Surgical Technology Examination Appleton & Lange Pg125-133 CST Exam Prep

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Surgical Technology Examination Appleton & Lange pg125-133 CST exam prep


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    906. A sponge used in brain surgery is a(n)

    • A.

      Cottonoid patty

    • B.

      Kitner

    • C.

      Impregnated gauze

    • D.

      Porcine

    Correct Answer
    A. Cottonoid patty
    Explanation
    A sponge used in brain surgery is called a cottonoid patty. Cottonoid patties are small, absorbent sponges made from cotton and are used to control bleeding and provide gentle pressure during delicate brain surgeries. They are designed to be non-adherent to brain tissue and are commonly used in neurosurgical procedures to help maintain a clear surgical field and prevent excessive bleeding.

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  • 2. 

    907. A sponge that is cotton-filled gauze with a cotton thread attached is a

    • A.

      Patty

    • B.

      Tonsil

    • C.

      Kitner

    • D.

      Peanut

    Correct Answer
    B. Tonsil
    Explanation
    A sponge that is cotton-filled gauze with a cotton thread attached is called a tonsil.

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  • 3. 

    908. In cataract surgery, a vesicoelastic drug sometimes used to occupy space in the posterior cavity of the eye is

    • A.

      Alpha-chymotrypsin

    • B.

      Mannitol

    • C.

      Healon

    • D.

      Wydase

    Correct Answer
    C. Healon
    Explanation
    Healon is a vesicoelastic drug commonly used in cataract surgery to occupy space in the posterior cavity of the eye. It helps maintain the shape of the eye during surgery and provides a protective barrier. Healon is a clear, viscous substance that is injected into the eye and can be easily removed at the end of the procedure. It is preferred over other options like Alpha-chymotrypsin, mannitol, and Wydase due to its effectiveness and safety profile.

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  • 4. 

    909. A miotic drug is

    • A.

      Pilocarpine

    • B.

      Homatropine

    • C.

      Atropine

    • D.

      Scopolamine

    Correct Answer
    A. Pilocarpine
    Explanation
    Pilocarpine is a miotic drug. Miotic drugs are used to constrict the pupil of the eye, which helps in the treatment of conditions like glaucoma. Pilocarpine specifically stimulates the muscles in the iris, causing the pupil to become smaller. Homatropine, atropine, and scopolamine, on the other hand, are mydriatic drugs, which dilate the pupil. Therefore, pilocarpine is the correct answer as it is the only drug mentioned that acts as a miotic.

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  • 5. 

    910. What topical anesthetic is used most frequently for preoperative ocular instillation?

    • A.

      Lidocaine

    • B.

      Tetracaine

    • C.

      Cocaine

    • D.

      Dorsacaine

    Correct Answer
    B. Tetracaine
    Explanation
    Tetracaine is the most frequently used topical anesthetic for preoperative ocular instillation. It is a local anesthetic that works by blocking nerve signals in the area where it is applied, providing temporary numbness and pain relief. Tetracaine is commonly used in ophthalmology for procedures such as cataract surgery or corneal abrasions. It is preferred due to its rapid onset of action and long duration of effect, making it suitable for use during surgical procedures. Lidocaine and cocaine are also topical anesthetics, but they are not used as frequently as tetracaine in ocular instillation. Dorsacaine is not a commonly used topical anesthetic.

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  • 6. 

    911. The drug added to a local ophthalmic anesthetic to increase diffusion is

    • A.

      Alpha-chymotrypsin

    • B.

      Hyaluronidase

    • C.

      Epinephrine

    • D.

      Varidase

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyaluronidase
    Explanation
    Hyaluronidase is a drug that is added to a local ophthalmic anesthetic to increase diffusion. It works by breaking down the hyaluronic acid, which is a gel-like substance that can hinder the diffusion of the anesthetic. By adding hyaluronidase, the gel-like substance is broken down, allowing the anesthetic to spread more easily and effectively. This helps to ensure that the anesthetic reaches the desired area and provides the intended numbing effect.

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  • 7. 

    912. A solution used for eye irrigation is

    • A.

      Phenylephrine HCI

    • B.

      Normal saline

    • C.

      Alpha-chymotrypsin

    • D.

      Balanced salt solution

    Correct Answer
    D. Balanced salt solution
    Explanation
    A balanced salt solution is used for eye irrigation because it closely mimics the natural composition of tears, making it gentle and safe for the eyes. It helps to cleanse the eyes, remove debris, and soothe any irritation or discomfort. Phenylephrine HCI is a vasoconstrictor used for pupil dilation, not for eye irrigation. Normal saline is a sterile solution of salt and water, but it may not have the same pH and electrolyte balance as tears. Alpha-chymotrypsin is an enzyme used for enzymatic debridement, not for eye irrigation.

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  • 8. 

    913. A synthetic local anesthetic that is effective on the mucous membrane and is used as a surface agent in ophthalmology is

    • A.

      Miochol

    • B.

      Zolyse

    • C.

      Dibucaine

    • D.

      Tetracaine

    Correct Answer
    D. Tetracaine
    Explanation
    Tetracaine is a synthetic local anesthetic that is commonly used as a surface agent in ophthalmology. It is effective on the mucous membrane and is often used to numb the eye during procedures such as eye examinations or surgeries. Tetracaine works by blocking the transmission of nerve signals, resulting in temporary loss of sensation in the area where it is applied. This makes it an ideal choice for ophthalmic use as it can provide pain relief and prevent discomfort during eye procedures.

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  • 9. 

    914. Dilating eye drops are called

    • A.

      Mydriatics

    • B.

      Miotics

    • C.

      Myopics

    • D.

      Oxytocics

    Correct Answer
    A. Mydriatics
    Explanation
    Dilating eye drops are called mydriatics because they are used to dilate the pupil of the eye. This can help with various eye examinations and procedures, as well as treat certain eye conditions. Miotics, on the other hand, are eye drops that constrict the pupil. Myopics refers to nearsightedness, which is a refractive error of the eye. Oxytocics are medications that stimulate contractions of the uterus. Therefore, mydriatics is the most appropriate term for dilating eye drops.

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  • 10. 

    915. Which of the following uses ultrasonic energy to fragment the lens in extracapsular cataract extraction?

    • A.

      Keratome

    • B.

      Ocutome

    • C.

      Cystotome

    • D.

      Phacoemulsifier

    Correct Answer
    D. Phacoemulsifier
    Explanation
    A phacoemulsifier is a device that uses ultrasonic energy to break up the lens in extracapsular cataract extraction. This technique involves removing the cloudy lens while leaving the posterior capsule intact. The ultrasonic energy from the phacoemulsifier helps to emulsify the lens material, making it easier to remove through a small incision. This method is commonly used in modern cataract surgery due to its effectiveness and minimal invasiveness.

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  • 11. 

    916. A chalazion is a chronic inflammation of the

    • A.

      Lacrimal gland

    • B.

      Meibomian gland

    • C.

      Eyelid

    • D.

      Conjunctiva

    Correct Answer
    B. Meibomian gland
    Explanation
    A chalazion is a chronic inflammation of the meibomian gland. The meibomian glands are located in the eyelids and produce an oily substance that helps lubricate the eyes. When these glands become blocked, it can lead to the formation of a chalazion, which is a small bump or lump on the eyelid. This condition is often painless but can cause discomfort and swelling. Treatment options include warm compresses and gentle massage to help unclog the gland, or in some cases, surgical removal may be necessary.

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  • 12. 

    917. What procedure us done for chronic dacrocyctitis?

    • A.

      Extirpation

    • B.

      Lacrimal duct probing

    • C.

      Myectomy

    • D.

      Dacrocystorhinostomy

    Correct Answer
    D. Dacrocystorhinostomy
    Explanation
    Dacrocystorhinostomy is the correct procedure for chronic dacrocyctitis. This procedure involves creating a new pathway for tears to drain from the lacrimal sac into the nasal cavity, bypassing any blockages or inflammation in the lacrimal duct. Extirpation refers to the complete removal of a structure or organ, which is not the appropriate treatment for dacrocyctitis. Lacrimal duct probing is a diagnostic procedure to assess the patency of the lacrimal duct and is not a treatment option. Myectomy refers to the surgical removal of a muscle, which is not relevant to the treatment of dacrocyctitis.

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  • 13. 

    918. A procedure to treat retinal detachment is

    • A.

      Scleral buckling

    • B.

      Trabeculectomy

    • C.

      Goniotomy

    • D.

      Vitrectomy

    Correct Answer
    A. Scleral buckling
    Explanation
    Scleral buckling is a procedure used to treat retinal detachment. It involves the placement of a silicone band or sponge around the eye to push the sclera (the white part of the eye) inward, which helps to reattach the detached retina. This technique provides support to the retina and allows it to heal properly. Trabeculectomy is a procedure used to treat glaucoma by creating a new drainage channel for fluid in the eye, while goniotomy is a surgical procedure to treat certain types of glaucoma. Vitrectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the vitreous gel from the eye.

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  • 14. 

    919. Sagging and eversion of the lower lid is

    • A.

      Entropion

    • B.

      Blepharitis

    • C.

      Ectropion

    • D.

      Ptosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Ectropion
    Explanation
    Ectropion refers to the sagging and eversion (turning outward) of the lower eyelid. This condition causes the eyelid to droop away from the eye, exposing the inner surface of the lid and leading to issues such as excessive tearing, dryness, and irritation. It can be caused by factors like aging, facial nerve paralysis, scarring, or previous eyelid surgery. Treatment options may include lubricating eye drops, eyelid taping, or surgical correction to tighten the eyelid muscles and restore normal positioning.

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  • 15. 

    920. Removal of the entire eyeball is

    • A.

      Keratoplasty

    • B.

      Exenteration

    • C.

      Enucleation

    • D.

      Evisceration

    Correct Answer
    C. Enucleation
    Explanation
    Enucleation refers to the surgical removal of the entire eyeball. This procedure is typically performed in cases where the eye is severely damaged or diseased, such as in cases of advanced eye cancer or trauma. During enucleation, the eye is carefully removed from the socket, including the removal of surrounding tissues and muscles. After the procedure, a prosthetic eye may be fitted to restore the appearance of the eye socket.

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  • 16. 

    921. A noninvasive process to treat glaucoma by means of a slit lamp is a(n)

    • A.

      Argon or Nd:YAG laser

    • B.

      Cavitron I&A

    • C.

      Phacoemulsifier

    • D.

      Cryoprobe

    Correct Answer
    A. Argon or Nd:YAG laser
    Explanation
    A noninvasive process to treat glaucoma by means of a slit lamp is the use of an argon or Nd:YAG laser. This type of laser treatment can help to reduce intraocular pressure in the eye, which is a common symptom of glaucoma. The laser is used to target and treat the trabecular meshwork, a drainage system in the eye that can become blocked in glaucoma patients. By using a slit lamp, the laser can be precisely directed to the affected area without the need for invasive surgery. This type of treatment is considered noninvasive because it does not require any incisions or cutting of the eye tissue.

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  • 17. 

    922. Removal of a portion of an ocular muscle with reattachment is called

    • A.

      Recession

    • B.

      Resection

    • C.

      Strabismus

    • D.

      Myomectomy

    Correct Answer
    B. Resection
    Explanation
    Resection refers to the surgical procedure of removing a portion of an ocular muscle and then reattaching it. This procedure is commonly performed to correct strabismus, which is a condition where the eyes are misaligned and do not focus on the same point. Recession, on the other hand, involves detaching and repositioning the entire ocular muscle to modify its action. Myomectomy is the removal of a benign tumor or growth from a muscle. Therefore, the correct answer is resection.

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  • 18. 

    923. Opacity of the vitreous humor is treated by performing a

    • A.

      Cataract removal

    • B.

      Scleral buckling procedure

    • C.

      Vitrectomy

    • D.

      Goniotomy

    Correct Answer
    C. Vitrectomy
    Explanation
    Vitreous humor opacity refers to cloudiness or loss of transparency in the gel-like substance that fills the eye. Vitrectomy is a surgical procedure that involves removing the vitreous humor and replacing it with a clear saline solution. This procedure is commonly used to treat conditions such as vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and macular hole. By removing the opaque vitreous humor, vision can be restored and further complications can be prevented.

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  • 19. 

    924. Miocol solution is prepared for a cataract procedure no more than ______ minutes before the actual instillation.

    • A.

      5

    • B.

      15

    • C.

      30

    • D.

      60

    Correct Answer
    C. 30
    Explanation
    Miocol solution is prepared for a cataract procedure no more than 30 minutes before the actual instillation. This time frame ensures that the solution remains sterile and effective for the procedure. If the solution is prepared too far in advance, there is a risk of contamination or degradation of the solution's effectiveness. Therefore, it is important to prepare the Miocol solution within a specific time window to ensure optimal results and minimize the risk of complications during the cataract procedure.

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  • 20. 

    925. Molteno implants are used surgically to reduce intraocular pressure during

    • A.

      Goniotomy

    • B.

      Trabeculectomy

    • C.

      Argon laser iridotomy

    • D.

      Laser trabeculoplasty

    Correct Answer
    B. Trabeculectomy
    Explanation
    Molteno implants are used surgically to reduce intraocular pressure. Trabeculectomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating a new drainage channel in the eye to relieve intraocular pressure. Therefore, it is likely that Molteno implants would be used during a trabeculectomy procedure to help reduce intraocular pressure.

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  • 21. 

    926. A drug used as a lubricant and as vesicoelastic support to maintain separation of tissues before removal of lens during cataract surgery is

    • A.

      5-fluorouracil

    • B.

      Healon

    • C.

      Mitomycin

    • D.

      Miostat

    Correct Answer
    B. Healon
    Explanation
    Healon is a drug that is used as a lubricant and vesicoelastic support during cataract surgery. It helps to maintain separation of tissues before the removal of the lens. This drug is specifically designed for use in ophthalmic surgeries and is commonly used in cataract surgery to create a clear field of vision and facilitate the surgical procedure.

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  • 22. 

    927. A drug used to contract the sphincter of the iris during an intracapsular cataract extraction is

    • A.

      Zolyse

    • B.

      Healon

    • C.

      Miocol

    • D.

      Mitomycin

    Correct Answer
    C. Miocol
    Explanation
    Miocol is the correct answer because it is a drug used to contract the sphincter of the iris during an intracapsular cataract extraction. This drug helps to minimize the risk of intraoperative iris prolapse and damage during the surgery. It works by causing constriction of the iris muscles, allowing for better visualization and control during the procedure.

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  • 23. 

    928. What procedure accomplishes correction of myopia?

    • A.

      Keratoplasty

    • B.

      Keratophakia

    • C.

      Keratotomy

    • D.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. B and C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "B and C." Keratoplasty and keratotomy are both procedures that can correct myopia. Keratoplasty involves replacing the cornea with a donor cornea to reshape it and correct the refractive error. Keratotomy, on the other hand, involves making incisions in the cornea to flatten its curvature and reduce myopia. Both procedures aim to correct the shape of the cornea and improve vision for individuals with myopia.

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  • 24. 

    929. An enzymatic drug commonly used with anesthetic solutions to increase tissue diffusion is

    • A.

      Viscoat

    • B.

      Epinephrine

    • C.

      Ophthaine

    • D.

      Wydase

    Correct Answer
    D. Wydase
    Explanation
    Wydase is an enzymatic drug commonly used with anesthetic solutions to increase tissue diffusion. It works by breaking down the extracellular matrix, allowing for better penetration and diffusion of the anesthetic solution into the surrounding tissues. This can enhance the effectiveness of the anesthesia and improve the overall outcome of the procedure.

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  • 25. 

    930. Injection of anesthetic solution into the base of the eyelids or behind the eyeball to block the ciliary ganglion and nerves is known as

    • A.

      Retrobulbar

    • B.

      Van Lint block

    • C.

      O'Brien akinesia

    • D.

      Bier block

    Correct Answer
    A. Retrobulbar
    Explanation
    Retrobulbar refers to the injection of an anesthetic solution into the base of the eyelids or behind the eyeball to block the ciliary ganglion and nerves. This technique is commonly used in ophthalmic surgeries to provide local anesthesia and numbness to the eye area. It helps to prevent pain and discomfort during the procedure by blocking the transmission of nerve signals. The other options, Van Lint block, O'Brien akinesia, and Bier block, are not related to the specific technique of injecting anesthetic solution into the eye area.

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  • 26. 

    931. A fleshy, triangular encroachment onto the cornea is surgically termed a(n)

    • A.

      Pterygium

    • B.

      Chalazion

    • C.

      Ectropion

    • D.

      Entropion

    Correct Answer
    A. Pterygium
    Explanation
    A fleshy, triangular encroachment onto the cornea is surgically termed a pterygium.

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  • 27. 

    932. A procedure performed when the cornea is thickened or opacified is called a

    • A.

      Keratomileusis

    • B.

      Keratotomy

    • C.

      Corneal trephining

    • D.

      Keratoplasty

    Correct Answer
    D. Keratoplasty
    Explanation
    Keratoplasty is a procedure performed when the cornea is thickened or opacified. It involves removing the damaged cornea and replacing it with a healthy cornea from a donor. This surgery is commonly used to treat conditions such as corneal scarring, keratoconus, and corneal dystrophies.

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  • 28. 

    933. What is the procedure used to correct accidental vitreous loss during a cataract extraction?

    • A.

      Posterior vitrectomy

    • B.

      Anterior vitrectomy

    • C.

      Pars plana vitrectomy

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior vitrectomy
    Explanation
    Anterior vitrectomy is the procedure used to correct accidental vitreous loss during a cataract extraction. This involves the removal of the vitreous gel from the anterior chamber of the eye. It is a surgical technique used to prevent complications such as retinal detachment or glaucoma that can occur when vitreous enters the anterior chamber. This procedure allows the surgeon to safely remove the vitreous and restore the normal anatomy of the eye.

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  • 29. 

    934. A surgical treatment for chronic wide angleclosure glaucoma that re-establishes communication between the posterior and anterior chamber of the eye is

    • A.

      Iridectomy

    • B.

      Elliot trephination

    • C.

      Cyclodialysis

    • D.

      Posterior lid sclerectomies

    Correct Answer
    A. Iridectomy
    Explanation
    Iridectomy is a surgical treatment for chronic wide angle-closure glaucoma that involves the removal of a portion of the iris. By creating a hole in the iris, it allows for the re-establishment of communication between the posterior and anterior chambers of the eye. This helps to relieve the increased pressure in the eye caused by glaucoma and allows for better fluid drainage, reducing the risk of further damage to the optic nerve.

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  • 30. 

    935. Which of the following hyperosmotic drugs is given preoperatively solely by oral administration to induce osmotic pressure and thereby reduce intraocular pressure in surgery?

    • A.

      Diamox

    • B.

      Glycerol

    • C.

      Mannitol

    • D.

      Urea

    Correct Answer
    B. Glycerol
    Explanation
    Glycerol is a hyperosmotic drug that is given preoperatively solely by oral administration to induce osmotic pressure and reduce intraocular pressure in surgery. It helps to draw fluid out of the eye, reducing pressure and preventing complications during surgery.

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  • 31. 

    936. What eye disease uses the argon slit lamp with a noninvasive procedure, which if successful, prevents the need for more invasive surgery?

    • A.

      Cataract

    • B.

      Retinal detachment

    • C.

      Glaucoma

    • D.

      Pterigium

    Correct Answer
    C. Glaucoma
    Explanation
    Glaucoma is an eye disease that uses the argon slit lamp with a noninvasive procedure, which if successful, prevents the need for more invasive surgery. This means that the argon slit lamp is used in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma, allowing doctors to assess the condition of the eye and potentially avoid the need for more invasive surgical interventions. Cataract, retinal detachment, and pterigium are not associated with the use of the argon slit lamp in this manner.

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  • 32. 

    937. Which dressing is used after nasal surgery?

    • A.

      Collodian

    • B.

      Moustache

    • C.

      Pressure

    • D.

      Telfa

    Correct Answer
    B. Moustache
  • 33. 

    938. What combination of lasers are particularly useful in surgery of the larynx and vocal cords?

    • A.

      CO2 and argon

    • B.

      CO2 and helium-neon

    • C.

      CO2 and Nd:YAG

    • D.

      Argon and helium-neon

    Correct Answer
    B. CO2 and helium-neon
    Explanation
    CO2 and helium-neon lasers are particularly useful in surgery of the larynx and vocal cords because they have different properties that make them suitable for different tasks. The CO2 laser is commonly used for cutting and vaporizing tissue due to its high power and precision. On the other hand, the helium-neon laser is often used for coagulation and reducing bleeding because it has a lower power and can be easily absorbed by blood vessels. Therefore, the combination of these two lasers allows surgeons to perform various procedures effectively and safely in the delicate areas of the larynx and vocal cords.

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  • 34. 

    939. The most common topical anesthetic agent used in ENT surgery is

    • A.

      Xylocaine

    • B.

      Procaine

    • C.

      Cocaine

    • D.

      Surfacaine

    Correct Answer
    C. Cocaine
    Explanation
    Cocaine is the most common topical anesthetic agent used in ENT surgery. It is a powerful local anesthetic that provides fast and effective numbing of the mucous membranes in the nose and throat. Its vasoconstrictive properties also help to reduce bleeding during surgery. Xylocaine and Surfacaine are also topical anesthetics, but they are not as commonly used in ENT surgery as cocaine. Procaine is a local anesthetic, but it is not typically used topically in ENT surgery.

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  • 35. 

    940. Irrigation is used with the ear drill

    • A.

      To remove bone fragments

    • B.

      To minimize transfer of heat from burr to surrounding structures

    • C.

      To add moisture

    • D.

      To control bleeding

    Correct Answer
    B. To minimize transfer of heat from burr to surrounding structures
    Explanation
    Irrigation is used with the ear drill to minimize transfer of heat from the burr to surrounding structures. The ear drill generates heat as it operates, and this heat can cause damage to the surrounding tissues. By irrigating the area with a cooling solution, the heat is dissipated and the risk of damage is minimized. This helps to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the procedure.

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  • 36. 

    941. A surgical schedule would describe the procedure to treat acute otitis media as a

    • A.

      Myringotomy

    • B.

      Stapes mobilization

    • C.

      Fenestration operation

    • D.

      Wullstein procedure

    Correct Answer
    A. Myringotomy
    Explanation
    A myringotomy is a surgical procedure used to treat acute otitis media, which is an infection of the middle ear. During a myringotomy, a small incision is made in the eardrum to relieve pressure and drain fluid from the middle ear. This procedure helps to reduce pain and prevent further complications. Stapes mobilization, fenestration operation, and the Wullstein procedure are not typically used to treat acute otitis media, making myringotomy the correct answer.

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  • 37. 

    942. In myringotomy, the tube to facilitate drainage is placed into the tympanic membrane with a(n)

    • A.

      Alligator forceps

    • B.

      Castroviejo

    • C.

      Wire loop curette

    • D.

      Tobey forceps

    Correct Answer
    A. Alligator forceps
    Explanation
    In myringotomy, a tube is placed into the tympanic membrane to facilitate drainage. The correct tool for this procedure is alligator forceps. Alligator forceps are commonly used in ear surgeries to grasp and manipulate delicate tissues. They have a long, slender shape with a curved tip that allows for precise and controlled placement of the drainage tube into the tympanic membrane. This tool ensures that the procedure is performed accurately and minimizes the risk of damage to surrounding structures.

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  • 38. 

    943. A perforated eardrum is corrected by

    • A.

      Myrinotomy

    • B.

      Stapedectomy

    • C.

      Stapedotomy

    • D.

      Tympanoplasty

    Correct Answer
    D. Tympanoplasty
    Explanation
    Tympanoplasty is a surgical procedure used to correct a perforated eardrum. It involves repairing the eardrum using a graft taken from the patient's own tissue or a synthetic material. Tympanoplasty helps to restore the integrity and function of the eardrum, improving hearing and preventing complications such as ear infections. Myringotomy is a different procedure that involves making a small incision in the eardrum to relieve pressure or drain fluid, while stapedectomy and stapedotomy are surgeries performed to treat hearing loss caused by a specific condition called otosclerosis.

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  • 39. 

    944. Severe vertigo may be relieved by

    • A.

      Stapedectomy

    • B.

      Myringotomy

    • C.

      Labyrinthectomy

    • D.

      Endolymphatic shunt

    Correct Answer
    C. Labyrinthectomy
    Explanation
    Labyrinthectomy is the correct answer because it is a surgical procedure that involves removing the inner ear structures responsible for balance and hearing. Severe vertigo, which is a sensation of spinning or dizziness, can be caused by inner ear problems such as Meniere's disease or vestibular schwannoma. Labyrinthectomy is considered when other treatments have failed to relieve vertigo symptoms. By removing the inner ear structures, it eliminates the source of vertigo, providing relief for the patient. Stapedectomy, myringotomy, and endolymphatic shunt are not appropriate treatments for severe vertigo.

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  • 40. 

    945. Middle ear ventilation is facilitated by

    • A.

      Antrostomy

    • B.

      Myringotomy

    • C.

      Stapedectomy

    • D.

      Turbinectomy

    Correct Answer
    B. Myringotomy
    Explanation
    Middle ear ventilation is facilitated by myringotomy. Myringotomy is a surgical procedure in which a small incision is made in the eardrum to relieve pressure and allow fluid to drain from the middle ear. This procedure is commonly performed to treat conditions such as middle ear infections, fluid buildup, and eustachian tube dysfunction. By creating an opening in the eardrum, myringotomy helps to equalize pressure, improve ventilation, and promote healing in the middle ear.

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  • 41. 

    946. Cholesteatoma is treated by doing a

    • A.

      Tympanoplasty

    • B.

      Myringotomy

    • C.

      Stapedectomy

    • D.

      Mastoidectomy

    Correct Answer
    D. Mastoidectomy
    Explanation
    A mastoidectomy is the surgical removal of the mastoid bone, which is located behind the ear. Cholesteatoma is a condition where a cyst or tumor-like growth forms in the middle ear, and it can lead to hearing loss and other complications. One of the most effective treatments for cholesteatoma is a mastoidectomy, as it allows the surgeon to remove the abnormal growth and clean out any infected or damaged tissue. This procedure helps to prevent the spread of infection and restore proper function to the middle ear.

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  • 42. 

    947. A benign tumor arising from the eighth cranial nerve, which may grow to a size that produces neurologic symptoms is a(n)

    • A.

      Myoma

    • B.

      Acoustic neuroma

    • C.

      Teratoma

    • D.

      Fibroma

    Correct Answer
    B. Acoustic neuroma
    Explanation
    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the eighth cranial nerve, also known as the vestibulocochlear nerve. This nerve is responsible for transmitting sound and balance information from the inner ear to the brain. As the tumor grows, it can compress the nerve and surrounding structures, leading to neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and imbalance. Therefore, an acoustic neuroma can cause neurologic symptoms due to its location and size.

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  • 43. 

    948. Facial nerve trauma can be decreased by use of

    • A.

      Computerized nerve monitor

    • B.

      Fluoroscopy

    • C.

      Berman locator

    • D.

      Doppler

    Correct Answer
    A. Computerized nerve monitor
    Explanation
    The use of a computerized nerve monitor can decrease facial nerve trauma. This technology allows for real-time monitoring of the facial nerve during surgical procedures, such as facial reconstructive surgery or removal of tumors near the nerve. By monitoring the nerve's function, surgeons can make adjustments to their technique or halt the procedure if necessary to prevent damage to the nerve. This can greatly reduce the risk of facial nerve trauma and its associated complications, such as facial weakness or paralysis.

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  • 44. 

    949. Another name for submucous resection is

    • A.

      Septoplasty

    • B.

      Rhinoplasty

    • C.

      Antrostomy

    • D.

      Trephination

    Correct Answer
    A. Septoplasty
    Explanation
    Septoplasty is the correct answer because it is another name for submucous resection. Submucous resection is a surgical procedure that involves removing a portion of the nasal septum to correct a deviated septum, which can cause breathing difficulties. Rhinoplasty is a different procedure that involves reshaping or resizing the nose. Antrostomy is a procedure that involves creating an opening in the maxillary sinus. Trephination is a procedure that involves creating a hole in the skull.

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  • 45. 

    950. Surgical correction of a deviated septum is known as a(n)

    • A.

      Antrostomy

    • B.

      Submucous resection

    • C.

      Rhinoplasty

    • D.

      Turbinectomy

    Correct Answer
    B. Submucous resection
    Explanation
    A submucous resection is a surgical procedure used to correct a deviated septum. The deviated septum refers to the misalignment of the wall between the nostrils, which can cause breathing difficulties and other nasal problems. During a submucous resection, the surgeon removes or reshapes the deviated portion of the septum to improve nasal airflow and alleviate symptoms. This procedure is commonly performed to address nasal obstruction and is considered a more conservative approach compared to a full rhinoplasty, which involves reshaping the external nose for cosmetic purposes.

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  • 46. 

    951. A forceps used in nasal surgery is a(n)

    • A.

      Bayonet

    • B.

      Russian

    • C.

      Rat-tooth

    • D.

      Alligator

    Correct Answer
    A. Bayonet
    Explanation
    A forceps used in nasal surgery is called a bayonet forceps. This type of forceps is specifically designed for accessing and manipulating tissues within the nasal cavity. Its shape resembles that of a bayonet, with a curved and pointed tip that allows for precise and controlled movements during the surgical procedure. The bayonet forceps are commonly used by ENT (ear, nose, and throat) surgeons to perform various nasal surgeries, such as septoplasty or nasal polypectomy.

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  • 47. 

    952. Which sinus is entered during an intranasal antrostomy (antral window)?

    • A.

      Ethmoid

    • B.

      Sphenoid

    • C.

      Maxillary

    • D.

      Frontal

    Correct Answer
    C. Maxillary
    Explanation
    During an intranasal antrostomy (antral window), the maxillary sinus is entered. This procedure involves creating an opening in the maxillary sinus to provide drainage and relieve symptoms of sinusitis or other sinus-related conditions. By entering the maxillary sinus, the surgeon can remove any blockages or infected material, improving the patient's symptoms and promoting healing. The ethmoid, sphenoid, and frontal sinuses are not entered during this specific procedure.

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  • 48. 

    953. Nasal polyps are removed with either a polyp forceps or a(n)

    • A.

      Antrum rasp

    • B.

      Coakley curette

    • C.

      Freer Elevator

    • D.

      Nasal snare

    Correct Answer
    D. Nasal snare
    Explanation
    Nasal polyps are growths that occur in the nasal cavity. They can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, and difficulty breathing. In order to remove nasal polyps, a medical instrument called a nasal snare is commonly used. The nasal snare is a looped wire that is inserted into the nasal cavity and used to grasp and remove the polyps. This method allows for precise and controlled removal of the polyps, reducing the risk of damage to surrounding tissues. Therefore, the correct answer is nasal snare.

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  • 49. 

    955. Which surgery requires an incision under the upper lip above the teeth?

    • A.

      Caldwell-Luc

    • B.

      Submucous resection

    • C.

      Frontal sinus operation

    • D.

      Frontal sinus trephination

    Correct Answer
    A. Caldwell-Luc
    Explanation
    Caldwell-Luc surgery is a procedure that involves making an incision under the upper lip above the teeth. This surgery is typically performed to treat certain conditions of the maxillary sinus, such as chronic sinusitis or the removal of cysts or tumors. The incision allows access to the maxillary sinus, which is located in the cheekbone area, and allows for the removal of diseased tissue or the drainage of fluid.

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  • 50. 

    954. Which of the following medications would be used as a topical anesthetic before nasal surgery?

    • A.

      Numorphan

    • B.

      Codeine

    • C.

      Cocaine

    • D.

      Marcaine

    Correct Answer
    C. Cocaine
    Explanation
    Cocaine is commonly used as a topical anesthetic before nasal surgery because it has vasoconstrictive properties, meaning it constricts blood vessels, reducing bleeding during the procedure. It also has local anesthetic properties, numbing the area and providing pain relief. This makes it an effective choice for nasal surgeries where precision and minimal bleeding are important. Numorphan, codeine, and Marcaine are not typically used as topical anesthetics before nasal surgery.

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