YMCA L3 Anatomy - Circulatory SySTEM

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YMCA L3 Anatomy - Circulatory System - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the function of the valves of the heart?

    • A.

      Prevent backflow of blood

    • B.

      To pump blood

    • C.

      To take blood away from the heart

    • D.

      To push blood through the arteries

    Correct Answer
    A. Prevent backflow of blood
    Explanation
    The valves of the heart are responsible for preventing the backflow of blood. They ensure that blood flows in one direction, from the atria to the ventricles and then out to the rest of the body. This prevents any backward flow of blood, ensuring that it moves efficiently through the heart and circulatory system.

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  • 2. 

    What is an alternative name for the semi-lunar valve?

    • A.

      Crescent valves

    • B.

      Atrioventricular valves

    • C.

      Aortic valves

    • D.

      Pulmonary valves

    Correct Answer
    A. Crescent valves
    Explanation
    The term "crescent valves" is not commonly used in medical terminology to refer to the semi-lunar valve. Instead, the semi-lunar valve is more commonly known as the aortic valve or the pulmonary valve, depending on its location in the heart. The aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta, while the pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. Therefore, "crescent valves" is not an alternative name for the semi-lunar valve.

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  • 3. 

    Where is the tricuspid valve located?

    • A.

      Between the right atrium and right ventricle

    • B.

      Between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery

    • C.

      Between the left atrium and left ventricle

    • D.

      Between the left ventricle and the aorta

    Correct Answer
    A. Between the right atrium and right ventricle
    Explanation
    The tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle. This valve prevents the backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium when the heart contracts.

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  • 4. 

    What is the function of the aortic valve?

    • A.

      Prevent backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle

    • B.

      Prevent backflow of blood from the left ventricle to left atrium

    • C.

      Prevent backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle

    • D.

      Prevent backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium

    Correct Answer
    A. Prevent backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle
    Explanation
    The function of the aortic valve is to prevent backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle.

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  • 5. 

    What is the function of the semi-lunar valves?

    • A.

      To prevent arterial backflow into the ventricles

    • B.

      To prevent backflow of blood into the atriums

    • C.

      To prevent venial backflow into the atriums

    • D.

      To prevent aortic backflow of blood

    Correct Answer
    A. To prevent arterial backflow into the ventricles
    Explanation
    The function of the semi-lunar valves is to prevent arterial backflow into the ventricles. These valves are located at the exit of the ventricles and open during ventricular contraction to allow blood to be pumped out into the arteries. After contraction, the valves close to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles, ensuring that blood only flows in one direction, from the heart to the arteries. This helps maintain the efficiency of blood flow and prevents any backflow that could lead to inefficient circulation.

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  • 6. 

    Which valves control blood flow through the left side of the heart?

    • A.

      Bicuspid and aortic valve

    • B.

      Tricuspid and pulmonary valve

    • C.

      Bicuspid and pulmonary valve

    • D.

      Tricuspid and aortic valve

    Correct Answer
    A. Bicuspid and aortic valve
    Explanation
    The bicuspid valve, also known as the mitral valve, is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart. It controls the flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. The aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta. It controls the flow of blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body. Therefore, the bicuspid and aortic valves are the ones that control blood flow through the left side of the heart.

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  • 7. 

    Which valves control blood flow through the right side of the heart?

    • A.

      Tricuspid and pulmonary valve

    • B.

      Bicuspid and pulmonary valve

    • C.

      Tricuspid and aortic valve

    • D.

      Bicuspid and aortic valve

    Correct Answer
    A. Tricuspid and pulmonary valve
    Explanation
    The right side of the heart is responsible for receiving deoxygenated blood from the body and pumping it to the lungs for oxygenation. The tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle, and it prevents blood from flowing back into the atrium when the ventricle contracts. The pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, and it prevents blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Therefore, the tricuspid and pulmonary valves control blood flow through the right side of the heart.

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  • 8. 

    What is the name of the artery that takes oxygenated blood to the body?

    • A.

      Aorta

    • B.

      Pulmonary artery

    • C.

      Coronary artery

    • D.

      Vena cava

    Correct Answer
    A. Aorta
    Explanation
    The aorta is the main artery in the body that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. It is responsible for distributing oxygen-rich blood to all the organs, tissues, and cells in the body, ensuring that they receive the necessary nutrients and oxygen for proper functioning. The other options listed, such as the pulmonary artery, coronary artery, and vena cava, do not carry oxygenated blood to the body but have different functions in the circulatory system.

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  • 9. 

    What is the name of the artery that takes de-oxygenated blood to the lungs?

    • A.

      Pulmonary vein

    • B.

      Aorta

    • C.

      Coronary artery

    • D.

      Vena cava

    Correct Answer
    A. Pulmonary vein
    Explanation
    The pulmonary vein is the correct answer because it is the blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart. It is responsible for returning oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart, which then pumps it to the rest of the body. The other options listed (aorta, coronary artery, vena cava) are not involved in carrying de-oxygenated blood to the lungs.

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  • 10. 

    During what is blood flow through the coronary arteries greatest?

    • A.

      Ventricular diastole

    • B.

      Ventricular systole

    • C.

      Atrial diastole

    • D.

      Atrial systole

    Correct Answer
    A. Ventricular diastole
    Explanation
    During ventricular diastole, the ventricles of the heart are relaxed and filling with blood. This is the phase of the cardiac cycle where the coronary arteries receive the greatest blood flow. The relaxed state of the ventricles allows for efficient filling of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. During ventricular systole, on the other hand, the ventricles contract and pump blood out of the heart, which reduces the blood flow through the coronary arteries. Atrial diastole and atrial systole are not directly related to the blood flow through the coronary arteries.

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  • 11. 

    What is the function of the coronary arteries?

    • A.

      Supply the myocardium with oxygenated blood

    • B.

      To allow blood flow into the heart

    • C.

      To allow blood flow away from the heart

    • D.

      Remove deoxygenated blood from the heart

    Correct Answer
    A. Supply the myocardium with oxygenated blood
    Explanation
    The function of the coronary arteries is to supply the myocardium, which is the heart muscle, with oxygenated blood. The coronary arteries branch off from the aorta and deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle cells. This is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, as the myocardium requires a constant supply of oxygen to generate energy and pump blood throughout the body.

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  • 12. 

    The myocardium is dependent on oxygenated blood flow through?

    • A.

      Coronary arteries

    • B.

      Cartoid arteries

    • C.

      Renal arteries

    • D.

      Peripheral arteries

    Correct Answer
    A. Coronary arteries
    Explanation
    The myocardium, which refers to the heart muscle, is dependent on oxygenated blood flow through the coronary arteries. These arteries supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients, allowing it to function properly. Without adequate blood flow through the coronary arteries, the myocardium may not receive enough oxygen, leading to various heart conditions and potentially heart failure. Therefore, the correct answer is coronary arteries.

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  • 13. 

    Complete the sentence: The risk of arteriosclerosis may be increased by...

    • A.

      Physical inactivity

    • B.

      Low blood pressure

    • C.

      Regular exercise

    • D.

      Low cholesterol

    Correct Answer
    A. Physical inactivity
    Explanation
    Physical inactivity refers to a lack of regular physical activity or exercise. Arteriosclerosis is a condition characterized by the thickening and hardening of the arteries, which can lead to reduced blood flow and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular exercise helps to improve cardiovascular health, promote blood circulation, and maintain healthy cholesterol levels. On the other hand, physical inactivity can contribute to the development of arteriosclerosis by leading to weight gain, high blood pressure, and increased levels of bad cholesterol. Therefore, physical inactivity increases the risk of arteriosclerosis.

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  • 14. 

    Which may lead to the development of artherosclerosis?

    • A.

      Diet high in fats

    • B.

      Diet high in protein

    • C.

      Diet high in carbohydrates

    • D.

      Diet high in fibre

    Correct Answer
    A. Diet high in fats
    Explanation
    A diet high in fats may lead to the development of atherosclerosis because excessive consumption of saturated and trans fats can increase the levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol in the blood. This can lead to the formation of plaque in the arteries, narrowing them and reducing blood flow. Over time, this can result in the hardening and thickening of the arterial walls, contributing to the development of atherosclerosis.

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  • 15. 

    What is arteriosclerosis?

    • A.

      Degeneration of arterial walls

    • B.

      Narrowing of arteries

    • C.

      Chest pains

    • D.

      Imbalance of oxygen supply and demand

    Correct Answer
    A. Degeneration of arterial walls
    Explanation
    Arteriosclerosis refers to the degeneration of arterial walls. This condition involves the thickening and hardening of the arteries, leading to a loss of elasticity and narrowing of the blood vessels. It is commonly associated with aging and can be caused by various factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, and diabetes. Arteriosclerosis can result in reduced blood flow to organs and tissues, increasing the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular complications.

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  • 16. 

    How does atherosclerosis affect the function of arteries?

    • A.

      Limits blood flow

    • B.

      Low blood pressure

    • C.

      Loss of elasticity

    • D.

      Increased blood flow

    Correct Answer
    A. Limits blood flow
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is a condition where plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This narrowing restricts the flow of blood through the arteries, leading to a decrease in the amount of blood that can reach various parts of the body. Therefore, atherosclerosis limits blood flow and can have negative effects on the function of arteries.

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  • 17. 

    What is the name of the disease process which causes an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand to the heart muscle?

    • A.

      Artherosclerosis

    • B.

      Arteriosclerosis

    • C.

      Myocardial Ischaemia

    • D.

      Angina

    Correct Answer
    A. Artherosclerosis
    Explanation
    Artherosclerosis is not the correct answer because it refers to the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can lead to blockages and reduced blood flow but does not specifically cause an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand to the heart muscle. Arteriosclerosis is also not the correct answer because it refers to the hardening and thickening of the arterial walls, which can contribute to reduced blood flow but does not directly cause an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand. Myocardial Ischemia is the correct answer because it specifically refers to the inadequate blood supply to the heart muscle, resulting in an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand. Angina is a symptom of myocardial ischemia, characterized by chest pain or discomfort.

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  • 18. 

    The valsalva effect can lead to which of the following?

    • A.

      Blood pressure fluctuations

    • B.

      Myocardial ischaemia

    • C.

      Angina

    • D.

      Hypotension

    Correct Answer
    A. Blood pressure fluctuations
    Explanation
    The valsalva effect refers to the physiological response that occurs when a person tries to exhale forcefully against a closed airway. This can lead to increased pressure in the chest, which in turn can affect blood pressure. Blood pressure fluctuations can occur as a result of the valsalva effect, causing temporary increases or decreases in blood pressure. This can be particularly significant in individuals with cardiovascular conditions, as it may lead to myocardial ischemia (reduced blood flow to the heart) or angina (chest pain). Hypotension (low blood pressure) may also occur as a result of the valsalva effect.

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  • 19. 

    What can cause the valsalva effect?

    • A.

      Holding breath during exertion

    • B.

      Inadequate hydration

    • C.

      Poor posture

    • D.

      Incorrect technique

    Correct Answer
    A. Holding breath during exertion
    Explanation
    The valsalva effect is caused by holding breath during exertion. When a person holds their breath while exerting force, it increases the pressure in the chest and abdomen. This can have various effects on the body, such as temporarily decreasing blood flow to the heart and brain, increasing the risk of fainting or dizziness. It can also lead to a sudden increase in blood pressure, which can be dangerous for individuals with certain medical conditions. Therefore, holding breath during exertion can trigger the valsalva effect.

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  • 20. 

    What short-term effect does cardiovascular training have on blood pressure?

    • A.

      Systolic pressure increases and diastolic remains the same

    • B.

      Systolic pressure and diastolic pressure increase

    • C.

      Systolic pressure and diastolic pressure decrease

    • D.

      Systolic pressure remains the same and diastolic increases

    Correct Answer
    A. Systolic pressure increases and diastolic remains the same
    Explanation
    During cardiovascular training, the heart pumps more blood to the muscles, which leads to an increase in systolic pressure. However, since the blood vessels dilate during exercise, the resistance to blood flow decreases, resulting in no change or a slight decrease in diastolic pressure. Therefore, the correct answer is that systolic pressure increases and diastolic pressure remains the same.

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  • 21. 

    What long-term effect does cardiovascular training have on blood pressure?

    • A.

      Resting and exercising blood pressure decrease

    • B.

      Resting blood pressure only decreases

    • C.

      Exercising blood pressure only decrease

    • D.

      Resting and exercising blood pressure remain the same

    Correct Answer
    A. Resting and exercising blood pressure decrease
    Explanation
    Cardiovascular training has a long-term effect on blood pressure by decreasing both resting and exercising blood pressure. This is because regular cardiovascular exercise strengthens the heart and improves its efficiency, resulting in lower blood pressure levels. Additionally, exercise helps to improve the elasticity of blood vessels and reduce the overall resistance to blood flow, further contributing to the decrease in blood pressure. Therefore, individuals who engage in consistent cardiovascular training can experience lower blood pressure levels both at rest and during physical activity.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is not a short term benefit of cardiovascular exercise?

    • A.

      Increased blood volume

    • B.

      Increased vasodilation

    • C.

      Increased oxygen supply

    • D.

      Increased coronary blood flow

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased blood volume
    Explanation
    Increased blood volume is not a short term benefit of cardiovascular exercise because it takes time for the body to adapt and increase blood volume. Short term benefits of cardiovascular exercise include increased vasodilation, which allows for better blood flow, increased oxygen supply to the muscles, and increased coronary blood flow to the heart.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is a long term benefit of cardiovascular exercise?

    • A.

      More efficient circulation

    • B.

      Vasoconstriction of arteries

    • C.

      Cardiac output increases

    • D.

      Decreased tone of ‘smooth’ muscle

    Correct Answer
    A. More efficient circulation
    Explanation
    A long term benefit of cardiovascular exercise is more efficient circulation. Regular cardiovascular exercise strengthens the heart and improves its ability to pump blood, leading to better blood flow throughout the body. This increased circulation helps deliver oxygen and nutrients to the muscles and organs more effectively, improving overall health and function.

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  • 24. 

    What is a benefit of regular cardiovascular exercise?

    • A.

      Decreased risk of CHD

    • B.

      Decreased bone density

    • C.

      Increased muscular strain

    • D.

      Increased workload on the heart

    Correct Answer
    A. Decreased risk of CHD
    Explanation
    Regular cardiovascular exercise has been shown to have numerous benefits for overall health, including a decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is a condition characterized by the narrowing of the blood vessels that supply the heart, leading to reduced blood flow and potentially causing heart attacks. Regular exercise helps to improve cardiovascular health, strengthen the heart muscle, and improve blood circulation, thereby reducing the risk of developing CHD.

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  • 25. 

    For clients with mild hypertension, what type of training can lead to a long-term reduction in resting blood pressure?

    • A.

      Cardiovascular activities

    • B.

      Balance training

    • C.

      Weight training

    • D.

      Core stability training

    Correct Answer
    A. Cardiovascular activities
    Explanation
    Cardiovascular activities can lead to a long-term reduction in resting blood pressure for clients with mild hypertension. These activities, such as running, cycling, or swimming, increase heart rate and improve the efficiency of the cardiovascular system. Regular cardiovascular exercise strengthens the heart muscle, improves blood flow, and reduces the workload on the heart, ultimately lowering resting blood pressure. This type of training also helps to decrease overall cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity and high cholesterol levels.

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  • 26. 

    Increased heart rate during exercise is brought about by what?

    • A.

      Increased demand of oxygen from muscles

    • B.

      Increased vasoconstriction

    • C.

      Increased blood volume

    • D.

      Increased vasodilation

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased demand of oxygen from muscles
    Explanation
    During exercise, the muscles require more oxygen to produce energy. To meet this increased demand, the heart rate increases to pump more oxygen-rich blood to the muscles. This ensures that an adequate amount of oxygen is delivered to the muscles to support their increased activity. Therefore, the increased heart rate during exercise is primarily caused by the increased demand of oxygen from the muscles.

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  • 27. 

    What condition is exacerbated (made worse) by hypertension?

    • A.

      Artherosclerosis

    • B.

      Valsalva effect

    • C.

      Angina

    • D.

      Type 2 diabetes

    Correct Answer
    A. Artherosclerosis
    Explanation
    Hypertension, or high blood pressure, can exacerbate artherosclerosis, which is the narrowing and hardening of the arteries due to the buildup of plaque. When blood pressure is elevated, it puts extra strain on the arterial walls, causing them to become damaged. This damage can lead to the accumulation of cholesterol and other substances, forming plaque that narrows the arteries and restricts blood flow. Therefore, hypertension worsens the condition of artherosclerosis, increasing the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular complications.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following readings would see an individual with hypertension?

    • A.

      >140 systolic over >90 diastolic

    • B.

      120-140 systolic over 80-90 diastolic

    • C.

      90-120 systolic over 60-80 diastolic

    • D.

    Correct Answer
    A. >140 systolic over >90 diastolic
    Explanation
    An individual with hypertension would have a blood pressure reading of >140 systolic over >90 diastolic. Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is defined as having a systolic blood pressure of 140 or higher and a diastolic blood pressure of 90 or higher. The other two options do not meet the criteria for hypertension.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following readings would see an individual with hypotension?

    • A.

    • B.

      >140 systolic over >90 diastolic

    • C.

      120-140 systolic over 80-90 diastolic

    • D.

      90-120 systolic over 60-80 diastolic

    Correct Answer
    A.
    Explanation
    An individual with hypotension would have a blood pressure reading of 90-120 systolic over 60-80 diastolic. This is because hypotension is defined as having consistently low blood pressure, and a reading within this range would indicate lower blood pressure compared to the other options.

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  • 30. 

    Which coronary artery supplies the posterior portion of the left atrium and ventricle with oxygenated blood?

    • A.

      Left circumflex artery

    • B.

      Left descending artery

    • C.

      Right coronary artery

    • D.

      Left ascending artery

    Correct Answer
    A. Left circumflex artery
    Explanation
    The left circumflex artery supplies the posterior portion of the left atrium and ventricle with oxygenated blood. This artery branches off from the left main coronary artery and wraps around the heart, providing blood to the back of the heart. It is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the posterior wall of the left atrium and ventricle, ensuring proper functioning of these structures.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 03, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 14, 2018
    Quiz Created by
    Hodgesd
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