Test: Group B - Module 9 : Approach To Parenteral Nutrition

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Test: Group B - Module 9 : Approach To Parenteral Nutrition - Quiz


14 October 2015
Asia Pacific Surgical Training Center, Bali - Indonesia


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Should TPN be administered to all advanced cancer patients? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    TPN (Total Parenteral Nutrition) is a form of nutrition that is delivered intravenously. It is typically used when a patient is unable to consume food orally or absorb nutrients through their digestive system. While TPN may be appropriate for some advanced cancer patients who are experiencing severe malnutrition or have difficulty eating, it is not necessary or beneficial for all advanced cancer patients. The decision to administer TPN should be based on an individual assessment of the patient's nutritional needs and their ability to tolerate and benefit from the treatment.

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  • 2. 

    Is anorexia the main reason for giving TPN to cancer patients?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Anorexia is not the main reason for giving Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) to cancer patients. TPN is typically provided to cancer patients who are unable to eat or absorb enough nutrients through their digestive system. This can be due to various reasons such as gastrointestinal obstruction, surgery, or severe side effects of cancer treatment. Anorexia, which is the loss of appetite, may be a contributing factor, but it is not the primary reason for administering TPN to cancer patients.

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  • 3. 

    Is TPN beneficial in all postoperative patients?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    TPN stands for Total Parenteral Nutrition, which is a method of providing nutrients to patients intravenously. While TPN can be beneficial for some postoperative patients who are unable to eat or absorb nutrients orally, it is not beneficial for all postoperative patients. Many patients are able to resume normal oral intake shortly after surgery, and TPN is generally reserved for those with severe malnutrition or gastrointestinal dysfunction. Therefore, the statement that TPN is beneficial in all postoperative patients is false.

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  • 4. 

    Is TPN recommended in previously well-nourished patients with longstanding postoperative ileus?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    TPN, or total parenteral nutrition, is a method of providing nutrition intravenously when patients cannot consume food orally. In the case of previously well-nourished patients with longstanding postoperative ileus, TPN may be recommended. Postoperative ileus is a condition where the normal movement of the intestines is delayed or absent, leading to a temporary blockage. This can result in the inability to tolerate oral intake. In such cases, TPN can help provide the necessary nutrients until the patient's condition improves and they can resume normal oral intake. Therefore, the statement "True" indicates that TPN is recommended in these patients.

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  • 5. 

    Is routine postoperative PN in well nourished patients beneficial?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Routine postoperative PN in well nourished patients is not beneficial because well nourished patients typically have adequate nutritional reserves to support their recovery after surgery. Providing parenteral nutrition in these patients may increase the risk of complications such as infections, liver dysfunction, and hyperglycemia. It is generally recommended to reserve PN for patients who are unable to meet their nutritional needs through oral or enteral routes, or those with pre-existing malnutrition or severe gastrointestinal dysfunction.

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  • 6. 

    PN should be always preferred over EN in patients with stable Crohn's disease.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In patients with stable Crohn's disease, there is no clear evidence to suggest that PN (parenteral nutrition) should always be preferred over EN (enteral nutrition). EN is generally the preferred method of providing nutrition in these patients, as it is associated with fewer complications and is more cost-effective. PN is typically reserved for patients who are unable to tolerate or absorb enteral nutrition, or in cases where there is an obstruction or fistula. Therefore, the statement that PN should always be preferred over EN in stable Crohn's disease is false.

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  • 7. 

    May TPN be beneficial in radiation enteritis for bowel rest?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    TPN (total parenteral nutrition) may be beneficial in radiation enteritis for bowel rest. Radiation enteritis is inflammation of the small intestine caused by radiation therapy. Bowel rest is often recommended to allow the intestine to heal. TPN provides nutrition intravenously, bypassing the digestive system and allowing the bowel to rest. Therefore, TPN can be beneficial in radiation enteritis by providing essential nutrients while giving the bowel time to recover.

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  • 8. 

    EN should be always preferred over PN in patients with enterocutaneous fistulas. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because PN (parenteral nutrition) should be preferred over EN (enteral nutrition) in patients with enterocutaneous fistulas. EN is contraindicated in these patients as it may exacerbate the fistula output and delay the healing process. PN provides nutrition directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract, and is therefore a better option for patients with enterocutaneous fistulas.

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  • 9. 

    ICU patients should always receive a mixed regimen of EN+PN irrespective of GI function.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because ICU patients should not always receive a mixed regimen of EN+PN irrespective of GI function. The decision to use a mixed regimen should be based on the patient's individual needs and condition. In some cases, EN alone may be sufficient or PN may be necessary if the GI function is severely impaired. The approach should be tailored to each patient's specific requirements.

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  • 10. 

    In contrast to EN, PN can be given to most patients and is not limited by GI tolerance.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    PN stands for parenteral nutrition, which is a method of providing nutrients directly into the bloodstream bypassing the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. EN, on the other hand, refers to enteral nutrition, which involves providing nutrients through the GI tract. The given statement suggests that PN can be given to most patients without being limited by GI tolerance, meaning it can be used even if a patient has difficulty tolerating food through the GI tract. This is true because PN is delivered directly into the bloodstream, making it suitable for patients who cannot tolerate or absorb nutrients through the GI tract.

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  • 11. 

    Parenteral nutrition should only be infused via a central vein.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Parenteral nutrition can be infused via a central vein or a peripheral vein. However, it is generally preferred to infuse it through a central vein as it allows for a higher concentration of nutrients and reduces the risk of complications such as phlebitis or thrombosis. Infusing parenteral nutrition through a peripheral vein is usually considered when central access is not available or contraindicated.

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  • 12. 

    The subclavian vein should be the access of first choice for placing a central venous catheter since its use is associated with the lowest risk of complication at placement.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given answer is that the statement is incorrect. The subclavian vein is actually considered the access of first choice for placing a central venous catheter because it is associated with the lowest risk of complication at placement. Therefore, the correct answer should be True.

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  • 13. 

    The tip of the central venous catheter should be placed at the junction between the superior vena cava and the right atrium.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The tip of the central venous catheter should be placed at the junction between the superior vena cava and the right atrium because this location allows for optimal blood flow and minimizes the risk of complications. Placing the catheter at this specific point ensures that medications or fluids can be delivered directly into the central circulation efficiently. Additionally, this placement reduces the risk of catheter-related infections and thrombosis.

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  • 14. 

    A control X-ray or fluoroscopy must be carried out after placement of a central venous catheter.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A control X-ray or fluoroscopy is necessary after the placement of a central venous catheter to ensure that it is correctly positioned and functioning properly. This imaging technique allows healthcare professionals to visualize the catheter's placement within the blood vessels and verify that it is not causing any complications such as puncturing other structures or becoming dislodged. By performing this follow-up procedure, any potential issues can be identified and addressed promptly, ensuring the safety and effectiveness of the central venous catheter.

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  • 15. 

    The osmolality of the PN mixture is not a relevant consideration in peripheral vein feeding.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The osmolality of the PN mixture is a relevant consideration in peripheral vein feeding. Osmolality refers to the concentration of solutes in a solution, and a high osmolality can cause irritation and damage to the veins. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the osmolality of the PN mixture is within an acceptable range for peripheral vein feeding to prevent complications and ensure patient safety.

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  • 16. 

    A multilumen (at least double) catheter is recommended for infusing PN separately from other medications.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A multilumen catheter, specifically one with at least two lumens, is recommended for infusing parenteral nutrition (PN) separately from other medications. This is because PN requires its own dedicated lumen to prevent any potential interactions or contamination with other medications being administered through the catheter. By using a multilumen catheter, PN can be infused separately, ensuring its effectiveness and safety.

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  • 17. 

    All-in-one PN bags allow less handling of the catheter and infusion set

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    All-in-one PN bags are designed to contain both the catheter and infusion set in a single package. This eliminates the need for separate handling of these components, making the process more convenient and efficient. By reducing the amount of handling required, the risk of contamination or errors in the administration of parenteral nutrition is minimized. Therefore, the statement that all-in-one PN bags allow less handling of the catheter and infusion set is true.

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  • 18. 

    The patient should always be in bed during PN.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because PN (Parenteral Nutrition) is a method of providing nutrition directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system. It is typically administered through an IV line, and the patient does not need to be in bed for this procedure. PN can be given to patients who are unable to eat or digest food normally, and it can be done in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, and even at home.

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  • 19. 

    It is not necessary to add micronutrients to commercial all-in-one bags.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Adding micronutrients to commercial all-in-one bags is necessary. This is because all-in-one bags are designed to provide a balanced mix of essential nutrients for plants. Micronutrients, such as iron, zinc, and manganese, are required in small amounts for healthy plant growth. Without these micronutrients, plants may suffer from nutrient deficiencies, leading to stunted growth, yellowing leaves, and reduced crop yield. Therefore, it is important to include micronutrients in commercial all-in-one bags to ensure optimal plant nutrition.

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  • 20. 

    Catheters inserted via the inferior vena cava have a minimal risk of complications (i.e., infection, thrombosis, etc.)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Catheters inserted via the inferior vena cava have a minimal risk of complications such as infection and thrombosis. This is because the inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body back to the heart. It is a relatively safe location for catheter insertion compared to other sites. However, it is important to note that although the risk is minimal, it is not completely eliminated, and proper care and monitoring are still necessary to prevent complications.

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  • 21. 

    Compounding of an all-in-one admixture should aim to reduce the amount of air in the PN bag to reduce the extent of lipid peroxidation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because compounding an all-in-one admixture with reduced air in the PN bag helps to minimize lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is a process where free radicals attack and damage the lipids in the admixture, leading to degradation and potential harm to the patient. By reducing the amount of air in the bag during compounding, the exposure of lipids to oxygen is minimized, reducing the extent of lipid peroxidation and enhancing the stability and safety of the admixture.

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  • 22. 

    Safe i.v. fat emulsions have a fat droplet size distribution similar to chylomicrons (upper limit size at about 5 μm).

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Safe i.v. fat emulsions have a fat droplet size distribution similar to chylomicrons, with an upper limit size of about 5 μm. This means that the fat droplets in the emulsions are relatively small, similar to the size of chylomicrons, which are the largest lipoproteins in the body. This is important because smaller fat droplets are less likely to cause adverse effects such as embolism or blockage of blood vessels. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 23. 

    The formation of low soluble Ca-monohydrogen-phosphate (pK = 7.2) depends on the pH of the AiO admixture.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The formation of low soluble Ca-monohydrogen-phosphate (pK = 7.2) depends on the pH of the AiO admixture. This statement is true because the solubility of calcium monohydrogen phosphate is influenced by the pH of the solution. At a pH below 7.2, the compound is less soluble, while at a pH above 7.2, it becomes more soluble. Therefore, the pH of the AiO admixture affects the formation of low soluble Ca-monohydrogen-phosphate.

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  • 24. 

    The use of organic phosphate may be an alternative way of avoiding solubility problems with Ca and phosphate. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that using organic phosphate could be a solution to prevent solubility issues with calcium and phosphate. This implies that organic phosphate may have better solubility compared to other forms of phosphate. Therefore, the answer is true, indicating that organic phosphate can be an alternative to avoid solubility problems with calcium and phosphate.

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  • 25. 

    The only goal of monitoring parenteral nutrition is to prevent complications.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "The only goal of monitoring parenteral nutrition is to prevent complications" is false. While preventing complications is an important goal of monitoring parenteral nutrition, it is not the only goal. Monitoring also helps to ensure that the patient is receiving adequate nutrition, assess the effectiveness of the treatment, and make any necessary adjustments to the parenteral nutrition regimen. Additionally, monitoring can help identify and address any potential side effects or adverse reactions to the nutrition therapy.

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  • 26. 

    Change in body weight is usually a reliable marker of parenteral nutrition efficacy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Change in body weight is not always a reliable marker of parenteral nutrition efficacy. While weight gain or loss can be an indicator of nutritional status, it is not the only factor to consider. Other factors such as fluid balance, muscle mass, and overall clinical condition should also be taken into account when assessing the efficacy of parenteral nutrition. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 27. 

    Parenteral nutrition-related complications are less frequent in those hospitals where a specialized Nutrition Team exists.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The presence of a specialized Nutrition Team in hospitals can lead to fewer complications related to parenteral nutrition. This team is specifically trained in providing nutrition support to patients who are unable to consume food orally. They have the expertise to assess the nutritional needs of patients and provide appropriate parenteral nutrition therapy. By having this specialized team in place, hospitals can ensure that patients receive the necessary nutrition without experiencing complications that may arise from improper administration or monitoring. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 28. 

    The refeeding syndrome is a complication with low morbidity.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The refeeding syndrome is not a complication with low morbidity. This syndrome occurs when a malnourished individual starts receiving proper nutrition too quickly, leading to a range of metabolic abnormalities and potentially serious consequences. It is characterized by electrolyte imbalances, fluid shifts, and organ dysfunction, which can result in significant morbidity and mortality if not managed properly. Therefore, the statement that the refeeding syndrome has low morbidity is incorrect.

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  • 29. 

    Central venous catheter replacement at scheduled time intervals reduces catheter-related blood-stream infection.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Replacing central venous catheters at scheduled time intervals does not reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections. In fact, recent studies have shown that routine replacement of catheters may increase the risk of infection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends replacing central venous catheters only when there are signs of infection or malfunction, rather than on a routine basis. This approach helps minimize the risk of introducing new pathogens into the bloodstream during catheter replacement. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 30. 

    In a lipid emulsion for parenteral nutrition, the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., with 2 or more double bonds) influences the susceptibility to lipid peroxidation.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that polyunsaturated fatty acids, which contain two or more double bonds, are more susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation is a process in which the fatty acids in lipids react with oxygen and form free radicals, leading to the degradation of lipids. This can result in the production of harmful byproducts that can cause cellular damage. Therefore, the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid emulsion can affect its susceptibility to lipid peroxidation.

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