# Unit 4 CST Review (Original)

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Quizzes Created: 17 | Total Attempts: 3,706
Questions: 30 | Attempts: 798

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• 1.

### In general, which is the cause of a sea breeze? A. The difference in elevation between land and water B. The difference in density between land and water C. The difference in specific heat capacity between land and water D. The difference in cloud cover between land and water

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

C. C
Explanation
The correct answer is C. The difference in specific heat capacity between land and water. Sea breezes are caused by the difference in specific heat capacity between land and water. During the day, land heats up more quickly than water due to its lower specific heat capacity. This causes the air above the land to warm up and rise, creating a low pressure area. The cooler air over the water then moves in to fill this void, creating a sea breeze.

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• 2.

### Which step is not part of a normal convection cycle? A. A low-pressure system forms due to unequal heating. B. Cooled air sinks toward the surface. C. Air flows from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area. D. Warmed air rises, creating a high-pressure system below.

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

D. D
Explanation
In a normal convection cycle, warmed air rises, creating a low-pressure system above. This low-pressure system then causes air to flow from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area. Cooled air sinks toward the surface, completing the convection cycle. Therefore, the step that is not part of a normal convection cycle is D.

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• 3.

### In which layer of the atmosphere is most of the ultraviolet light blocked? A. Stratosphere B. Mesosphere C. Troposphere D. Thermosphere

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

A. A
Explanation
In the stratosphere, most of the ultraviolet light is blocked. This is due to the presence of the ozone layer, which absorbs and filters out a significant amount of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The ozone molecules in the stratosphere absorb the high-energy UV-B and UV-C radiation, preventing it from reaching the Earth's surface. This is important as excessive exposure to UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms, causing damage to DNA and increasing the risk of skin cancer.

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• 4.

### Which process removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere? A. Respiration B. Photosynthesis

• A.

A

• B.

B

B. B
Explanation
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and sunlight into oxygen and glucose, effectively removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Respiration, on the other hand, is the process by which organisms release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Therefore, the correct answer is B.

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• 5.

### Which of the following is the most abundant gas in our atmosphere? A. Oxygen B. Nitrogen C. Carbon dioxide D. Water vapor

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

B. B
Explanation
The most abundant gas in our atmosphere is nitrogen. It makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. Oxygen is also present, but it only makes up about 21% of the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and water vapor are present in much smaller quantities.

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• 6.

### Which has the lowest albedo? A. A black sheet of paper B. A white sheet of paper C. A mirror D. The surface of a body of water

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

A. A
Explanation
A black sheet of paper has the lowest albedo because it absorbs most of the light that hits it, reflecting very little back. This results in a low albedo value, which is a measure of how much light is reflected by a surface. In contrast, a white sheet of paper reflects a large amount of light, resulting in a higher albedo value. A mirror has a very high albedo because it reflects almost all of the light that hits it. The surface of a body of water also has a relatively high albedo because it reflects a significant amount of light.

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• 7.

### Which statement is true of jet streams? A. The polar jet stream lies between the polar easterlies and trade winds. B. The subtropical jet stream flows to the west, while the polar jet stream flows to the east. C. The polar jet stream is generally weaker than the subtropical jet stream. D. The subtropical jet stream lies between the westerlies and trade winds.

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

D. D
Explanation
The correct statement is that the subtropical jet stream lies between the westerlies and trade winds. This means that it is located in the middle latitudes, between the low-latitude trade winds and the higher-latitude westerlies.

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• 8.

### During the diurnal cycle, insolation peaks _____. A. each day at midnight B. each day at noon C. each year in June D. each year in December

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

B. B
Explanation
During the diurnal cycle, insolation refers to the amount of solar radiation received at a particular location. Insolation peaks each day at noon because that is when the sun is at its highest point in the sky, resulting in the most direct and intense sunlight. This is when the Earth's surface receives the maximum amount of solar energy.

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• 9.

### Which is not true of the Intertropical Convergence Zone? A. It is also known as the doldrums. B. It features heavy precipitation. C. It's where the trade winds collide. D. It's a high-pressure zone with sinking air.

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

D. D
Explanation
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a low-pressure zone where the trade winds from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres converge. It is characterized by heavy precipitation, making option B true. It is also known as the doldrums, as stated in option A. Option C is also true, as it is where the trade winds collide. However, option D is not true. The ITCZ is a low-pressure zone with rising air, not a high-pressure zone with sinking air.

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• 10.

### The layer of the atmosphere with the highest temperature is the _____.

thermosphere
thermasphere
Explanation
The thermosphere is the layer of the atmosphere that has the highest temperature. It is located above the mesosphere and extends from about 80 kilometers above the Earth's surface to the exosphere. The high temperatures in this layer are due to the absorption of solar radiation. The thermosphere is also where the International Space Station orbits, as the high temperatures make it an ideal location for spacecraft to avoid atmospheric drag.

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• 11.

### One danger of excessive nitrogen levels in water is _____. A. the greenhouse effect B. nitrogen fixation C. eutrophication D. oxygenation

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

C. C
Explanation
Excessive nitrogen levels in water can lead to eutrophication. Eutrophication is the process in which excessive nutrients, such as nitrogen, cause an overgrowth of algae and other plants in water bodies. This overgrowth depletes the oxygen levels in the water, leading to the death of aquatic organisms. Eutrophication can also result in the formation of harmful algal blooms, which can produce toxins that are harmful to both aquatic organisms and humans. Therefore, excessive nitrogen levels in water can have detrimental effects on the ecosystem and water quality.

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• 12.

### In the Northern Hemisphere, the Coriolis effect makes winds _____. A. blow to the east B. blow to the west C. bend to the right of their motion D. bend to the left of their motion

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

C. C
Explanation
In the Northern Hemisphere, the Coriolis effect causes winds to bend to the right of their motion. This is due to the rotation of the Earth causing a deflection in the direction of moving objects. As air moves from high pressure to low pressure, it is deflected to the right, resulting in winds blowing in a clockwise direction around high-pressure systems and counterclockwise around low-pressure systems.

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• 13.

### In general, which is the cause of a land breeze? A. The difference in elevation between land and water B. The difference in density between land and water C. The difference in specific heat capacity between land and water D. The difference in cloud cover between land and water

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

C. C
Explanation
The correct answer is C. The difference in specific heat capacity between land and water. Land and water have different specific heat capacities, with water having a higher specific heat capacity than land. During the day, the land heats up faster than the water, causing the air above the land to warm up and rise. This creates a low-pressure area over the land. At the same time, the water remains cooler, creating a high-pressure area. The air above the water then moves towards the land, creating a breeze known as a land breeze.

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• 14.

### Which step is not part of a normal convection cycle? A. A high-pressure system forms due to unequal heating. B. Warmed air rises away from the surface. C. Air flows from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area. D. Cooled air rises, creating a high-pressure system below.

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

D. D
Explanation
In a normal convection cycle, warmed air rises away from the surface (B), creating a low-pressure area. Air flows from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area (C), causing the movement of air. A high-pressure system forms due to unequal heating (A), which is a result of the convection process. However, cooled air does not rise, it sinks, creating a low-pressure system below. Therefore, option D is not part of a normal convection cycle.

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• 15.

### In which layer of the atmosphere does most of Earth's weather occur? A. Troposphere B. Mesosphere C. Stratosphere D. Thermosphere

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

A. A
Explanation
Most of Earth's weather occurs in the troposphere. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere, extending from the Earth's surface up to about 10-15 kilometers. It is where most of the Earth's weather phenomena, such as clouds, rain, snow, thunderstorms, and wind, occur. The temperature in the troposphere generally decreases with increasing altitude, which creates the conditions for vertical mixing and the formation of weather systems.

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• 16.

### Which process removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere? A. Respiration B. Carbonate formation C. Humans breathing D. Nitrogen fixation

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

B. B
Explanation
Carbonate formation is the process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This process involves the conversion of carbon dioxide into carbonate minerals through chemical reactions with substances like calcium, magnesium, and iron. These carbonate minerals can then be stored in rocks and sediments, effectively removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reducing its concentration. This process plays a crucial role in the long-term carbon cycle and helps regulate the Earth's climate.

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• 17.

### Which of the following is the second most abundant gas in our atmosphere? A. Nitrogen B. Oxygen C. Carbon dioxide D. Water vapor

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

B. B
Explanation
Oxygen is the second most abundant gas in our atmosphere after nitrogen. Oxygen makes up about 21% of the Earth's atmosphere, while nitrogen makes up about 78%. Carbon dioxide and water vapor are present in much smaller concentrations.

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• 18.

### Which has the lowest albedo? A. A wet field B. A desert C. An iceberg D. A mirror

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

A. A
Explanation
A wet field has the lowest albedo because it absorbs more sunlight and reflects less of it compared to the other options. Albedo is a measure of how much light is reflected by a surface, with higher albedo indicating more reflection and lower albedo indicating more absorption. A wet field, being covered with water, has a dark and absorbent surface, causing it to have a lower albedo compared to a desert, an iceberg, or a mirror.

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• 19.

### Which statement is true of jet streams? A. The polar jet stream lies between the polar easterlies and trade winds. B. The subtropical jet stream flows to the west, while the polar jet stream flows to the east. C. The subtropical jet stream is generally stronger than the subtropical jet stream. D. The polar jet stream lies between the westerlies and the polar easterlies.

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

D. D
Explanation
The correct answer is D. The polar jet stream lies between the westerlies and the polar easterlies. This means that the polar jet stream is located in the middle latitudes, between the westerly winds that blow from west to east and the polar easterlies that blow from east to west.

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• 20.

### The insolation changes over the course of the diurnal cycle are caused by _____. A. Earth's revolution around the sun B. Earth's rotation C. Earth's tilt D. Earth's magnetic field

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

B. B
Explanation
The correct answer is B. Earth's rotation. The insolation changes over the course of the diurnal cycle are caused by the rotation of the Earth. As the Earth rotates, different parts of the planet receive varying amounts of sunlight, resulting in changes in insolation throughout the day.

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• 21.

### Which is not true of the Intertropical Convergence Zone? A. It is near the equator. B. It features heavy precipitation. C. It's where the trade winds collide. D. It's a high-pressure zone with rising air.

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

D. D
Explanation
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a low-pressure zone where the trade winds from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres converge near the equator. It is characterized by heavy precipitation due to the rising air and the convergence of winds. Therefore, option D, which states that it is a high-pressure zone with rising air, is not true.

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• 22.

### The layer of the atmosphere that contains the ionosphere is the _____.

thermosphere
thermasphere
Explanation
The correct answer is thermosphere. The thermosphere is the layer of the atmosphere that contains the ionosphere. It is located above the mesosphere and extends from about 80 kilometers above the Earth's surface to the exosphere. The ionosphere is a region within the thermosphere where ions and free electrons are present, allowing for the reflection and transmission of radio waves.

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• 23.

### Eutrophication is the result of _______. A. organic matter decay B. excessive nitrogen fixation C. fertilizer runoff D. greenhouse gases

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

C. C
Explanation
Eutrophication is the result of fertilizer runoff. Fertilizers contain high amounts of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, which are essential for plant growth. However, when these fertilizers are washed away by rainwater or irrigation, they can enter nearby water bodies, such as rivers or lakes. This excessive influx of nutrients leads to an overgrowth of algae and other aquatic plants, which depletes the oxygen levels in the water. This lack of oxygen can harm or kill off other aquatic organisms, leading to a disruption in the ecosystem.

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• 24.

### How will a wind blowing to the north in the Northern Hemisphere be affected by the Coriolis effect? A. It will not be affected. B. It will be reduced in strength. C. It will bend to the east. D. It will bend to the west.

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

C. C
Explanation
A wind blowing to the north in the Northern Hemisphere will be affected by the Coriolis effect and will bend to the east. The Coriolis effect is caused by the rotation of the Earth and causes moving objects, such as winds, to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, a wind blowing to the north will be deflected to the east.

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• 25.

### In general, which is the cause of a sea breeze? A. Coastlines are at higher elevations than oceans. B. Land is more dense than water. C. Land heats and cools more quickly than water. D. Landmasses have more cloud cover than oceans.

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

C. C
Explanation
The correct answer is C because land heats and cools more quickly than water. During the day, the land heats up faster than the ocean, creating a temperature difference. This temperature difference causes the air above the land to rise, creating a low-pressure area. The cooler air over the ocean then moves towards the land to fill the void, creating a sea breeze.

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• 26.

### Which step is not part of a normal convection cycle? A. Unequal heating creates a pressure difference. B. Cooled air sinks toward the surface, creating a low-pressure area above it. C. Air flows from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area. D. Warmed air sinks, creating a high-pressure area as it falls.

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

D. D
Explanation
The correct answer is D because warmed air rising and creating a high-pressure area as it falls is not part of a normal convection cycle. In a normal convection cycle, unequal heating creates a pressure difference, cooled air sinks toward the surface creating a low-pressure area, and air flows from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area.

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• 27.

### In which layer of the atmosphere does most of Earth's weather occur? A. Troposphere B. Mesosphere C. Stratosphere D. Thermosphere

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

A. A
Explanation
Most of Earth's weather occurs in the troposphere. This is the lowest layer of the atmosphere, extending from the Earth's surface up to about 10-15 kilometers in altitude. It is where most of the Earth's weather phenomena, such as clouds, precipitation, and storms, take place. The troposphere is also where temperature decreases with increasing altitude, creating the conditions for convection and the formation of weather systems.

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• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Jan 15, 2013
Quiz Created by
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