Soil Assessment Noel Pd 2

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Soil Assessment Noel Pd 2 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, mineral fragments, water, air and _____.

    • A.

      Sand

    • B.

      Decayed organic matter

    • C.

      Moss

    • D.

      Clay

    Correct Answer
    B. Decayed organic matter
    Explanation
    Soil is composed of various components, including weathered rock, mineral fragments, water, air, and decayed organic matter. Decay of organic matter, such as dead plants and animals, contributes to the formation of humus, which is an important component of fertile soil. This decayed organic matter provides essential nutrients and improves the soil's ability to retain moisture, making it suitable for plant growth.

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  • 2. 

    The layer of soil that contains the most organic material is called the _____ horizon.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A. The layer of soil that contains the most organic material is called the A horizon. This layer is also known as the topsoil and is rich in organic matter such as decomposed plant and animal material. It is the most fertile layer of soil and supports the growth of plants by providing essential nutrients and water retention.

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  • 3. 

    All of the following cause mechanical weathering EXCEPT _____.

    • A.

      Ice

    • B.

      Tree roots

    • C.

      Burrowing animals

    • D.

      Carbonic acid

    Correct Answer
    D. Carbonic acid
    Explanation
    Carbonic acid does not cause mechanical weathering. Mechanical weathering refers to the physical breakdown of rocks into smaller fragments without changing their chemical composition. Ice, tree roots, and burrowing animals all contribute to mechanical weathering by exerting physical force on rocks and causing them to crack or break apart. However, carbonic acid is an example of chemical weathering, as it reacts with certain minerals in rocks, causing them to dissolve or undergo chemical changes.

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  • 4. 

    Litter often covers the _____ horizon.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    Litter often covers the A horizon. The A horizon, also known as the topsoil, is the uppermost layer of soil that contains a mixture of organic material, minerals, and nutrients. Litter, such as leaves, twigs, and other organic debris, can accumulate on the surface of the A horizon, covering it and potentially affecting the soil's fertility and overall health.

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  • 5. 

    Chemical weathering is more rapid in a _____ climate.

    • A.

      Warm, dry

    • B.

      Warm, wet

    • C.

      Cold, dry

    • D.

      Cold, wet

    Correct Answer
    B. Warm, wet
    Explanation
    Chemical weathering is the process by which rocks and minerals are broken down and altered through chemical reactions. In a warm, wet climate, there is typically more moisture and higher temperatures, which accelerate chemical reactions. The combination of warmth and moisture increases the availability of water, which acts as a solvent and facilitates chemical reactions. Additionally, higher temperatures also increase the rate of chemical reactions. Therefore, chemical weathering is more rapid in a warm, wet climate.

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  • 6. 

    Mechanical weathering is more rapid in a _____ climate.

    • A.

      Dry

    • B.

      Hot

    • C.

      Cold

    • D.

      Humid

    Correct Answer
    C. Cold
    Explanation
    Mechanical weathering refers to the physical breakdown of rocks into smaller fragments without any change in their chemical composition. Cold climates typically experience freeze-thaw cycles, where water seeps into cracks in rocks, freezes, and expands, causing the rocks to break apart. This process is known as frost wedging and is a significant form of mechanical weathering in cold climates. Therefore, mechanical weathering is more rapid in a cold climate compared to dry, hot, or humid climates.

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  • 7. 

    Soil erosion can be slowed by _____.

    • A.

      No-till farming

    • B.

      Cutting trees from the middle of fields

    • C.

      Plowing at least three times a year

    • D.

      Farming on steeper slopes

    Correct Answer
    A. No-till farming
    Explanation
    No-till farming can slow down soil erosion because it involves leaving the soil undisturbed by not plowing or tilling it. By not disturbing the soil, the natural structure and composition of the soil are maintained, which helps to prevent erosion. Additionally, leaving crop residues on the surface of the soil provides a protective layer that reduces the impact of raindrops and helps to retain moisture. Overall, no-till farming practices promote soil conservation and reduce the risk of erosion.

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  • 8. 

    The organic matter in humus is made of _____.

    • A.

      Dead/decaying animals and insects

    • B.

      Leaves

    • C.

      Sticks/branches

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Humus is a dark, organic material that forms in the soil when plant and animal matter decomposes. It is rich in nutrients and helps improve soil fertility. The organic matter in humus is derived from a variety of sources, including dead or decaying animals and insects, as well as leaves, sticks, and branches. Therefore, the correct answer is "all of the above" as all these materials contribute to the formation of humus.

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  • 9. 

    The rate of weathering depends upon the area's _____.

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Climate

    • C.

      Water

    • D.

      Soil

    Correct Answer
    B. Climate
    Explanation
    The rate of weathering depends upon the area's climate. Climate refers to the long-term weather patterns in a specific region, including factors such as temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind. These climatic conditions play a significant role in the physical and chemical processes of weathering. For example, areas with high temperatures and frequent rainfall tend to experience more intense weathering due to the expansion and contraction of rocks caused by temperature changes and the chemical breakdown of minerals in the presence of water. Therefore, climate is a crucial factor in determining the rate at which weathering occurs in a particular area.

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  • 10. 

    The rock and mineral fragments in soil come from rock that has been _____.

    • A.

      Blasted

    • B.

      Carved

    • C.

      Weathered

    • D.

      Chemically treated

    Correct Answer
    C. Weathered
    Explanation
    The rock and mineral fragments in soil come from rock that has been weathered. Weathering refers to the process of breaking down rocks and minerals into smaller pieces through exposure to natural elements such as wind, water, and temperature changes. This gradual breakdown of rocks over time creates the fragments that eventually become part of the soil composition.

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  • 11. 

    On steep slopes and mountains, __________________ helps reduce erosion by creating level topped areas so crops can be grown.

    • A.

      A shelter belt

    • B.

      Strip cropping

    • C.

      Mulching

    • D.

      Terracing

    Correct Answer
    D. Terracing
    Explanation
    Terracing is the correct answer because it helps reduce erosion on steep slopes and mountains by creating level topped areas. This allows for the cultivation of crops, as the terraces prevent soil runoff and help retain water. Terracing involves constructing a series of steps or ridges on the slope, which helps to slow down the flow of water and prevent it from washing away the topsoil. This technique has been used for centuries in mountainous regions to maximize agricultural productivity and minimize soil erosion.

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  • 12. 

    Soils in _________ contain little organic material are are thinner making it very hard to grow crops.

    • A.

      Tropical areas

    • B.

      Deserts

    • C.

      Prairies

    • D.

      Temperate forests

    Correct Answer
    B. Deserts
    Explanation
    Deserts are characterized by extremely dry conditions and lack of precipitation, resulting in limited vegetation growth. The scarcity of water in deserts inhibits the decomposition of organic material, leading to soils with little organic content. Additionally, the arid climate and high temperatures in deserts cause rapid evaporation, further depleting moisture in the soil. As a result, the soil in deserts becomes thin and infertile, making it challenging to cultivate crops successfully.

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  • 13. 

    Plants cannot grow without _____.

    • A.

      Rocks

    • B.

      Soil

    • C.

      Moss

    • D.

      Pesticides

    Correct Answer
    B. Soil
    Explanation
    Plants cannot grow without soil because soil provides essential nutrients, water, and anchorage for plants. It acts as a medium for roots to absorb water and minerals necessary for growth. Additionally, soil contains microorganisms that help break down organic matter and release nutrients that plants need. Without soil, plants would not have a stable foundation or access to the necessary resources for their survival and growth.

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  • 14. 

    __________ regions are especially vulnerable to erosion because once cleared, there is very little ground cover.  

    • A.

      Desert

    • B.

      Tropical

    • C.

      Mountain

    • D.

      Prairie

    Correct Answer
    B. Tropical
    Explanation
    Tropical regions are especially vulnerable to erosion because once cleared, there is very little ground cover. In tropical areas, the dense vegetation provides a protective layer that helps to hold the soil in place. When this vegetation is cleared, either through deforestation or natural causes like wildfires, there is no longer anything to prevent the soil from being washed away by heavy rainfall or blown away by strong winds. This lack of ground cover makes tropical regions more prone to erosion compared to other types of regions.

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  • 15. 

    The mass of clay, silt, sand, and boulders that covers much of the United States was deposited by _____.

    • A.

      Farming

    • B.

      Glaciers

    • C.

      Ice wedging

    • D.

      Huge bulldozers

    Correct Answer
    B. Glaciers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is glaciers. Glaciers are large bodies of ice that move slowly over the land, carrying rocks, soil, and other debris with them. As glaciers move, they scrape the land and deposit the materials they are carrying, including clay, silt, sand, and boulders. This process, known as glaciation, played a significant role in shaping the landscape of the United States and depositing the mass of materials that cover much of the country.

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  • 16. 

    Ice wedging is brought about by _____.

    • A.

      Carbonic acid freezing on rocks

    • B.

      Water and oxygen reacting

    • C.

      Water freezing and thawing

    • D.

      Rocks colliding with each other

    Correct Answer
    C. Water freezing and thawing
    Explanation
    Ice wedging is a process that occurs when water seeps into cracks in rocks, freezes, and expands, causing the cracks to widen and eventually break apart the rock. As water freezes, it expands by about 9%, exerting pressure on the surrounding rock. When the ice thaws, the water seeps deeper into the crack, and the cycle repeats. This repeated freezing and thawing of water causes the cracks in rocks to gradually widen and break apart, leading to the formation of larger fractures and eventually contributing to the breakdown of the rock.

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  • 17. 

    Minerals found in the B horizon were dissolved in water and carried there by a process called _____.

    • A.

      Oxidation

    • B.

      Leaching

    • C.

      Weathering

    • D.

      Littering

    Correct Answer
    B. Leaching
    Explanation
    The minerals found in the B horizon were dissolved in water and carried there by a process called leaching. Leaching is the process by which water moves through the soil, dissolving and carrying away minerals and other substances. This process is common in areas with high rainfall or where water percolates through the soil quickly. As water moves downward through the soil profile, it carries dissolved minerals from the upper layers to the lower layers, resulting in the accumulation of minerals in the B horizon.

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  • 18. 

    Oxidation occurs when some materials are exposed to  _________. 

    • A.

      Oxygen and water

    • B.

      Carbonic acid

    • C.

      Kaolinite

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Oxygen and water
    Explanation
    Oxidation occurs when some materials are exposed to oxygen and water. Oxygen is a highly reactive element that readily reacts with other substances, leading to oxidation. Water, on the other hand, can act as a catalyst for oxidation reactions by providing the necessary conditions for chemical reactions to occur. Therefore, the combination of oxygen and water is a common cause of oxidation in various materials.

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  • 19. 

    The B horizon is _____.

    • A.

      Rockier than the C horizon

    • B.

      Richer in humus than the A horizon

    • C.

      Lighter in color than the A horizon

    • D.

      Thinner than the C horizon

    Correct Answer
    C. Lighter in color than the A horizon
    Explanation
    The B horizon is described as being "lighter in color than the A horizon." This means that the B horizon is not as dark or rich in color as the A horizon. The color of soil can indicate the presence of certain minerals or organic matter, and the lighter color suggests that the B horizon may have less of these components compared to the A horizon.

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  • 20. 

    Plants don't grow as well when _____ has been lost.

    • A.

      Clay

    • B.

      Topsoil

    • C.

      Parent rock

    • D.

      Slope

    Correct Answer
    B. Topsoil
    Explanation
    Plants don't grow as well when topsoil has been lost because topsoil is the uppermost layer of soil that contains most of the organic matter, nutrients, and microorganisms necessary for plant growth. It provides a fertile environment for roots to absorb water and nutrients. Without topsoil, plants may struggle to establish strong root systems and access the essential resources they need to thrive.

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  • 21. 

    _____ is a factor that affects soil development.

    • A.

      Time

    • B.

      Slope

    • C.

      Type of rock

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed - time, slope, and type of rock - are factors that can affect soil development. Over time, weathering and erosion processes break down rocks and minerals, contributing to the formation of soil. The slope of the land can affect the rate of erosion and the movement of water, both of which influence soil development. Additionally, different types of rock have varying compositions and properties that can impact the characteristics of the soil that forms from them. Therefore, all of these factors play a role in soil development.

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  • 22. 

    The _____ horizon has smaller rock and mineral particles than the other layers.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    The A horizon, also known as the topsoil, typically consists of smaller rock and mineral particles compared to the other layers. This layer is rich in organic matter and nutrients, making it ideal for plant growth. The smaller particle size in the A horizon allows for better water retention and nutrient absorption by plants.

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  • 23. 

    Below the C horizon is _____.

    • A.

      Topsil

    • B.

      Rock (parent material)

    • C.

      Clay

    • D.

      Humus

    Correct Answer
    B. Rock (parent material)
    Explanation
    The C horizon is the layer of soil that lies beneath the B horizon and is composed of weathered rock fragments. It is often referred to as the parent material because it is the source of the minerals and nutrients that are found in the upper layers of soil. Therefore, the correct answer is rock (parent material).

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  • 24. 

    Mechanical weathering _____.

    • A.

      Breaks apart rocks by physical processes

    • B.

      Occurs when chemical reactions dissolve of change the minerals in rocks

    • C.

      Occurs when iron is exposed to oxygen and water

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Breaks apart rocks by physical processes
    Explanation
    Mechanical weathering refers to the process of breaking apart rocks through physical processes such as freezing and thawing, abrasion, and pressure changes. This type of weathering does not involve any chemical reactions or changes in the minerals present in the rocks. Therefore, the correct answer is that mechanical weathering breaks apart rocks by physical processes.

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  • 25. 

    Chemical weathering _____.

    • A.

      Is caused by freezing and thawing

    • B.

      Breaks apart rocks by physical processes

    • C.

      Occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks
    Explanation
    Chemical weathering refers to the process in which minerals in rocks are dissolved or undergo changes due to chemical reactions. This process does not involve physical processes like freezing and thawing or breaking apart rocks. Therefore, the correct answer is that chemical weathering occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or change the minerals in rocks.

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  • 26. 

    In areas where freezing and thawing occur frequently (ice wedging), rocks weather rapidly because of the _____ of freezing water.

    • A.

      Evaporation

    • B.

      Expansion

    • C.

      Leaching

    • D.

      Oxidation

    Correct Answer
    B. Expansion
    Explanation
    In areas where freezing and thawing occur frequently, the water that seeps into the cracks of rocks freezes and expands when it turns into ice. This expansion exerts pressure on the surrounding rock, causing it to crack and break apart. Therefore, the rapid weathering of rocks in these areas is due to the expansion of freezing water.

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  • 27. 

    When water mixes with carbon dioxide in the air or soil, ___________ forms creating a type of chemical weathering.

    • A.

      Carbonic acid

    • B.

      Lactic acid

    • C.

      Calcite

    • D.

      Oxygen

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbonic acid
    Explanation
    When water mixes with carbon dioxide in the air or soil, carbonic acid forms creating a type of chemical weathering. Carbonic acid is formed when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, creating a weak acid. This acid reacts with minerals such as calcite in rocks, causing them to break down and weather over time. This process is known as carbonation and is a common form of chemical weathering in areas with high levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere or soil.

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  • 28. 

    _____ turns and loosens soil, improving it for crops, but leaving soil vulnerable to erosion.

    • A.

      Grazing

    • B.

      No-tilling farming

    • C.

      Plowing

    • D.

      Terracing

    Correct Answer
    C. Plowing
    Explanation
    Plowing is the correct answer because it involves the process of turning and loosening the soil, which helps in breaking up compacted soil and improving its structure for better crop growth. However, plowing also leaves the soil vulnerable to erosion as it exposes the soil to the elements, such as wind and water, which can easily wash away the topsoil. This can lead to soil degradation and loss of nutrients, making plowing a double-edged practice in agriculture.

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  • 29. 

    Soil erosion occurs _____.

    • A.

      Where grazing animals eat away all the ground cover

    • B.

      When forests are removed

    • C.

      On steep slopes

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Soil erosion can occur in various situations. When grazing animals eat away all the ground cover, it leaves the soil exposed and vulnerable to erosion by wind and water. Similarly, when forests are removed, the vegetation that helps hold the soil in place is lost, increasing the risk of erosion. Additionally, steep slopes are more prone to erosion as gravity pulls the soil downhill, especially during heavy rainfall. Therefore, all of the mentioned scenarios contribute to soil erosion.

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  • 30. 

    When farmers leave plant stalks in the field over the winter months and later plant crops without destroying the plant stalks to reduce soil erosion, it is called ________________.

    • A.

      Contour farming

    • B.

      Plowing

    • C.

      No-till farming

    • D.

      Terracing

    Correct Answer
    C. No-till farming
    Explanation
    No-till farming is the correct answer because it refers to the practice of leaving plant stalks in the field over the winter months and planting crops without destroying the stalks. This method helps to reduce soil erosion by maintaining the plant residue as a protective cover on the soil surface. It also helps to improve soil health and fertility by preserving organic matter and promoting beneficial soil organisms.

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  • 31. 

    The three horizons in the figure below make up  __________________. 

    • A.

      A soil profile

    • B.

      A report

    • C.

      Horizon C

    • D.

      Horizon C

    Correct Answer
    A. A soil profile
    Explanation
    The three horizons in the figure make up a soil profile. A soil profile is a vertical section of the soil that shows the different layers or horizons. These horizons, labeled as Horizon A, Horizon B, and Horizon C in the figure, represent distinct layers with different characteristics such as color, texture, and composition. By examining the soil profile, scientists can gain insights into the soil's fertility, drainage, and other properties that are important for agriculture and environmental studies.

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  • 32. 

    In the figure below, ________________ contains the most humus. 

    • A.

      Horizon A

    • B.

      Horizon B

    • C.

      Horizon C

    Correct Answer
    A. Horizon A
    Explanation
    Horizon A contains the most humus because it is the top layer of soil where organic matter accumulates and decomposes. It is rich in nutrients and supports the growth of plants. Horizon B is the subsoil layer and horizon C is the parent material layer, both of which have less organic matter compared to horizon A. Therefore, horizon A is the correct answer.

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  • 33. 

    In the figure below, ________________ is most likely to contain the parent material. 

    • A.

      Horizon A

    • B.

      Horizon B

    • C.

      Horizon C

    Correct Answer
    C. Horizon C
    Explanation
    Horizon C is most likely to contain the parent material because it is the deepest horizon in the soil profile. Parent material refers to the unweathered rock or sediment from which the soil is formed. As the soil develops over time, weathering and other processes break down the parent material, leading to the formation of different soil horizons. Since horizon C is the deepest, it is the least affected by weathering and is therefore more likely to still contain the original parent material.

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  • 34. 

    In the figure below, the leaching of minerals is most likely to occur from _____________ to ______________________. 

    • A.

      Horizon A; horizon C

    • B.

      Horizon B; horizon C

    • C.

      Horizon C; horizon A

    • D.

      Horizon A; horizon B

    Correct Answer
    D. Horizon A; horizon B
    Explanation
    Leaching refers to the process where minerals are washed away or dissolved from one layer of soil and transported to another layer. In this case, horizon A is most likely to be the source of leaching because it is the uppermost layer of soil and is exposed to rainfall and other weathering processes. The leached minerals are then transported downward to horizon B, which is the layer immediately below horizon A. Therefore, the leaching of minerals is most likely to occur from horizon A to horizon B.

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  • 35. 

    In the figure below, the  ___________________ is also known as subsoil

    • A.

      Horizon A

    • B.

      Horizon B

    • C.

      Horizon C

    Correct Answer
    B. Horizon B
    Explanation
    In the figure, horizon B is also known as subsoil. Subsoil is the layer of soil that is located beneath the topsoil (horizon A) and above the parent material (horizon C). It is characterized by the accumulation of minerals and nutrients leached from the topsoil. Subsoil is typically denser and less fertile than topsoil, and it plays an important role in providing a medium for plant root growth and water storage.

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  • 36. 

    In the figure below, the _________________ would have the least organic matter.

    • A.

      Horizon A

    • B.

      Horizon B

    • C.

      Horizon C

    Correct Answer
    C. Horizon C
    Explanation
    Horizon C would have the least organic matter because it is the deepest layer of soil and is typically composed of weathered parent material with very little organic material. Horizon A, on the other hand, is the topmost layer and contains the most organic matter due to the accumulation of decomposed plant and animal material. Horizon B is located between Horizon A and C and may contain some organic matter, but typically less than Horizon A. Therefore, Horizon C is the correct answer as it would have the least organic matter.

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  • 37. 

    Using the soil texture triangle below, determine what percentage of clay is in sandy clay.

    • A.

      35% - 55%

    • B.

      20% - 35%

    • C.

      0% - 10%

    • D.

      15% - 20%

    Correct Answer
    A. 35% - 55%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 35% - 55% because sandy clay falls within the range of clay content indicated on the soil texture triangle. The triangle provides a visual representation of the proportions of sand, silt, and clay in a soil sample. Sandy clay is a soil type that contains a higher percentage of sand particles compared to other clay types, but it still has a significant amount of clay content. Therefore, the correct range for the percentage of clay in sandy clay is 35% - 55%.

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  • 38. 

    A soil consists of 10% sand, 20% clay, and 70% silt. Using the soil texture triangle below, identify the soil type.

    • A.

      Silty loam

    • B.

      Silty clay loam

    • C.

      Sandy loam

    • D.

      Loamy sand

    Correct Answer
    A. Silty loam
    Explanation
    Based on the given percentages of sand, clay, and silt, the soil falls within the range of silty loam on the soil texture triangle. This means that the soil has a balanced mixture of sand, silt, and clay, with silt being the dominant component.

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  • 39. 

    Using the soil texture triangle below, identify the properties of loam.

    • A.

      40% sand, 20% clay, 40% silt

    • B.

      60% sand, 20% clay, 20% silt

    • C.

      20% sand, 30% clay, 50% silt

    • D.

      40% sand, 35% clay, 25% silt

    Correct Answer
    A. 40% sand, 20% clay, 40% silt
    Explanation
    Loam is a soil type that contains a balanced mixture of sand, clay, and silt. The correct answer of 40% sand, 20% clay, and 40% silt indicates that loam has a relatively equal proportion of these three components. This balance allows loam to have good drainage, moisture retention, and fertility, making it ideal for plant growth.

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  • 40. 

    On gentle slopes, planting along the natural contours of the land is called ________________

    • A.

      Contour farming

    • B.

      Terracing

    • C.

      Strip mining

    • D.

      Conservation planting

    Correct Answer
    A. Contour farming
    Explanation
    Contour farming refers to the practice of planting crops along the natural contours or curves of the land. This technique helps to prevent soil erosion by slowing down the flow of water and allowing it to soak into the ground rather than running off. By following the contours, farmers create ridges and furrows that act as natural barriers, trapping water and preventing it from carrying away valuable topsoil. This method is particularly effective on gentle slopes where erosion is more likely to occur. Terracing, on the other hand, involves creating flat platforms on steep slopes, strip mining is a destructive mining practice, and conservation planting is a more general term that encompasses various sustainable agricultural practices.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Feb 03, 2015
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    James McFadden
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