# Descartes Vs. Newton Review

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• 1.

### 1. RenĂ© Descartes believed that the universe was a machine and compared it to a _______.

• A.

Toy

• B.

Computer

• C.

Camera

• D.

Clock

D. Clock
Explanation
RenĂ© Descartes believed that the universe was a machine and compared it to a clock. This comparison suggests that Descartes viewed the universe as a highly ordered and predictable system, similar to the intricate mechanisms of a clock. Just like a clock operates according to precise mechanisms and follows predetermined patterns, Descartes believed that the universe operates in a similar manner, following strict laws and principles. This analogy reflects Descartes' mechanistic worldview, where he sought to understand the natural world through the lens of mechanical processes.

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• 2.

### 2. Descartes was a Catholic and the Church supported him because his vision of the universe was like the Church's. He believed the universe followed _____________________________.

• A.

Newton's laws of gravity.

• B.

A set of predictable rules.

• C.

The ten commandments.

• D.

The principles of motion.

B. A set of predictable rules.
Explanation
Descartes believed that the universe followed a set of predictable rules. This aligns with the Church's belief in an ordered and structured universe, which is also consistent with Newton's laws of gravity. The ten commandments and the principles of motion are not directly related to Descartes' vision of the universe, making them incorrect choices.

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• 3.

### 3. Descartes dissected an ox's eye to prove it was a machine. He thought he was right because looking through the lens of the eye, images appear ________________________.

• A.

Upside down.

• B.

Reversed.

• C.

Inverted.

• D.

Sideways.

A. Upside down.
Explanation
Descartes dissected an ox's eye to prove it was a machine. He believed that the images seen through the lens of the eye appeared upside down. This suggests that Descartes believed that the eye functioned like a camera, where the lens would invert the image before it reaches the retina. This understanding was consistent with his mechanistic view of the body, where he saw the human body as a complex machine.

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• 4.

### 4. Descartes thought white light was pure and made of spinning particles. He thought color was a distortion when the particles _________________________________.

• A.

Bounced off objects.

• B.

Hit the eye.

• C.

Spun faster or slower.

• D.

Hit each other.

C. Spun faster or slower.
Explanation
Descartes believed that white light was composed of spinning particles. According to his theory, when these particles spun faster or slower, they caused a distortion in the light, resulting in the perception of different colors. Therefore, the correct answer is "spun faster or slower."

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• 5.

### 5. Isaac Newton thought Descartes theory about light and color was wrong. To prove it, he made a hole in a shutter and let the sunlight shine through the hole onto the opposite wall to form a _____________________.

• A.

Color wheel.

• B.

Rainbow

• C.

Lightening stike.

• D.

Laser.

B. Rainbow
Explanation
Isaac Newton conducted an experiment to prove Descartes' theory about light and color wrong. He made a hole in a shutter and allowed sunlight to pass through the hole onto the opposite wall. The result of this experiment was the formation of a rainbow. This demonstrated that white light is composed of a spectrum of colors, contradicting Descartes' belief that light was indivisible.

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• 6.

### 6. Newton discovered that light was made of color which he called the visible _____________.

• A.

Color world.

• B.

Light.

• C.

Rainbow.

• D.

Spectrum

D. Spectrum
Explanation
Newton discovered that light was made of different colors, which he called the visible spectrum. The visible spectrum refers to the range of colors that can be seen by the human eye when white light is passed through a prism. This discovery was significant in understanding the nature of light and laid the foundation for further studies in optics and color theory.

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• 7.

### 7. The colors of Newton's spectrum are, in order:

• A.

Red, yellow, blue, green, orange, violet, indigo

• B.

Red, green, blue, cyan, magenta, yellow, black

• C.

Red, blue, yellow, purple, green, orange, brown

• D.

Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet

D. Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
Explanation
The colors of Newton's spectrum are arranged in a specific order, known as the visible light spectrum. This spectrum starts with red, followed by orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. This arrangement is based on the wavelengths of light, with red having the longest wavelength and violet having the shortest.

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• 8.

### 8. The most important part of Newton's experiment with light was when he proved that each color in the spectrum was unique and prisms didn't change light by ______________________.

• A.

Using a cracked prism.

• B.

Putting a second prism in front of the spectrum.

• C.

Reflecting the spectrum back through the prism.

• D.

Putting a second prism in front of just the red light.

D. Putting a second prism in front of just the red light.
Explanation
In Newton's experiment with light, he used a prism to separate white light into its component colors, creating a spectrum. He then observed that each color in the spectrum was unique and distinct. To further investigate the behavior of light, Newton placed a second prism in front of just the red light from the spectrum. By doing so, he demonstrated that the second prism had no effect on the red light, indicating that the colors in the spectrum were not altered or changed by the prism. This finding was crucial in Newton's understanding of light and its properties.

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• 9.

### 9. Newton's publication of his studies on light led to the ______________________________.

• A.

Modern scientific world view.

• B.

Destruction of the Catholic Church.

• C.

Nobel Prize for physics.

• D.

Invention of the light bulb.

A. Modern scientific world view.
Explanation
Newton's publication of his studies on light revolutionized the scientific understanding of the world. His work laid the foundation for the modern scientific world view by introducing the concept of light as composed of particles and exploring its properties through experimentation and mathematical analysis. Newton's discoveries in optics and his development of the laws of motion and universal gravitation helped establish a rational and empirical approach to scientific inquiry, challenging traditional beliefs and paving the way for further scientific advancements.

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