The genome contains the genetic information to construct and maintain a living organism.
The genomes of cellular organisms are composed of DNA.
The genome is able to express its own information without the activity of enzymes and proteins
Eukaryotic genomes are composed of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.
Contain a haploid set of chromosomes.
Give rise to the gametes.
Contain a diploid set of chromosomes and make up the majority of human cells.
DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into protein.
DNA is translated into protein, which is then transcribed into RNA.
RNA is transcribed into DNA, which is then translated into protein.
Proteins are translated into RNA, which is then transcribed into DNA
Chromosomes are composed of approximately equal amounts of protein and DNA.
Proteins were known to be composed of 20 distinct amino acids whereas DNA is composed of only 4 nucleotides.
Different proteins were known to have unique sequences, whereas it was thought that all DNA molecules have the same sequence.
All of the above.
Model building of DNA molecules to ensure that the atoms were correctly positioned
X-ray crystallography of DNA
Chromatographic studies to determine the relative composition of nucleotides from various sources
Genetic studies that demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material.
DNA is the genetic material
RNA is transcribed from DNA.
The amount of adenine in a given organism is equal to the amount of thymine (and guanine to cytosine).
The double helix is held together by hydrogen bonding between the bases
All of the RNA molecules present in a cell.
The protein-coding RNA molecules present in a cell.
The ribosomal RNA molecules present in a cell.
The transfer RNA molecules present in a cell.
They use DNA as a template for the polymerization of ribonucleotides.
They use proteins as a template for the polymerization of ribonucleotides
They use RNA as a template for the polymerization of ribonucleotides
They require no template for the polymerization of ribonucleotides
Small nuclear RNA.
All of the proteins that a cell is capable of synthesizing.
All of the proteins present in a cell over the cell's lifetime
All of the proteins present in a cell at a given moment.
All of the proteins that are actively being synthesized in a cell at a given moment.
They are responsible for the specific functions of individual cell types.
They are responsible for regulating genome expression in cells
They are responsible for removing waste materials from cells.
They are responsible for the general biochemical activities that occur in all cells.
Each codon can specify more than one amino acid.
Most amino acids have more than one codon.
There are several initiation codons.
The stop codons can also code for amino acids.
Regulation of cellu lar processes.
Carrying genetic information.
Transport of molecules in multicellular organisms.
These polymerases require a 5'-phosphate group to add a new nucleotide
These polymerases require a 3'-hydroxyl group to and add a new nucleotide
The primer is required for the DNA polymerase to bind to the template DNA.
The primer is hydrolyzed to provide the energy I join required for DNA synthesis
Remove the 5' end of the polynucleotide strand that is attached to the template strand that is being copied.
Remove damaged nucleotides from the template strand during DNA synthesis.
Remove nucleotides from the ends of DNA molecules to ensure the generation of blunt ends.
Remove incorrect nucleotides from the newly synthesized strand of DNA.
Is more active than the polymerase activity.
Will prevent the incorporation of "radioactive or fluorescent labels into the DNA.
May interfere with some research applications by shortening the 5' ends of the DNA molecules.
Prevents the polymerase from detecting errors in the incorporation of new nucleotides.
E. coli DNA polymerase I is denatured at this temperature.
The DNA is denatured at this temperature.
The primers are denatured at this temperature.
Tile temperature is too high for enzymatic reactions to occur.
They are present in all viruses and are RNA dependent DNA polymerases.
They are present in all RNA viruses and are DNA dependent RNA polymerases.
They are present in retroviruses and are RNA dependent DNA polymerases.
They are present in all viruses and are template independent DNA polymerases.
Type II enzymes cut the DNA at a specific site.
Type II enzymes always cut the DNA to yield blunt ended molecules.
Type II enzymes always cut the DNA to yield sticky ended molecules.
Type II enzymes are the only restriction enzymes to cleave double-stranded DNA.
The hydrogen bonds between bases.
The phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides.
The bonds between the bases and deoxyribose sugars.
The peptide bonds between amino acids.
DNA polymerase I.
Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase.
A collection of recombinant molecules with inserts that contain all of the genes of an organism.
A collection of recombinant molecules with inserts that contain all of an organism's genome.
A collection of recombinant molecules that express all of the genes of an organism.
A collection of recombinant molecules that have been sequenced.
PCR does not require that the sequence of the gene be known.
PCR is a very rapid technique for the isolation of a gene.
PCR requires very small amounts of starting DNA compared to gene cloning.
PCR is very useful for mapping DNA markers.
Introns within the genome.
The locations of genes on chromosomes could be observed by staining the DNA with dyes.
Phenotypes specified by genes could be identified visually and their inheritance patterns studied.
Individual genes specifying easily identifiable phenotypic traits were easily cloned
Single nucleotide polymorph isms were used to identify point mutations that resulted in clearly observable phenotypic differences
Humans have no visual characteristics that are useful for genetic mapping.
There are biochemical phenotypes that are easily screened by blood typing.
Some easily characterized biochemical phenotypes are specified by genes with very large numbers of alleles.
It is unethical to perform controlled breeding experiments with humans.
DNA markers do not require the presence of two or more alleles for mapping.
Gene maps may not cover large regions of the genome.
Most genes contain multiple alleles that can be easily mapped.
DNA markers are less variable than genetic markers.
Minisatellites are present in too many locations within the genome.
Restriction enzymes can be used to type microsatellites but not minisatellites.
There are very few microsatellites in eukaryotic genomes so they are easily identified and analyzed.
Microsatellites are present throughout eukaryotic genomes and are easily amplified using PCR.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms.
The fact that the different alleles for a given gene will be located at the same position in a chromosome.
The discovery that multiple genes are responsible for some traits (such as eye color in flies).
The observation that some genes will be inherited together if they are located on the same chromosome.
The observation that darkly staining regions of chromosomes do not contain genes.
The production of two diploid cells that are genetically identical to the parental cell.
The exchange of DNA (crossing-over) between homologous chromosomes.
The production of two diploid cells that are genetically distinct from the parental cell.
The production of four haploid celts that are genetically distinct from the parental cell.
The closer two genes are to each other on a chromosome, the higher the frequency of recombination will be between them.
The more distant two genes are to each other on a chromosome, the higher the frequency of recombination will be between them.
If two genes are located on the same chromosome then no recombination events can occur between them.
If two genes are located on different chromosomes then there will be a high frequency of recombination between them.
Conclude that the most common genotypes in the offspring are the parental genotypes
Conclude that the most common genotypes in the offspring are the recombinants.
Perform a test cross to determine the linkage between the genes.
Determine the genotypes of the grandparents.
It is not possible to obtain enough progeny for many eukaryotic organisms.
Recombination hotspots may interfere with genetic mapping.
Genetic mapping only uses genes and there are not enough genes to map entire genomes.
Genes or markers that are tens of thousands of base pairs apart may appear at the same position on a genetic map.
Many regions of a chromosome are condensed and cannot hybridize to probes.
The probes will hybridize preferentially to repeated sequences present on multiple chromosomes.
The chromosomes are not stable in the condensed state, and the signal diffuses when the chromosomes are relaxed.
Only low-resolution mapping is possible, as the chromosomes are condensed.