Chapter 26 Philosophy Test

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Chapter 26 Philosophy Test - Quiz

Philosophy gives us a door into the truth about us and the world in which we live in. Having taken philosophy throughout the past week and already covered chapter 26 it is now time for the test. Take up the quiz below to help you prepare for the upcoming test.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

     Aesthetic stage of life:

    • A.

      In Kierkegaard philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by the pursuit of his own satisfaction and enjoyment

    • B.

      In Hildegaard's philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by a commitment to a life of moral duty that admits no exceptions in one's own favor

    • C.

      In Kierkegaard philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by a trust in God that is not based on reason but on a "leap of faith."

    Correct Answer
    A. In Kierkegaard philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by the pursuit of his own satisfaction and enjoyment
  • 2. 

    Ethical stage of life:

    • A.

      In Kierkegaard philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by the pursuit of his own satisfaction and enjoyment

    • B.

      In Kierkegaard's philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by a commitment to a life of moral duty that admits no exceptions in one's own favor

    • C.

      In Kierkegaard's philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by a trust in God that is not based on reason but on a "leap of faith."

    Correct Answer
    B. In Kierkegaard's philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by a commitment to a life of moral duty that admits no exceptions in one's own favor
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the ethical stage of life, according to Kierkegaard's philosophy, is a lifestyle characterized by a commitment to moral duty without making any exceptions in one's own favor. This means that individuals in the ethical stage prioritize their moral obligations and adhere to them strictly, without allowing personal desires or self-interest to interfere. It emphasizes the importance of acting morally and responsibly in all circumstances, regardless of personal gain or benefit.

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  • 3. 

    Religious stage of life:

    • A.

      In Kierkegaard's philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by a trust in God that is not based on reason but on a "leap of faith."

    • B.

      In Kierkegaard's philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by a commitment to a life of moral duty that admits no exceptions in one's own favor

    • C.

      In Kierkegaard philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by the pursuit of his own satisfaction and enjoyment

    Correct Answer
    A. In Kierkegaard's philosophy, a lifestyle characterized by a trust in God that is not based on reason but on a "leap of faith."
    Explanation
    The religious stage of life in Kierkegaard's philosophy is characterized by a trust in God that goes beyond rationality and is based on a "leap of faith." This means that individuals in this stage fully rely on their belief in God, even when it may not be supported by logical reasoning or evidence. It emphasizes the importance of surrendering to God's will and trusting in His guidance, rather than relying solely on human understanding. This stage represents a deep commitment to one's faith and a willingness to embrace the uncertainties and mysteries of religious belief.

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  • 4. 

    The idea that man has no purpose is central to the ideas of:

    • A.

      Karl Marx

    • B.

      G.W.F. Hegel

    • C.

      Charles Darwin

    Correct Answer
    C. Charles Darwin
    Explanation
    Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection suggests that human beings, like all living organisms, have evolved through a process that is not guided by any predetermined purpose or plan. According to Darwin, the diversity of species and the complexity of life can be explained by the gradual accumulation of small variations over time, driven by the mechanisms of natural selection. This view challenges the notion of a divine purpose or design in the creation of life, and instead emphasizes the role of chance and adaptation in shaping the development of species, including humans.

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  • 5. 

    The idea that human history is progressing toward a goal of fuller achievement of human freedom and reason is central to the philosophy of:

    • A.

      Karl Marx

    • B.

      G.W.F. Hegel

    • C.

      Charles Darwin

    Correct Answer
    B. G.W.F. Hegel
    Explanation
    G.W.F. Hegel's philosophy is centered around the concept of historical progress and the development of human freedom and reason. He believed that history is driven by a dialectical process, where conflicts and contradictions lead to the advancement of human consciousness and the realization of freedom. Hegel's idea of the "Spirit" or "Geist" evolving through history towards a higher state of self-awareness aligns with the notion that human history is progressing towards a goal of fuller achievement of human freedom and reason. This idea is not central to Karl Marx's philosophy, which focuses more on social and economic inequality, or Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, which is primarily concerned with the natural world.

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  • 6. 

    The ideas of Karl Marx are best described as:

    • A.

      Darwinian

    • B.

      Existentialist

    • C.

      Hegelian

    Correct Answer
    C. Hegelian
    Explanation
    The ideas of Karl Marx can be best described as Hegelian. This is because Marx was heavily influenced by the philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, particularly his dialectical method. Marx adapted Hegel's dialectics to develop his theory of historical materialism, which suggests that societal progress occurs through the conflict between social classes. Marx's ideas also emphasize the importance of historical context and the struggle for power and resources. Therefore, describing Marx's ideas as Hegelian accurately captures the philosophical foundation of his work.

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  • 7. 

    The view that meaning in life can be found in ourselves and our inner choices is associated with which philosopher?

    • A.

      Jean-Paul Sartre

    • B.

      G.W.F. Hegel

    • C.

      Soren Kierkegaard

    Correct Answer
    C. Soren Kierkegaard
    Explanation
    Soren Kierkegaard is associated with the view that meaning in life can be found in ourselves and our inner choices. Kierkegaard believed that individuals have the freedom to create their own meaning and purpose in life through their personal choices and actions. He emphasized the importance of individuality and the subjective experience of existence, suggesting that true fulfillment comes from embracing one's own unique identity and making authentic choices. This perspective aligns with Kierkegaard's existentialist philosophy, which emphasizes personal responsibility and the significance of individual subjective experience.

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  • 8. 

    What state of mind did the philosopher Soren Kierkegaard regard as modern man's symptom of the awareness that the meaning of life cannot be found in external sources?

    • A.

      Misery

    • B.

      Apathy

    • C.

      Anguish

    Correct Answer
    C. Anguish
    Explanation
    Soren Kierkegaard, the philosopher, believed that anguish is the state of mind that modern man experiences when they become aware that the meaning of life cannot be found in external sources. According to Kierkegaard, this anguish arises from the realization that one must confront the existential questions of life and find meaning within themselves, rather than relying on external sources such as societal norms or material possessions. This state of mind reflects the struggle and unease that individuals feel when they recognize the limitations of seeking meaning externally.

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  • 9. 

    Which existentialist philosopher describes three stages through which a seeker of meaning in life passes?

    • A.

      Simone de Beauvior

    • B.

      Soren Kierkegaard

    • C.

      Jean-Paul Sartre

    Correct Answer
    B. Soren Kierkegaard
    Explanation
    Soren Kierkegaard is the correct answer because he is known for his concept of the three stages of life: the aesthetic, the ethical, and the religious. According to Kierkegaard, individuals progress through these stages in their search for meaning and purpose in life. The aesthetic stage is characterized by a pursuit of pleasure and self-indulgence, the ethical stage focuses on moral responsibility and duty, and the religious stage involves a leap of faith and a personal relationship with God. Kierkegaard's philosophy explores the complexities of human existence and the different paths one may take in their quest for meaning.

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  • 10. 

    Which statement best summarizes the stand taken by Danish philosopher Soren Kierkegaard on the existence of Good and man's purpose in life?

    • A.

      God has devised a plan within which man's purpose lies

    • B.

      Man must create God by his own choice in order to know the meaning and purpose of life

    • C.

      Man must put his faith in God's purpose for man

    Correct Answer
    B. Man must create God by his own choice in order to know the meaning and purpose of life
  • 11. 

    The French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre shares with Soren Kierkegaard the idea that:

    • A.

      God has devised a plan within which man's purpose lies

    • B.

      Man must put his faith in God's purpose for man

    • C.

      Man must create God by his own choice in order to know the meaning and purpose of life

    Correct Answer
    C. Man must create God by his own choice in order to know the meaning and purpose of life
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that man must create God by his own choice in order to know the meaning and purpose of life. This aligns with the existentialist philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre, who believed that individuals have the freedom to create their own meaning and purpose in life. Sartre argued that there is no inherent meaning or purpose in life, and it is up to each individual to define their own values and goals. By creating their own concept of God or higher power, individuals can find a sense of meaning and purpose in their existence.

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  • 12. 

    The French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre shares with Soren Kierkegaard the idea that:

    • A.

      Meaning in life is based upon our free choices and commitments

    • B.

      We must entrust ourselves in a "leap of faith" to a higher power

    • C.

      Human beings are condemned to be free

    Correct Answer
    A. Meaning in life is based upon our free choices and commitments
    Explanation
    Both Jean-Paul Sartre and Soren Kierkegaard believe that the meaning in life is derived from the choices and commitments we make. They argue that we are responsible for creating our own purpose and that our actions and decisions shape our existence. This perspective emphasizes the importance of individual agency and personal responsibility in determining the significance of our lives.

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  • 13. 

    According to Jean-Paul Sartre, to live in "bad faith" is to:

    • A.

      Choose a conventional path in life

    • B.

      Choose a religious path in life

    • C.

      Refuse the anguish that goes along with meaning that one chooses in life

    Correct Answer
    C. Refuse the anguish that goes along with meaning that one chooses in life
    Explanation
    To live in "bad faith" according to Jean-Paul Sartre means to refuse the anguish that comes with taking responsibility for the meaning one chooses in life. It is a state of self-deception where individuals avoid confronting the existential angst that arises from the freedom to make choices. Instead of embracing their own agency and the inherent uncertainty of existence, they opt for a more comfortable and conventional path, denying their own responsibility for shaping their lives.

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  • 14. 

    The French philosopher Simone de Beauvoir focused her writings on which central idea of existentialism:

    • A.

      That the individual has no essential nature

    • B.

      That human beings are condemned to be free

    • C.

      That human beings must accept the anguish that accompanies freedom

    Correct Answer
    A. That the individual has no essential nature
    Explanation
    Simone de Beauvoir's writings on existentialism primarily revolve around the idea that the individual has no essential nature. This means that she believed human beings are not born with predetermined characteristics or purposes, but rather they create their own identities and meanings through their choices and actions. According to Beauvoir, individuals are free to define themselves and shape their own existence, without being bound by any inherent or fixed nature. This concept challenges traditional notions of human nature and emphasizes the importance of personal responsibility and freedom in shaping one's life.

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  • 15. 

    For Albert Camus, "the meaning of life is the most urgent of questions".

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Albert Camus, a renowned philosopher, believed that the question of the meaning of life is of utmost importance. He argued that human existence is inherently absurd and lacks any inherent purpose or meaning. However, he also emphasized the significance of individuals creating their own meaning and purpose in life through their actions and choices. Therefore, it can be inferred that Camus indeed considered the meaning of life to be the most urgent and essential question.

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  • 16. 

    One theistic response to the meaning of life claims that human life has meaning because humans are part of a larger plan or order devised by God.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement suggests that according to theistic beliefs, the meaning of human life comes from being part of a larger plan or order created by God. This implies that there is a purpose and significance to human existence, as it is connected to a divine design. Therefore, the answer "True" aligns with the idea that the meaning of life is derived from being part of God's plan.

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  • 17. 

    Karl Marx wrote that "the history of the world is none other than the progress of consciousness of freedom."

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Karl Marx did not write that "the history of the world is none other than the progress of consciousness of freedom." This statement does not align with Marx's views on history and his theory of historical materialism. Marx believed that history was driven by the conflict between social classes and the struggle for economic power, rather than the progress of consciousness of freedom. Therefore, the answer is false.

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  • 18. 

    According to the nihilist, the end of world is nigh:

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The nihilist does not believe in any inherent meaning or purpose in life, so they would not make a claim about the end of the world being near. Nihilism is a philosophical belief that rejects the existence of objective values and meaning, therefore the statement that the end of the world is nigh would not align with their perspective.

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  • 19. 

    For Kierkegaard, the move to the religious stage is a commitment not to a rational principle, but to a relationship with a person

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Kierkegaard, the transition to the religious stage involves making a commitment to a personal relationship rather than a rational principle. This means that one's faith and belief in God is not based solely on logical reasoning or evidence, but on a deep connection and personal encounter with God. Kierkegaard emphasizes the importance of subjective experience and personal engagement with faith, highlighting the significance of a personal relationship with God in the religious stage.

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