Stearns Chapter 10 Quiz

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Stearns Chapter 10 Quiz - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The post classical period in Western history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century is referred to as the

    • A.

      Middle Ages

    • B.

      Renaissance

    • C.

      Age of Discovery

    • D.

      Modern Era

    Correct Answer
    A. Middle Ages
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Middle Ages. This period in Western history is characterized by the decline of the Roman Empire and the emergence of feudalism. It was a time of political, social, and economic instability, with the Catholic Church playing a prominent role in society. The Middle Ages is often associated with a lack of intellectual and cultural development compared to the periods that came before and after it.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the intellectual activity of the medieval West prior to the 8th century is most accurate?

    • A.

      Classical rational traditions were actively united with Christian mysticism to carve out a new intellectual world.

    • B.

      With the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts.

    • C.

      Universities rapidly created a new intellectual climate in which logic was applied to matters of Christian doctrine.

    • D.

      Western scholars achieved more during this period than their Islamic counterparts.

    Correct Answer
    B. With the few literate people concentrated in monasteries, little was achieved other than copying older manuscripts.
    Explanation
    During the medieval West prior to the 8th century, the intellectual activity was limited due to the concentration of literate individuals in monasteries. As a result, the main accomplishment during this period was the copying of older manuscripts rather than the creation of new intellectual works. This suggests that there was a lack of significant advancements or progress in intellectual pursuits during this time.

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  • 3. 

    Agricultural laborers under the jurisdiction of aristocratic landowners were called

    • A.

      Artisans

    • B.

      Guildsmen

    • C.

      Serfs

    • D.

      Bourgeoisie

    Correct Answer
    C. Serfs
    Explanation
    Serfs were agricultural laborers who were bound to the land and were under the control and jurisdiction of aristocratic landowners. They were not free to leave the land and were required to provide labor and pay rent or taxes to the landowners. This system was prevalent in feudal societies, where the aristocracy held significant power and controlled the majority of the land and resources. The other options, artisans, guildsmen, and bourgeoisie, do not accurately describe the specific relationship between agricultural laborers and aristocratic landowners.

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  • 4. 

    What dynasty took over the Frankish monarchy in the 8th century?

    • A.

      Capetian

    • B.

      Carolingian

    • C.

      Saxon

    • D.

      Norman

    Correct Answer
    B. Carolingian
    Explanation
    The Carolingian dynasty took over the Frankish monarchy in the 8th century. This dynasty was founded by Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great, who became the King of the Franks in 768. Under Charlemagne's rule, the Carolingian Empire expanded and became one of the largest and most powerful in Europe. The dynasty lasted until the death of Louis the Child in 911, after which it was succeeded by the Capetian dynasty.

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  • 5. 

    Relationships between members of the military elite based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty were called

    • A.

      Manorialism

    • B.

      Feudalism

    • C.

      Capitalism

    • D.

      The guild system

    Correct Answer
    B. Feudalism
    Explanation
    Feudalism refers to the relationships between members of the military elite that were based on a reciprocal exchange of land for military service and loyalty. This system was prevalent in medieval Europe, where lords granted land, known as fiefs, to vassals in exchange for their military service and loyalty. The vassals, in turn, provided military service and other forms of support to their lords. Feudalism was characterized by a hierarchical structure, with the king at the top and vassals below, and it played a significant role in shaping the social, economic, and political systems of the time.

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  • 6. 

    In what year did Pope Urban II call for the First Crusade?

    • A.

      1066

    • B.

      1095

    • C.

      1130

    • D.

      1453

    Correct Answer
    B. 1095
    Explanation
    In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade. This was a significant event in history as it marked the beginning of a series of military campaigns by Christians to reclaim the Holy Land from Muslim control. The call to arms by the Pope was a response to the Byzantine Emperor's request for help in defending against the expanding Seljuk Turks. The First Crusade ultimately resulted in the capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders in 1099.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following did NOT occur as a result of the Crusades?

    • A.

      The Crusades helped open the West to new cultural and economic influences from the Middle East.

    • B.

      The Crusades improved the status of women.

    • C.

      The Crusades increased global trade.

    • D.

      The Crusades demonstrated a new Western superiority in the wider world.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Crusades demonstrated a new Western superiority in the wider world.
    Explanation
    The Crusades did not demonstrate a new Western superiority in the wider world. While the Crusades did open the West to new cultural and economic influences from the Middle East, improved the status of women, and increased global trade, they did not result in a demonstration of Western superiority. In fact, the Crusades were marked by violence, conflict, and a lack of understanding between the Western Christian forces and the Muslim world they encountered. The Crusades were not a display of Western superiority, but rather a complex and often destructive series of conflicts.

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  • 8. 

    Following the fall of Rome, where was the center of the post-classical West?

    • A.

      In the former Roman colony of Spain

    • B.

      In Italy, particularly Rome

    • C.

      The central plains of northern Europe

    • D.

      Greece

    Correct Answer
    C. The central plains of northern Europe
    Explanation
    After the fall of Rome, the center of the post-classical West shifted to the central plains of northern Europe. This region, which includes modern-day France, Germany, and the Low Countries, became a hub of political, economic, and cultural activity. The Carolingian Empire, established by Charlemagne, was one of the dominant powers in this region during the post-classical period. The central plains of northern Europe offered a strategic location, with access to trade routes, fertile land for agriculture, and a relatively stable political environment, making it an ideal center for the post-classical West.

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  • 9. 

    Who were the Scandinavian invaders who disrupted the development of durable political institutions in the medieval West until the 10th century?

    • A.

      Muslims

    • B.

      Mongols

    • C.

      Vikings

    • D.

      Chinese

    Correct Answer
    C. Vikings
    Explanation
    The Vikings were Scandinavian invaders who disrupted the development of durable political institutions in the medieval West until the 10th century. They were known for their raids, plundering, and conquests across Europe, which caused instability and hindered the establishment of stable political systems. Their invasions and attacks on various regions disrupted the political and social order, making it difficult for durable political institutions to develop during that time.

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  • 10. 

    The system that described economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers was called

    • A.

      Manorialism

    • B.

      Feudalism

    • C.

      Slavery

    • D.

      Capitalism

    Correct Answer
    A. Manorialism
    Explanation
    Manorialism refers to the economic and social system that prevailed in medieval Europe, where the majority of the population lived on manors owned by lords or nobles. The peasants, also known as serfs, worked the land and provided labor services to the lord in exchange for protection and the right to live on the land. This system was characterized by a hierarchical structure and a strong dependence of the peasants on the lord. Feudalism, on the other hand, refers to the broader political and social system that included manorialism but also encompassed the relationships between lords and vassals. Slavery and capitalism are not accurate descriptions of the system described in the question.

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  • 11. 

    The moldboard was

    • A.

      A system of justice common to the manorial regime of the medieval West.

    • B.

      A technological innovation, a plow that allowed deeper turning of the soil.

    • C.

      A technological innovation, a water-driven mill for grinding grain.

    • D.

      The peasant council that determined the division of land and labor in a peasant village.

    Correct Answer
    B. A technological innovation, a plow that allowed deeper turning of the soil.
    Explanation
    The moldboard was a technological innovation, specifically a plow that allowed deeper turning of the soil. This innovation revolutionized agriculture during the medieval period by making it easier to cultivate land and increase crop yields. The moldboard plow had a curved blade that could cut through the soil and turn it over, effectively burying weeds and incorporating organic matter into the soil. This improved soil fertility and allowed for more efficient farming practices.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the three-field rotation system is most accurate?

    • A.

      Introduced in the 8th century, the three-field rotation added acres to production by leaving only a third of the land unplanted.

    • B.

      The three-field system removed more land from production than before by reserving one-third for fallow.

    • C.

      The three-field system was rapidly replaced after the 8th century by the two-field system that offered greater flexibility in terms of crop rotation.

    • D.

      The three-field system removed fallow fields and replaced them with nitrogen-bearing crops.

    Correct Answer
    A. Introduced in the 8th century, the three-field rotation added acres to production by leaving only a third of the land unplanted.
    Explanation
    The most accurate statement concerning the three-field rotation system is that it added acres to production by leaving only a third of the land unplanted. This means that two-thirds of the land were utilized for planting crops, resulting in increased agricultural output.

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  • 13. 

    Benedict of Nursia was responsible for what accomplishment in the 6th century?

    • A.

      The conversion of the Franks in 596

    • B.

      The banning of lay investiture among kings

    • C.

      The creation of a set of rules for monasteries

    • D.

      The conquest of Constantinople

    Correct Answer
    C. The creation of a set of rules for monasteries
    Explanation
    Benedict of Nursia is known for his significant accomplishment in the 6th century, which was the creation of a set of rules for monasteries. These rules, known as the Rule of Saint Benedict, provided guidelines for the daily life and governance of monastic communities. The Rule emphasized principles such as obedience, humility, and moderation, and it had a profound influence on the development of Western monasticism. Benedict's rules became widely adopted and are still followed by many religious orders today.

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  • 14. 

    What belief did the conversion of Germanic kings create among Western religious leaders, particularly the pope?

    • A.

      That the Church was subordinate to the secular monarchs

    • B.

      That the Church was superior to the secular rulers

    • C.

      That the Church should avoid conversion of northern Germanic kings

    • D.

      That such conversion represented a danger to the papal hierarchy

    Correct Answer
    B. That the Church was superior to the secular rulers
    Explanation
    The conversion of Germanic kings created a belief among Western religious leaders, particularly the pope, that the Church was superior to the secular rulers. This belief stemmed from the idea that the conversion of these kings demonstrated the power and influence of the Church over the secular realm. It also reinforced the notion that the Church had the authority to guide and govern the actions of the rulers, thereby establishing its superiority over them.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following statements concerning the Holy Roman Emperors after the 10th century is most accurate?

    • A.

      They built upon the Carolingian foundations to establish the most centralized government found in the medieval West.

    • B.

      Building on a feudal framework rather than the Carolingian Germanic foundations, the Holy Roman emperors created a strongly centralized government.

    • C.

      Discarding much of the former Carolingian Empire, the Holy Roman emperors reestablished a centralized government in northern Italy.

    • D.

      The rule of the Holy Roman emperors became increasingly hollow, because they did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations.

    Correct Answer
    D. The rule of the Holy Roman emperors became increasingly hollow, because they did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations.
    Explanation
    The answer states that the rule of the Holy Roman emperors became increasingly hollow because they did not build a solid monarchy from regional foundations. This suggests that the Holy Roman emperors were unable to establish a strong and centralized government, indicating a lack of effective governance and authority. Instead of building upon existing foundations or creating a centralized government, they failed to establish a solid monarchy, resulting in a weakened rule.

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  • 16. 

    Where was the greatest concentration of urbanization after the 10th century in Europe?

    • A.

      Italy and the Low Countries

    • B.

      England and France

    • C.

      France and the Holy Roman Empire

    • D.

      England and Scandinavia

    Correct Answer
    A. Italy and the Low Countries
    Explanation
    Italy and the Low Countries had the greatest concentration of urbanization after the 10th century in Europe. This can be attributed to various factors such as their strategic locations for trade and commerce, thriving economies, and cultural advancements. Italy, with its city-states like Venice, Florence, and Genoa, was a hub of trade and a center for art, literature, and architecture. The Low Countries, comprising modern-day Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg, were known for their prosperous cities like Bruges, Ghent, and Amsterdam, which were major trading centers and centers of innovation in industries such as textiles and shipbuilding.

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  • 17. 

    The members of the military elite who received land in return for military service in the bands of the greater lords were called

    • A.

      Fiefs

    • B.

      Benefices

    • C.

      Vassals

    • D.

      Serfs

    Correct Answer
    C. Vassals
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "vassals." In feudal society, vassals were members of the military elite who received land (fiefs) in exchange for providing military service to their lords. They were bound by a feudal contract to support and protect their lords, and in return, they were granted land and the right to exercise power over the peasants living on their land. Vassals played a crucial role in the feudal system, forming a hierarchical structure of loyalty and obligations between lords and their vassals.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following statements about feudalism is most accurate?

    • A.

      Although it inhibited the developments of strong central states, some kings were able to use feudalism to build their own power.

    • B.

      Although it provided initial political stability, feudalism was rapidly replaced by a western European imperial system.

    • C.

      Feudalism represented only a brief, and largely unsatisfactory, attempt to create political stability in western Europe.

    • D.

      Feudalism produced centralized monarchies by the 8th century.

    Correct Answer
    A. Although it inhibited the developments of strong central states, some kings were able to use feudalism to build their own power.
    Explanation
    Feudalism, although hindering the growth of strong central states, allowed certain kings to exploit it to their advantage and consolidate their power. This suggests that while feudalism did impede the development of centralized governance, it also provided opportunities for individual rulers to amass authority and control.

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  • 19. 

    How did the introduction of feudal monarchy into England compare to the political experience of France?

    • A.

      English feudal monarchy developed more gradually and slowly in response to the improving economy.

    • B.

      English feudal monarchy was introduced abruptly following 1066, while French feudal monarchy developed more slowly.

    • C.

      French feudal monarchy arose almost immediately in the 10th century as a result of the defeat of the Normans.

    • D.

      France failed to develop feudal monarchy until the 15th century unlike England.

    Correct Answer
    B. English feudal monarchy was introduced abruptly following 1066, while French feudal monarchy developed more slowly.
    Explanation
    The introduction of feudal monarchy into England was abrupt and followed the events of 1066, such as the Norman Conquest. In contrast, the development of feudal monarchy in France was a slower process that occurred over time. This suggests that the political experience of England and France differed in terms of the speed and manner in which feudal monarchy was established.

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  • 20. 

    The reforming monastic orders founded in Assisi in the 13th century were created by

    • A.

      St. Benedict and Clovis.

    • B.

      St. Clare and St. Benedict.

    • C.

      St. Francis and Charlemagne.

    • D.

      St. Francis and St. Clare

    Correct Answer
    D. St. Francis and St. Clare
    Explanation
    The reforming monastic orders founded in Assisi in the 13th century were created by St. Francis and St. Clare. St. Francis of Assisi founded the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans), while St. Clare of Assisi founded the Order of Poor Ladies (Poor Clares). These orders were part of a movement to return to a simpler, more humble form of religious life, emphasizing poverty, humility, and devotion to God. St. Francis and St. Clare were both influential figures in the Catholic Church and played a significant role in the spiritual and social transformation of their time.

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  • 21. 

    In what way was the educational system of the medieval West different from that of China?

    • A.

      The West abandoned its classical heritage.

    • B.

      The universities were not tied into a single bureaucratic system.

    • C.

      In the West, there were no state bureaucracies to hire university graduates.

    • D.

      The West lacked a formal system of education.

    Correct Answer
    B. The universities were not tied into a single bureaucratic system.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the universities in the medieval West were not tied into a single bureaucratic system. This means that the educational institutions in the West operated independently and were not controlled or regulated by a centralized authority. In contrast, China had a more centralized educational system where the universities were closely tied to the bureaucratic government structure. This difference in organization and control of the educational system is what sets the medieval West apart from China.

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  • 22. 

    The leading figure in the synthesis of classical rational philosophy with Christian theology was a teacher at the University of Paris in the 13th century,

    • A.

      Thomas Aquinas.

    • B.

      William of Ockham.

    • C.

      Peter Abelard.

    • D.

      Geoffrey Chaucer.

    Correct Answer
    A. Thomas Aquinas.
    Explanation
    Thomas Aquinas was a prominent figure in the 13th century who played a significant role in bridging the gap between classical rational philosophy and Christian theology. As a teacher at the University of Paris, Aquinas integrated Aristotelian philosophy with Christian doctrine, emphasizing the use of reason to understand and explain theological concepts. His work, particularly his influential Summa Theologica, established him as a leading intellectual figure of his time and had a lasting impact on the development of Western philosophy and theology.

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