Test: Group A - Module 9 : Approach To Parenteral Nutrition

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Test: Group A - Module 9 : Approach To Parenteral Nutrition - Quiz


14 October 2015
Asia Pacific Surgical Training Center, Bali - Indonesia


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Should TPN be administered to all advanced cancer patients? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    TPN (total parenteral nutrition) is a method of providing nutrition through a vein when a patient is unable to eat or absorb nutrients through the digestive system. While TPN can be beneficial for some cancer patients, it is not recommended for all advanced cancer patients. The decision to administer TPN depends on various factors such as the patient's prognosis, goals of care, and overall health status. In some cases, TPN may not improve outcomes or quality of life and can even cause complications. Therefore, the correct answer is false, as TPN should not be administered to all advanced cancer patients.

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  • 2. 

    Is anorexia the main reason for giving TPN to cancer patients?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Anorexia is not the main reason for giving TPN (Total Parenteral Nutrition) to cancer patients. TPN is typically used when a patient is unable to eat or digest food properly, often due to complications from cancer treatment or surgery. While anorexia may contribute to a patient's inability to eat, it is not the sole reason for administering TPN. Other factors such as malnutrition, weight loss, and the need for additional nutrients also play a role in the decision to provide TPN to cancer patients.

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  • 3. 

    Is TPN beneficial in all postoperative patients?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    TPN, or total parenteral nutrition, is not beneficial in all postoperative patients. TPN is typically reserved for patients who are unable to tolerate oral or enteral feeding due to gastrointestinal dysfunction or malabsorption. In most postoperative patients, oral or enteral feeding is preferred as it is associated with fewer complications and faster recovery. TPN may be considered in patients with severe malnutrition or those who are unable to tolerate any form of enteral feeding. Therefore, the statement "TPN is beneficial in all postoperative patients" is false.

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  • 4. 

    Is TPN recommended in previously well-nourished patients with longstanding postoperative ileus?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    TPN (total parenteral nutrition) is a method of providing nutrition intravenously when the patient is unable to consume food orally. In the case of previously well-nourished patients with longstanding postoperative ileus, where there is a delay in the normal movement of the intestines, TPN may be recommended. This is because the patient may not be able to receive adequate nutrition through oral intake alone. TPN can help provide the necessary nutrients and prevent malnutrition in these patients. Therefore, the statement "True" is the correct answer.

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  • 5. 

    Is routine postoperative PN in well nourished patients beneficial?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The routine postoperative parenteral nutrition (PN) in well-nourished patients is not beneficial. This means that providing PN after surgery to patients who are already well-nourished does not provide any additional benefits. It is important to note that PN should be reserved for patients who are malnourished or unable to tolerate oral intake. In well-nourished patients, it is more appropriate to focus on early oral intake and a balanced diet to support their recovery.

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  • 6. 

    PN should be always preferred over EN in patients with stable Crohn's disease.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In patients with stable Crohn's disease, there is no clear evidence to suggest that PN (parenteral nutrition) should be preferred over EN (enteral nutrition). EN is generally the preferred method of providing nutrition in these patients as it has been shown to be effective in maintaining remission and improving nutritional status. PN may be considered in certain situations such as when EN is not tolerated or contraindicated. Therefore, the statement that PN should be always preferred over EN in patients with stable Crohn's disease is false.

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  • 7. 

    May TPN be beneficial in radiation enteritis for bowel rest?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    TPN (Total Parenteral Nutrition) can be beneficial in radiation enteritis for bowel rest. Radiation enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine caused by radiation therapy. This condition can cause severe diarrhea and malabsorption of nutrients. By providing nutrition intravenously through TPN, the bowel is given a chance to rest and heal. This allows the inflammation to subside and the bowel to recover. Therefore, TPN can be an effective treatment option for radiation enteritis.

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  • 8. 

    EN should be always preferred over PN in patients with enterocutaneous fistulas. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because PN (parenteral nutrition) should be preferred over EN (enteral nutrition) in patients with enterocutaneous fistulas. Enterocutaneous fistulas are abnormal connections between the gastrointestinal tract and the skin, which can lead to malabsorption and increased risk of infection. In such cases, EN may worsen the condition by increasing the flow of intestinal contents through the fistula, while PN can bypass the gastrointestinal tract and provide nutrition directly into the bloodstream. Therefore, PN is the preferred method of nutrition in these patients.

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  • 9. 

    ICU patients should always receive a mixed regimen of EN+PN irrespective of GI function.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because ICU patients should not always receive a mixed regimen of EN (enteral nutrition) and PN (parenteral nutrition) irrespective of GI (gastrointestinal) function. The choice of nutrition support should be based on the patient's individual needs and condition. In some cases, EN alone may be sufficient and appropriate, while in others, PN may be necessary. The decision should consider factors such as the patient's ability to tolerate enteral feeding, the severity of GI dysfunction, and the overall nutritional status.

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  • 10. 

    In contrast to EN, PN can be given to most patients and is not limited by GI tolerance.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is suggesting that PN (parenteral nutrition) can be administered to most patients without limitations imposed by gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance. This implies that unlike EN (enteral nutrition), which is limited by the patient's ability to tolerate feeding through the GI tract, PN can be used more widely. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 11. 

    Parenteral nutrition should only be infused via a central vein.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Parenteral nutrition is a method of providing nutrients directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system. While it is commonly administered through a central vein, such as the subclavian or jugular vein, it can also be infused through a peripheral vein. This is known as peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) and is suitable for patients with short-term nutritional needs or when central access is not feasible or contraindicated. Therefore, the statement that parenteral nutrition should only be infused via a central vein is false.

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  • 12. 

    The subclavian vein should be the access of first choice for placing a central venous catheter since its use is associated with the lowest risk of complication at placement.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given answer "False" is that the subclavian vein is not the access of first choice for placing a central venous catheter. While it is true that the subclavian vein is associated with a lower risk of complications at placement compared to other veins, such as the internal jugular or femoral veins, it is not the first choice. The internal jugular vein is typically considered the access of first choice due to its easier accessibility and lower risk of pneumothorax.

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  • 13. 

    The tip of the central venous catheter should be placed at the junction between the superior vena cava and the right atrium.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The tip of the central venous catheter should be placed at the junction between the superior vena cava and the right atrium because this is the optimal location for delivering medications and fluids directly into the central circulation. Placing the tip at this specific location allows for efficient and effective delivery of these substances to the heart and the rest of the body. It also minimizes the risk of complications such as thrombosis or damage to surrounding structures. Therefore, it is important to ensure accurate placement of the central venous catheter at this specific junction.

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  • 14. 

    A control X-ray or fluoroscopy must be carried out after placement of a central venous catheter.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A control X-ray or fluoroscopy is necessary after placing a central venous catheter to ensure proper positioning and to rule out any complications such as pneumothorax or malpositioning of the catheter. This imaging technique allows healthcare professionals to visualize the catheter and surrounding structures in real-time, ensuring its correct placement and function. Therefore, it is essential to perform a control X-ray or fluoroscopy after placing a central venous catheter to ensure patient safety and optimal medical care.

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  • 15. 

    The osmolality of the PN mixture is not a relevant consideration in peripheral vein feeding.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The osmolality of the PN mixture is a relevant consideration in peripheral vein feeding. Osmolality refers to the concentration of solutes in a solution and can affect the compatibility and tolerance of the solution when infused through peripheral veins. High osmolality solutions can cause vein irritation, phlebitis, and other complications. Therefore, it is important to consider the osmolality of the PN mixture to ensure safe and effective peripheral vein feeding.

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  • 16. 

    A multilumen (at least double) catheter is recommended for infusing PN separately from other medications.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A multilumen catheter allows for separate infusion of parenteral nutrition (PN) and other medications. This is beneficial because PN requires specific administration guidelines and may have different compatibility requirements compared to other medications. By using a multilumen catheter, PN can be delivered separately, ensuring accurate and appropriate administration.

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  • 17. 

    All-in-one PN bags allow less handling of the catheter and infusion set

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    All-in-one PN bags combine the catheter and infusion set into a single unit, reducing the need for separate handling of each component. This can make the process more efficient and convenient for healthcare providers, as well as potentially reducing the risk of contamination or errors during setup. Overall, using all-in-one PN bags can streamline the administration of parenteral nutrition and improve patient care.

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  • 18. 

    The patient should always be in bed during PN.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because PN (Parenteral Nutrition) is a method of providing nutrition intravenously, bypassing the digestive system. While it is often administered to patients who are unable to eat or digest food, it does not require the patient to be in bed at all times. The patient may be able to move around and engage in normal activities while receiving PN, depending on their condition and the specific instructions given by their healthcare provider.

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  • 19. 

    It is not necessary to add micronutrients to commercial all-in-one bags.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Adding micronutrients to commercial all-in-one bags is necessary in order to provide all the essential nutrients for plants. Micronutrients are essential for plant growth and development, and their absence can lead to nutrient deficiencies and negatively impact plant health. Therefore, it is necessary to include micronutrients in all-in-one bags to ensure optimal plant nutrition.

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  • 20. 

    Catheters inserted via the inferior vena cava have a minimal risk of complications (i.e., infection, thrombosis, etc.)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Catheters inserted via the inferior vena cava have a minimal risk of complications such as infection and thrombosis. This means that the chances of experiencing these complications when using this type of catheter are very low.

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  • 21. 

    Compounding of an all-in-one admixture should aim to reduce the amount of air in the PN bag to reduce the extent of lipid peroxidation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because compounding an all-in-one admixture with reduced air in the PN (parenteral nutrition) bag helps to minimize lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is a process where free radicals attack and damage lipids, leading to oxidative stress. By reducing the amount of air in the PN bag, the exposure of lipids to oxygen is decreased, thereby reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation. This is important because lipid peroxidation can lead to the formation of harmful byproducts that can cause cellular damage and contribute to various health issues.

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  • 22. 

    Safe i.v. fat emulsions have a fat droplet size distribution similar to chylomicrons (upper limit size at about 5 μm).

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Safe i.v. fat emulsions having a fat droplet size distribution similar to chylomicrons with an upper limit size of about 5 μm is true. Chylomicrons are lipoprotein particles that transport dietary fats in the bloodstream. The similarity in fat droplet size distribution between safe i.v. fat emulsions and chylomicrons suggests that these emulsions are designed to mimic the natural transport mechanism of fats in the body. This similarity is important for the effective and safe delivery of fats through intravenous administration.

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  • 23. 

    The formation of low soluble Ca-monohydrogen-phosphate (pK = 7.2) depends on the pH of the AiO admixture.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The formation of low soluble Ca-monohydrogen-phosphate depends on the pH of the AiO admixture. This means that the pH level of the AiO admixture affects the ability of Ca-monohydrogen-phosphate to dissolve. If the pH is within the range of 7.2 or lower, the Ca-monohydrogen-phosphate will have low solubility. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 24. 

    The use of organic phosphate may be an alternative way of avoiding solubility problems with Ca and phosphate. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The use of organic phosphate can indeed be an alternative method to prevent solubility issues with calcium and phosphate. Organic phosphates, such as organic phosphorous compounds, have the ability to chelate or bind with calcium ions, preventing them from forming insoluble precipitates with phosphate ions. This can help in maintaining the solubility of both calcium and phosphate in a solution, making them more available for biological processes. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 25. 

    The only goal of monitoring parenteral nutrition is to prevent complications.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "The only goal of monitoring parenteral nutrition is to prevent complications" is false. While preventing complications is an important goal of monitoring parenteral nutrition, it is not the only goal. Monitoring also helps to ensure that the patient is receiving adequate nutrition, adjust the nutrition regimen as needed, and evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Additionally, monitoring can help identify any potential issues or deficiencies early on and take appropriate actions. Therefore, the statement is incorrect.

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  • 26. 

    Change in body weight is usually a reliable marker of parenteral nutrition efficacy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because change in body weight is not always a reliable marker of parenteral nutrition efficacy. Other factors such as fluid balance, muscle wasting, and edema can also influence body weight, making it an unreliable marker on its own. Therefore, relying solely on body weight to assess the efficacy of parenteral nutrition may lead to inaccurate conclusions.

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  • 27. 

    Parenteral nutrition-related complications are less frequent in those hospitals where a specialized Nutrition Team exists.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The presence of a specialized Nutrition Team in hospitals can lead to fewer complications related to parenteral nutrition. This team is likely to have expertise in managing and monitoring nutrition support, which can help prevent or address any potential complications that may arise. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that hospitals with a specialized Nutrition Team would experience fewer parenteral nutrition-related complications.

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  • 28. 

    The refeeding syndrome is a complication with low morbidity.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "The refeeding syndrome is a complication with low morbidity" is false. Refeeding syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that can occur when someone who is malnourished or starved begins to eat again. It is characterized by electrolyte imbalances, fluid shifts, and metabolic disturbances, which can lead to serious complications and even death. Therefore, refeeding syndrome is not a complication with low morbidity.

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  • 29. 

    Central venous catheter replacement at scheduled time intervals reduces catheter-related blood-stream infection.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that replacing central venous catheters at scheduled time intervals reduces catheter-related blood-stream infection. However, this is not true. According to current evidence-based guidelines, routine replacement of central venous catheters is not recommended as it does not reduce the risk of infection and may actually increase the risk of complications. Instead, catheters should only be replaced if there are signs of infection or malfunction.

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  • 30. 

    In a lipid emulsion for parenteral nutrition, the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., with 2 or more double bonds) influences the susceptibility to lipid peroxidation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have multiple double bonds in their chemical structure, making them more susceptible to oxidation or lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is a process where free radicals attack the double bonds in PUFAs, leading to the formation of harmful byproducts. Therefore, the higher the amount of PUFAs in a lipid emulsion for parenteral nutrition, the greater the susceptibility to lipid peroxidation.

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