat soluble or water soluble

    • F.

      Deficiencies are usually observed in livestock

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Non-energy producing
    D. Cofactors of metabolic reactions
    F. Deficiencies are usually observed in livestock
    Explanation
    Minerals are inorganic and poorly stored by the body. Vitamins, not minerals are classified as fat or water soluble.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following animals are omnivores?

    • A.

      Mice

    • B.

      Ruminants

    • C.

      Gerbils

    • D.

      Cats

    • E.

      Lizards

    • F.

      Hamsters

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Mice
    C. Gerbils
    E. Lizards
    F. Hamsters
    Explanation
    Omnivore include: Dogs, rats, mice, birds, lizards, hamsters (sometimes chelonians)

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  • 14. 

    Which phase is characterized by an easily digestible diet?

    • A.

      Suckling

    • B.

      Weaning

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      Maturation

    • E.

      Adulthood/Maintenance

    • F.

      Aging

    • G.

      Pregnancy/Lactation

    Correct Answer
    A. Suckling
    Explanation
    The phase characterized by an easily digestible diet is the suckling phase. During this phase, young animals, particularly mammals, primarily rely on their mother's milk for nutrition. Milk is easily digestible and provides all the necessary nutrients for the growing offspring. As the offspring matures and starts to consume solid food, the diet becomes less easily digestible. Therefore, the suckling phase is the correct answer.

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  • 15. 

    Which phase is characterized by bone and muscle development

    • A.

      Suckling

    • B.

      Weaning

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      Adulthood/Maintenance

    • E.

      Aging

    • F.

      Pregnancy/Lactation

    Correct Answer
    C. Growth
    Explanation
    The phase characterized by bone and muscle development is the growth phase. During this phase, the body undergoes significant changes and growth, including the development and strengthening of bones and muscles. This phase is crucial for overall physical development and is typically observed during childhood and adolescence.

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  • 16. 

    Which phase is characterized as a transition period?

    • A.

      Suckling

    • B.

      Weaning

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      Maturation

    • E.

      Adulthood/Maintenance

    • F.

      Aging

    • G.

      Pregnancy/Lactation

    Correct Answer
    B. Weaning
    Explanation
    Weaning is characterized as a transition period because it is the process of gradually introducing solid foods to a baby's diet while reducing their dependency on breastfeeding or formula feeding. It marks the transition from exclusive milk feeding to a more varied and solid food diet. During this phase, the baby's digestive system matures, and they learn to eat and digest different types of foods. It is an important milestone in a baby's development as they transition from being solely reliant on milk to being able to consume a wider range of foods for nutrition.

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  • 17. 

    Which phase is characterized by steady body condition?

    • A.

      Suckling

    • B.

      Weaning

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      Maturation

    • E.

      Adulthood/Maintenance

    • F.

      Aging

    • G.

      Pregnancy/Lactation

    Correct Answer
    E. Adulthood/Maintenance
    Explanation
    Adulthood/Maintenance is the phase characterized by steady body condition. During this phase, the body has reached its full growth and development, and the individual is no longer experiencing rapid changes in body composition. The goal of this phase is to maintain a stable body condition, which includes maintaining a healthy weight, muscle mass, and overall health. This phase typically occurs after the growth phase and before the aging phase, where the body starts to experience gradual decline in function.

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  • 18. 

    Which phase is characterized by increased fat production?

    • A.

      Suckling

    • B.

      Weaning

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      Maturation

    • E.

      Adulthood/Maintenance

    • F.

      Aging

    • G.

      Pregnancy/Lactation

    Correct Answer
    D. Maturation
    Explanation
    During the phase of maturation, there is an increase in fat production. This is because maturation is a period of growth and development where the body undergoes various physiological changes, including the accumulation of fat stores. This increase in fat production is important for providing energy reserves and insulation for the body.

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  • 19. 

    Which phase is characterized by decreased nutritional requirements and a highly digestible diet?

    • A.

      Suckling

    • B.

      Weaning

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      Maturation

    • E.

      Adulthood/Maintenance

    • F.

      Aging

    • G.

      Pregnancy/Lactation

    Correct Answer
    F. Aging
    Explanation
    Aging is the phase characterized by decreased nutritional requirements and a highly digestible diet. As individuals age, their metabolic rate decreases and their body's ability to absorb and utilize nutrients becomes less efficient. Therefore, they require fewer calories and nutrients overall, but it is important that the diet is highly digestible to ensure proper absorption and utilization of nutrients.

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  • 20. 

    Which phase is characterized by overall increased nutrient demands?

    • A.

      Suckling

    • B.

      Weaning

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      Maturation

    • E.

      Adulthood/Maintenance

    • F.

      Aging

    • G.

      Pregnancy/Lactation

    Correct Answer
    G. Pregnancy/Lactation
    Explanation
    During pregnancy and lactation, the body undergoes significant physiological changes to support the growth and development of the fetus and the production of milk. These changes increase the overall nutrient demands of the body. The mother's body requires additional nutrients such as protein, calcium, iron, and vitamins to support the growth of the fetus and the production of breast milk. Therefore, the phase characterized by overall increased nutrient demands is pregnancy/lactation.

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  • 21. 

    Dogs and cats are born precocial.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Dogs and cats are born altricial.

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  • 22. 

    Ruminants, horses, and guinea pigs are born altricial.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    They are born precocial.

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  • 23. 

    During weaning, the animal must adapt to a wet, highly digestible diet, from a drier, more varied and less digestible diet.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The reverse is true - a weaning animal must adapt to a driver, more varied and less digestible diet.

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  • 24. 

    The primary purpose of feeding management in early growth is to establish ______   _______   _______ for the lifetime of the animal

    Correct Answer
    good eating habits
    Explanation
    The primary purpose of feeding management in early growth is to establish good eating habits for the lifetime of the animal. This means that during the early stages of growth, it is crucial to provide proper nutrition and feeding practices to ensure that the animal develops healthy eating habits that will benefit them throughout their life. By establishing good eating habits early on, the animal will be more likely to maintain a balanced diet and avoid potential health issues related to poor nutrition.

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  • 25. 

    The order of primary growth is:

    • A.

      Internal organs, bones, muscles, fat

    • B.

      Fat, bones, muscles, internal organs

    • C.

      Muscle, internal organs, bone, fat

    • D.

      Internal organs, muscle, bone, fat

    Correct Answer
    C. Muscle, internal organs, bone, fat
    Explanation
    The correct order of primary growth is muscle, internal organs, bone, fat. This means that during primary growth, muscle development occurs first, followed by the growth and development of internal organs, then bone growth, and finally the accumulation of fat.

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  • 26. 

    __________ is the increase in number of cells.

    Correct Answer
    Hyperplasia
    Explanation
    Hyperplasia refers to the increase in the number of cells. It is a physiological response to certain stimuli or conditions, such as hormonal changes or tissue damage. This increase in cell number can occur in various tissues and organs in the body. Hyperplasia is different from hypertrophy, which refers to the increase in cell size.

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  • 27. 

    ________ is the increase in size of cells.

    Correct Answer
    Hypertrophy
    Explanation
    Hypertrophy is the increase in size of cells.

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  • 28. 

    Smaller animals reach mature weight ________

    Correct Answer
    faster
    sooner
    earlier
    Explanation
    Smaller animals reach mature weight faster, sooner, or earlier compared to larger animals. This means that the growth and development process of smaller animals is quicker than that of larger animals.

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  • 29. 

    Maturity of an animal is characterized by a shift from primary fat production to primary muscle production.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    It is characterized by the shift from primary MUSCLE production to fat production.

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  • 30. 

    Maturity is characterized by a/an ________ in nutrient requirements and a/an _________ in metabolic rate.

    • A.

      Decrease, increase

    • B.

      Decrease, decrease

    • C.

      Increase, decrease

    • D.

      Increase, increase

    Correct Answer
    B. Decrease, decrease
    Explanation
    Maturity is the stage of development where growth stops and an organism reaches its full size. At this stage, the organism's nutrient requirements decrease because it no longer needs as many nutrients for growth. Additionally, the metabolic rate also decreases because the organism no longer needs to generate as much energy for growth. Therefore, the correct answer is "decrease, decrease".

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  • 31. 

    If the synthetsis of triacylglycercol is greater than breakdown, the total amount of fat _________.

    Correct Answer
    increases
    Explanation
    If the synthesis of triacylglycerol is greater than the breakdown, it means that more fat is being produced than being broken down. This results in an overall increase in the total amount of fat in the body.

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  • 32. 

    Prior to actual pregnancy, breeding does not affect nutrient requirements.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Breeding does not affect nutrient requirements prior to actual pregnancy because during this time, the female animal is not yet pregnant and therefore does not require additional nutrients to support the growth and development of the fetus. Nutrient requirements typically increase during pregnancy to provide adequate nutrition for the developing offspring.

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  • 33. 

    During lactation, the nutrient needs of the femal increases up to ___ times her maintenance requirements.

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      3

    Correct Answer
    C. 5
    Explanation
    During lactation, the nutrient needs of the female increase up to 5 times her maintenance requirements. This is because the female needs to produce enough milk to nourish her offspring, which requires a higher intake of nutrients. The increased demand for nutrients during lactation is necessary to support the growth and development of the young.

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  • 34. 

    The basic units of matter are ________

    Correct Answer
    atoms
    Explanation
    Atoms are the basic units of matter. They are the smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical properties of that element. Atoms combine together to form molecules and compounds. They consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Each element is made up of a unique type of atom, and the different arrangements and combinations of atoms give rise to the wide variety of substances found in the universe. Therefore, atoms are considered the fundamental building blocks of matter.

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  • 35. 

    Carbon has ____ outer electrons, in a shell than can hold ____.

    • A.

      4, 8

    • B.

      8, 4

    • C.

      2, 4

    • D.

      4, 2

    Correct Answer
    A. 4, 8
    Explanation
    Carbon has 4 outer electrons, in a shell that can hold 8. This means that carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost energy level, which is also known as the valence shell. The valence shell of carbon can hold a maximum of 8 electrons, so carbon still has room to gain or lose 4 more electrons to achieve a stable octet configuration.

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  • 36. 

    Methyl:

    • A.

      OH

    • B.

      CH3

    • C.

      NH3+

    • D.

      COOH

    Correct Answer
    B. CH3
    Explanation
    The correct answer is CH3. This is the chemical formula for a methyl group, which consists of a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms. It is commonly found in organic compounds and is often used as a substituent in chemical reactions.

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  • 37. 

    Amino group

    • A.

      OH

    • B.

      CH3

    • C.

      NH3+

    • D.

      COOH

    Correct Answer
    C. NH3+
    Explanation
    The correct answer is NH3+. This is because NH3+ represents the amino group, which consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms. The other options in the given list do not represent an amino group.

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  • 38. 

    Carboxyl group:

    • A.

      OH

    • B.

      CH3

    • C.

      NH3+

    • D.

      COOH

    Correct Answer
    D. COOH
    Explanation
    The correct answer is COOH because the structure provided shows a carboxyl group. The carboxyl group consists of a carbonyl group (C=O) and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the same carbon atom. In the given structure, the COOH represents the carboxyl group, with the OH representing the hydroxyl group and the C=O representing the carbonyl group.

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  • 39. 

    Hydroxyl group:

    • A.

      OH

    • B.

      CH3

    • C.

      NH3+

    • D.

      COOH

    Correct Answer
    A. OH
    Explanation
    The correct answer is OH. A hydroxyl group consists of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, represented as OH. In organic chemistry, hydroxyl groups are commonly found in alcohols and phenols, and they are important functional groups that can participate in various chemical reactions.

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  • 40. 

    In a condensation reaction, water is _____.

    Correct Answer
    released
    Explanation
    In a condensation reaction, water is released. This means that during the reaction, two molecules combine to form a larger molecule, and in the process, a water molecule is eliminated as a byproduct. This can occur in various chemical reactions, such as the formation of esters or peptides, where the removal of water allows for the formation of new bonds between the molecules involved.

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  • 41. 

    Carbohydrates are:

    • A.

      Sugars

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Fats

    • D.

      Starches

    • E.

      Cellulose

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sugars
    D. Starches
    E. Cellulose
    Explanation
    Carbohydrates are organic compounds that consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are a major source of energy for the body. Sugars, starches, and cellulose are all types of carbohydrates. Sugars are simple carbohydrates that are easily broken down by the body to provide quick energy. Starches are complex carbohydrates that are made up of many sugar molecules linked together. They are a good source of sustained energy. Cellulose is a type of carbohydrate found in plant cell walls and is indigestible by humans. It provides structure and support to plants.

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  • 42. 

    Glycogen serves as ________ storage.

    Correct Answer(s)
    sugar
    carbohydrate
    Explanation
    Glycogen serves as a storage form of sugar and carbohydrate. It is a polysaccharide that is formed by the liver and muscles to store glucose. When the body needs energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose to fuel various cellular processes. Therefore, glycogen acts as a reserve of sugar and carbohydrate in the body.

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  • 43. 

    When energy stores are depleted, liver cells will break down _______ and release glucose subunits.

    Correct Answer(s)
    glycogen
    Explanation
    When energy stores are depleted, liver cells will break down glycogen and release glucose subunits. Glycogen is a polysaccharide that serves as a stored form of glucose in the liver and muscles. When the body needs energy, liver cells break down glycogen through a process called glycogenolysis and release glucose molecules into the bloodstream. This glucose can then be used by cells throughout the body for energy production.

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  • 44. 

    Lipids are made up of ______  ______.

    Correct Answer(s)
    fatty acids
    Explanation
    Lipids are organic molecules that are made up of fatty acids. Fatty acids are long chains of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group at one end. They are an essential component of lipids and play a crucial role in various biological processes. Lipids are important for energy storage, insulation, and the formation of cell membranes. Therefore, the correct answer to the question is "fatty acids".

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  • 45. 

    The function group of lipids/fatty acids are:

    • A.

      Methyl groups

    • B.

      Carboxyl groups

    • C.

      Hydroxyl groups

    Correct Answer
    B. Carboxyl groups
    Explanation
    Lipids and fatty acids are organic molecules that contain a long hydrocarbon chain and a carboxyl group (-COOH) at one end. The carboxyl group is responsible for the acidic properties of lipids and fatty acids. It can donate a proton (H+) and is involved in various chemical reactions, such as esterification and hydrolysis. Therefore, carboxyl groups are an essential functional group in lipids and fatty acids.

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  • 46. 

    Saturated fatty acids have ______ bonds,  unsaturated _____ bonds.

    • A.

      Single, double

    • B.

      Double, single

    • C.

      Single, single

    • D.

      Triple, double

    Correct Answer
    A. Single, double
    Explanation
    Saturated fatty acids have single bonds, while unsaturated fatty acids have double bonds.

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  • 47. 

    Responsible for most functions of life

    • A.

      Lipids

    • B.

      Carbohydrates

    • C.

      Vitamins

    • D.

      Proteins

    Correct Answer
    D. Proteins
    Explanation
    Proteins are responsible for most functions of life. They are involved in various biological processes such as cell structure, enzyme activity, transportation of molecules, and immune response. Proteins are made up of amino acids and have a diverse range of functions in the body. They play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of cells and tissues, and are essential for growth, repair, and regulation of the body's systems.

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  • 48. 

    ______  _______ are the building blocks of proteins.

    Correct Answer
    Amino acids
    amino acids
    Explanation
    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. Each amino acid has a unique structure and side chain that determines its specific properties and function. Therefore, amino acids play a crucial role in the structure and function of proteins.

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  • 49. 

    ___ binds to thymine.

    • A.

      Cytosine

    • B.

      Guanine

    • C.

      Adenine

    Correct Answer
    C. Adenine
    Explanation
    Adenine binds to thymine in DNA through hydrogen bonding. Adenine and thymine form a complementary base pair, where adenine pairs with thymine with two hydrogen bonds. This base pairing is essential for the stability and replication of DNA.

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  • 50. 

    Guanine binds to _____

    • A.

      Cytosine

    • B.

      Thymine

    • C.

      Adenine

    Correct Answer
    A. Cytosine
    Explanation
    Guanine binds to cytosine. In DNA, guanine and cytosine form a complementary base pair, where guanine always pairs with cytosine. This is due to the specific hydrogen bonding patterns between the nitrogenous bases. The pairing of guanine with cytosine is a fundamental aspect of DNA structure and plays a crucial role in DNA replication and protein synthesis.

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