How Well Do You Know The Study Of Toxins!

60 Questions | Total Attempts: 3459

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How Well Do You Know The Study Of Toxins! - Quiz

Toxicology is a scientific discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants. Take this quiz to know How well do you know the study of toxins!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Regulatory agency that proposed to classify human carcinogens based on weight of evidence criteria
    • A. 

      Consumer Product Safety Commission

    • B. 

      Centers for Disease Control

    • C. 

      Environmental Protection Agency

    • D. 

      Food And Drug Administration

    • E. 

      Department of Agriculture

  • 2. 
    Uncertainty factors are applied to the NOEL from animal toxicity studies to account for
    • A. 

      Human variability

    • B. 

      Species differences

    • C. 

      Length of exposure

    • D. 

      Mechanism of toxicity

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 3. 
    The gastrointestinal tract performs which of the following functions
    • A. 

      Absorption of nutrients

    • B. 

      Absorption of toxicants

    • C. 

      Detoxification of toxicants

    • D. 

      Excretion of non-absorbed ingested materials

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 4. 
    A basic principle of toxicology states that
    • A. 

      Potency cannot be determined by animal studies

    • B. 

      All compounds are poisons

    • C. 

      Toxicity is independent of dose

    • D. 

      Environmental chemicals act via unique biological processes

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 5. 
    Small molecular weight xenobiotics are absorbed through the skin by
    • A. 

      Reduction

    • B. 

      Phagocytosis

    • C. 

      Diffusion

    • D. 

      Oxidation

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 6. 
    In the glomerulus of the kidney, small molecular compounds are removed from the blood by
    • A. 

      Active transport

    • B. 

      Diffusion

    • C. 

      Isosmotic pressure

    • D. 

      Filtration

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 7. 
    Toxicokinetics is the study of the physiological processes associated with 
    • A. 

      Effects of toxins on tissues

    • B. 

      Oxidative stress

    • C. 

      Cellular respiration

    • D. 

      Movement of toxins in the body

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 8. 
    As a result of metabolism, the half-life of a lipophilic compound is usually
    • A. 

      Unchanged, half-life is independent of metabolism

    • B. 

      Changed from first to zero order elimination

    • C. 

      Shorter due to increased water solubility

    • D. 

      Longer due to increased water solubility

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 9. 
    Particles in air
    • A. 

      Slowly diffuse into the blood

    • B. 

      Are converted into gas in the alveoli

    • C. 

      Are metabolized by cytochrome P-450

    • D. 

      Are filtered by nasal epithelial cells

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 10. 
    Cytochrome P-450 enzymes are
    • A. 

      Induced by some environmental contaminants

    • B. 

      Grouped into families based on substrate specificities

    • C. 

      Named for the reactions they catalyze

    • D. 

      Classified based on activation versus inactivation of substrates

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 11. 
    Most xenobiotics are
    • A. 

      Absorbed in the stomach

    • B. 

      Excreted in expired air

    • C. 

      Metabolized in the liver

    • D. 

      Distributed via the lymphatics

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 12. 
    Small molecular xenobiotics include
    • A. 

      Industrial pollutants

    • B. 

      Pharmaceuticals

    • C. 

      Pesticides

    • D. 

      Plant metabolites

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 13. 
    Select the correct xenobiotic/toxicity pairing
    • A. 

      Fibers bind to specific receptors in the bronchioles

    • B. 

      Carbon monoxide prevents oxygen binding to hemoglobin

    • C. 

      Crystals bind to ion channels

    • D. 

      Estrogens solubilize cell membranes

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 14. 
    Diffusion of chemicals from the blood into tissues is an important biological process for 
    • A. 

      Absorption

    • B. 

      Excretion

    • C. 

      Metabolism

    • D. 

      Distribution

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 15. 
    The P-glycoprotein transporter
    • A. 

      Is the specialized biological system for toxicants

    • B. 

      Is a macromolecule that can pump toxicants out of cells

    • C. 

      Facilitates drug transport in the blood

    • D. 

      Is present in the stratum corneum

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 16. 
    Protein binding of xenobiotics
    • A. 

      Shortens the half-life

    • B. 

      Inhibits their diffusion into cells

    • C. 

      Facilitates excretion

    • D. 

      Increases bioavailability

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 17. 
    The lethal dose 50
    • A. 

      Uses death as the endpoint

    • B. 

      Is a point estimate of toxicity

    • C. 

      Is used to compare potency of chemicals

    • D. 

      Assesses acute toxicity

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 18. 
    Preclinical safety studies in animals
    • A. 

      Investigate chemical mechanisms that are irrelevant for humans

    • B. 

      Evaluate all the same toxic endpoints as clinical trials

    • C. 

      Are used to set a safe dose for human clinical trials

    • D. 

      Are not included in the FDA approved drug label

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 19. 
    Risk differs from hazard in that risk
    • A. 

      Includes a consideration of the likelihood and severity

    • B. 

      Is determined by toxicity studies

    • C. 

      Can only be assessed by trained professionals

    • D. 

      Is independent of exposure

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 20. 
    Gut microflora can affect toxicity of a xenobiotic by
    • A. 

      Hydrolyzing (de-conjugating) sulfated xenobiotics

    • B. 

      Synthesizing vitamins

    • C. 

      Influencing the electric charge of a xenobiotic chemical

    • D. 

      Blocking the function of P-glycoprotein

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 21. 
    Which statement(s) about biomarkers is correct
    • A. 

      Diagnostic biomarkers indicate that tissue damage has occured

    • B. 

      Biomarkers of toxicity are distinct from biomarkers of disease

    • C. 

      Prognostic biomarkers do not exist

    • D. 

      Predictive biomarkers cannot predict cellular injury

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 22. 
    Following absorption from the small intestine, compounds enter the blood and travel directly to the 
    • A. 

      Lungs

    • B. 

      Entire body

    • C. 

      Target tissue

    • D. 

      Liver

    • E. 

      Heart

  • 23. 
    The two compartment pharmacokinetic model 
    • A. 

      Is determined from the plot of the elimination curve

    • B. 

      Results from fast and slow elimination

    • C. 

      Can be described by two straight lines

    • D. 

      Suggests distribution to tissues other than blood

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 24. 
    Cell death may occur following
    • A. 

      Faulty repair of cell injury

    • B. 

      DNA adduct formation

    • C. 

      Changes in cellular environment

    • D. 

      Perturbation of biological pathways

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 25. 
    For medical products, the safety standard is
    • A. 

      Reasonable certainty of no harm

    • B. 

      Benefit greater than risk

    • C. 

      Absolute safety

    • D. 

      Increased risk of 1 in 1 million

    • E. 

      None of the above

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