Sociology Practice Exam 1

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Poverty calculated in absolute material terms.  To exist in absolute poverty is to be without sufficient nutritious food, decent and safe shelter, adequate access to education, etc.

    Explanation
    Absolute poverty refers to a state of extreme deprivation where individuals lack the basic necessities for survival, such as nutritious food, safe shelter, and access to education. It is calculated in terms of material conditions and does not take into account relative income or wealth. This means that even if someone has a low income compared to others in society, they may not be considered in absolute poverty if they have access to the basic necessities. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is absolute poverty.

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  • 2. 

    Offences committed by corporate officials for their corporation or the offences of the corporation

    Explanation
    The term "corporate crimes" refers to offenses committed by corporate officials on behalf of their corporation or offenses committed by the corporation itself. This can include a wide range of illegal activities such as fraud, embezzlement, bribery, environmental violations, and insider trading. These crimes are distinct from individual crimes as they involve actions taken in the context of corporate operations and can have significant financial, social, and environmental consequences.

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  • 3. 

    the application of standard principles and practices of western scientific disciplines, particularly biology, in the diagnosis and treatment of symptoms of illness

    Explanation
    Biomedicine refers to the application of standard principles and practices of western scientific disciplines, particularly biology, in the diagnosis and treatment of symptoms of illness. It involves using scientific methods, research, and evidence-based approaches to understand and address health issues. Biomedicine focuses on understanding the biological mechanisms underlying diseases and developing interventions based on this knowledge. It encompasses various fields such as pharmacology, genetics, physiology, and pathology, among others. This approach is widely used in modern healthcare systems to provide effective and evidence-based medical care.

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  • 4. 

    Disorders supposed to afflict people of only certain ethnicity, often created to psychologize problems brought on by western colonial control

    Explanation
    The term "cultural syndromes" refers to disorders that are believed to affect individuals of specific ethnicities. These disorders are often seen as a result of psychological issues caused by western colonial control. This suggests that the experiences and cultural context of these ethnic groups play a significant role in the manifestation of these disorders. Therefore, the answer "cultural syndromes" aligns with the given explanation.

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  • 5. 

    The recognition that different cultures have different ways of practicing medicine, including different social courses of medicine, different techniques, and different physical medicines

    Explanation
    This answer suggests that the recognition refers to the understanding or acknowledgement that various cultures have their own unique methods and approaches when it comes to practicing medicine. It highlights that different cultures have distinct social customs, techniques, and physical medicines that they utilize in their medical practices. This recognition emphasizes the importance of respecting and valuing diverse cultural perspectives in the field of medicine.

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  • 6. 

    Health problems that are supposedly caused by health professionals

    Explanation
    Iatrogenesis refers to health problems that are supposedly caused by health professionals. This term is used to describe any negative effects or harm that may result from medical treatment, procedures, or interventions. It can include errors in diagnosis, medication errors, surgical complications, or even infections acquired in healthcare settings. Iatrogenesis highlights the potential risks and unintended consequences that can occur within the healthcare system, emphasizing the importance of patient safety and the need for healthcare providers to minimize harm and maximize benefits in their practice.

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  • 7. 

    The view that the availability of good medical care varies inversely with the need for it in the population served

    Explanation
    The inverse care law refers to the concept that the availability of good medical care is often limited in areas where it is needed the most. This means that populations with higher healthcare needs tend to have less access to quality medical services. The inverse care law suggests that there is an imbalance in healthcare distribution, with resources being disproportionately allocated to areas with lower healthcare needs. This can result in poorer health outcomes for those who need medical care the most.

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  • 8. 

    the culture that through its political and economic power is able to impose its values, language, and ways of behaving and interpreting behaviour on agiven society

    Explanation
    The term "dominant culture" refers to the culture that holds the most power and influence in a society. This culture is able to impose its values, language, and ways of behaving on the rest of the society. It shapes the norms, beliefs, and behaviors of the majority and sets the standards for what is considered acceptable or desirable. The dominant culture often emerges from the political and economic structures of a society, allowing it to maintain its dominance and exert its influence over other cultures.

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  • 9. 

    -       social process in which groups of people are viewed and judged as essentially different in terms of their intellect, morality, values, and innate worth because of differences of physical type or cultural heritage

    Explanation
    The term "racialization" refers to the social process in which groups of people are categorized and evaluated based on their physical characteristics or cultural background. This process involves viewing and judging individuals as fundamentally different in terms of their intelligence, morality, values, and inherent worth. It is a way of assigning meaning and significance to racial differences, often leading to discrimination and inequality based on race.

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  • 10. 

    A situation in which professional control work is deemed socially important ( eg teachers in education, doctors and nurses in health care)

    Explanation
    A radical monopoly refers to a situation where a particular group or profession has exclusive control or dominance over a specific area or industry. In this context, the answer suggests that professional control work, such as that of teachers, doctors, and nurses, is considered socially important. These professionals have a monopoly over their respective fields due to the specialized knowledge and skills they possess, which are crucial for the functioning and well-being of society.

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  • 11. 

    Denoting any unrealistic statement or theory that attempts to explain a set of phenomena by referring to a single cause. In sociology, this includes class reductionism, or reducing all inequality to gender, race, ethnicity

    Explanation
    The term "reductionist" refers to any unrealistic statement or theory that tries to explain a group of phenomena by attributing them to a single cause. In sociology, this can be seen in the concept of class reductionism, which oversimplifies the complexities of inequality by reducing it solely to gender, race, or ethnicity. This approach fails to consider the various intersecting factors that contribute to social disparities, leading to an incomplete understanding of the issue.

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  • 12. 

    The view that knowledge is developed from a particular lived position, and that objectivity is thus impossible

    Explanation
    Standpoint theory suggests that knowledge is constructed based on an individual's lived experiences and social position. It argues that objectivity is unattainable because everyone's understanding of the world is shaped by their unique perspective. This theory emphasizes the importance of considering diverse viewpoints and recognizing the influence of power dynamics in shaping knowledge. It challenges the notion of a single, objective truth and advocates for the inclusion of marginalized voices to gain a more comprehensive understanding of reality.

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  • 13. 

    the study of how health is distributed in our society

    Explanation
    Social epidemiology is the study of how health is distributed in society. It focuses on understanding the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health outcomes and disparities among different populations. By examining the social determinants of health, such as income, education, and access to healthcare, social epidemiology helps identify the root causes of health inequalities and informs public health interventions and policies to improve population health.

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  • 14. 

    The sick role was developed by

    Explanation
    The sick role was developed by Talcott Parsons. Talcott Parsons was a sociologist who proposed the concept of the sick role in his book "The Social System" in 1951. According to Parsons, the sick role is a social role that individuals take on when they are ill. It involves certain rights and responsibilities, such as being exempt from normal social obligations and receiving medical treatment. Parsons argued that society expects individuals in the sick role to seek medical help and make efforts to recover, while also refraining from engaging in normal activities.

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  • 15. 

    First introduced medicalization

    Explanation
    Ivan Illich is credited with first introducing the concept of medicalization. He argued that society had become overly reliant on medical professionals and institutions, leading to the medicalization of various aspects of life. Illich believed that this medicalization had negative consequences, such as the loss of individual autonomy and the devaluation of non-medical approaches to health and well-being. His work sparked a critical examination of the medical system and its impact on society, making him an influential figure in the field of medical sociology.

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  • 16. 

    §  various ways in which diagnosis and cure cause problems that are equal to or greater than the health problems they are meant to resolve. ·      Example: patient enters hospital for treatment of one ailment and becomes infected with a virus originating in the hospital

  • 17. 

    §  the deliberate obscuring of political conditions that ‘render society unhealthy’

    Explanation
    Social iatrogenesis refers to the unintended negative consequences of social interventions or policies that are intended to improve society. In this context, the deliberate obscuring of political conditions that 'render society unhealthy' can be seen as an example of social iatrogenesis. By intentionally hiding or distorting information about political conditions, those in power may be perpetuating or exacerbating societal problems, rather than addressing and solving them. This can ultimately lead to further harm and deterioration of society.

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  • 18. 

    §  when the knowledge and abilities of the medical community are extolled or mythologized to the point where the authority of the health profession ‘tends to mystify and to expropriate the power of the individual to heal himself and to shape his or her environment’  

    Explanation
    Cultural iatrogenesis refers to a situation where the medical community's knowledge and abilities are praised or exaggerated to a level where it creates a sense of mystery and takes away the power of individuals to heal themselves and influence their environment. In this context, it implies that the medical profession's authority is being glorified to the extent that it diminishes the autonomy and agency of individuals in their own healthcare and well-being.

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  • 19. 

    Who introduced the idea of the inverse care law

    Explanation
    Dr. Hart introduced the idea of the inverse care law.

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  • 20. 

    The landowner class of feudal times, who owned the land worked on by the peasants

    Explanation
    During feudal times, the landowner class consisted of individuals who owned the land that was cultivated by the peasants. These landowners were typically wealthy and held a high social standing in society. They were known as aristocrats, as they belonged to the upper class and often held titles of nobility. The term "aristocrats" accurately describes this group of individuals who owned and controlled the land, while the peasants worked on it.

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  • 21. 

    The process of assigning individuals responsibility for harmful events or circumstances that have broader social causes

    Explanation
    Blaming the victim refers to the act of holding individuals responsible for negative events or circumstances that are actually caused by broader social factors. This concept suggests that instead of addressing the underlying systemic issues, society tends to shift the blame onto the individuals who are affected by these problems. By doing so, the focus is taken away from addressing the root causes and finding solutions, perpetuating a cycle of victim-blaming and avoiding accountability for the social factors that contribute to harm.

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  • 22. 

    The owners of the means of production, or capital, as these were known during the industrial era

    Explanation
    The correct answer is capitalists and bourgeoisie. The term "capitalists" refers to the individuals who own the means of production, such as factories, machinery, and land. They invest their capital in these resources to generate profit. On the other hand, "bourgeoisie" refers to the social class that emerged during the industrial era, consisting of wealthy capitalists who controlled the means of production. They held significant economic and political power, often exploiting the working class for their own benefit. Therefore, both terms are used to describe the owners of the means of production during the industrial era.

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  • 23. 

    The shared sense of common membership and common purpose that social group have

    Explanation
    The term "corporate identity" refers to the visual and verbal elements that represent a company, including its logo, colors, and overall brand image. It is a way for the company to establish a distinct and recognizable identity in the market. On the other hand, "organic identity" refers to the shared sense of common membership and purpose that social groups have. This can include shared values, goals, and a sense of belonging. Both concepts relate to identity, but they have different applications.

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  • 24. 

    Ranked groups each making up 10% of a total population, used for statistical analysis of such things as household income

    Explanation
    Deciles are a statistical concept used to divide a total population into ten equal groups, each representing 10% of the population. They are commonly utilized in analyzing various factors such as household income. By dividing the population into deciles, researchers can observe and compare the distribution of income or any other variable across different segments of the population. Deciles provide a useful tool for understanding the distribution patterns and disparities within a population.

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  • 25. 

    A set of beliefs put forward by and in support of the dominant culture and/or ruling classes within a society, which helps to justify their dominant position and dominating practices

    Explanation
    The term "dominant ideology" refers to a set of beliefs that is advocated by the dominant culture or ruling classes in a society. This ideology serves to justify their position of power and the practices that maintain their dominance. It is a tool used to maintain the status quo and ensure that the dominant group retains its control over society.

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  • 26. 

    A relatively coherent set of interrelated beliefs about society and the people in it.

    Explanation
    An ideology refers to a set of interconnected beliefs about society and the individuals within it. It encompasses a comprehensive framework that guides individuals' understanding of the world, shaping their perspectives on social, political, and economic issues. Ideologies often provide a basis for individuals to form opinions, make decisions, and take actions, influencing their behavior and attitudes towards various aspects of society.

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  • 27. 

    A Hindu caste or distinctive social group of which there are thousands throughout India; a special characteristic is often the exclusive occupation of its male members (such as barber or potter))

    Explanation
    Jati refers to a Hindu caste or distinctive social group that is prevalent throughout India. These groups are characterized by their exclusive occupation, which is often limited to male members. For example, a jati could be comprised of barbers or potters. Jatis are an integral part of the Indian social system and play a significant role in determining an individual's occupation and social status.

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  • 28. 

    A set of beliefs that focuses on the individual as an independent player in society, not as a member of a class or an ethnic group.  Components of this  set include a strong belief in the potentional for social mobility in the individual

    Explanation
    Liberal ideology is a set of beliefs that emphasizes the importance of individualism rather than group identity. It promotes the idea that individuals should have the freedom to make their own choices and pursue their own interests, without being constrained by societal or government restrictions. This ideology also believes in the potential for social mobility, meaning that individuals have the ability to improve their social and economic status through their own efforts. Overall, liberal ideology values individual rights, personal freedom, and the belief in equal opportunities for all.

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  • 29. 

    The group of people in capitalist society who neither own capital nor participate in wage hour.  For the most part they get by with casual/occasional labour, scavenging for food and articles to sell, and crime

    Explanation
    The correct term for the group of people in capitalist society who neither own capital nor participate in wage labor is "Lumpenproletariat." This group survives through casual or occasional labor, scavenging for food and items to sell, and sometimes resorting to crime.

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  • 30. 

    The people who in feudal times worked the land but did not own it

    Explanation
    Peasants were individuals who worked the land during feudal times but did not own it. They were typically part of the lower social class and were obligated to provide labor and resources to the landowners, such as nobles or lords, in exchange for protection and the right to cultivate the land for their own sustenance. Peasants played a crucial role in the feudal system as they formed the backbone of agricultural production and supported the economic and social structure of the time.

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  • 31. 

    The subclass made up of small-time owners with little capital

    Explanation
    The term "petty bourgeoisie" refers to a social class made up of small-scale business owners or individuals who own a small amount of capital. These individuals typically have limited financial resources and are considered to be part of the middle class. The answer "petty bourgeoisie" accurately describes the subclass of small-time owners with little capital, as it highlights their economic status and ownership of small businesses.

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  • 32. 

    Each of five ranked groups making up 10% of a total population, used for statistical analysis of such things as household income

    Explanation
    The term "quintiles" refers to dividing a population into five equal groups, each representing 10% of the total population. This division is commonly used in statistical analysis, particularly when studying variables like household income. By categorizing the population into quintiles, researchers can examine and compare the distribution of income across different groups, gaining insights into patterns and disparities within the population.

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  • 33. 

    Denoting the relationship between a class and the means of producing wealth

    Explanation
    The term "relational" is used to describe the relationship between a class and the means of producing wealth. This suggests that there is a connection or association between a particular social class and the methods or resources used to generate wealth. It implies that the class and the means of wealth production are interdependent or have a mutual influence on each other.

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  • 34. 

    A movement in the late nineteenth and early centuries in Canada, the United states, and various European countries to apply the human welfare principles of Christianity to the social, medical, and psychological ills brought on by industrialization and uncontrolled capitalism

    Explanation
    The social gospel was a movement in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that aimed to address the social, medical, and psychological issues caused by industrialization and uncontrolled capitalism. It sought to apply the principles of Christianity to promote human welfare and address the injustices and inequalities of the time. The movement was prominent in Canada, the United States, and various European countries.

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  • 35. 

    The long term existence of significant differences in access to goods and services among social groups defined by class, ethnicity etc

    Explanation
    Social inequality refers to the persistent and enduring disparities in access to goods and services that exist among various social groups based on factors such as class, ethnicity, and other social identities. This term encompasses the long-term existence of significant differences in opportunities, resources, and outcomes between different groups within a society. It highlights the unequal distribution of power, wealth, and privileges, which can lead to social divisions and disadvantages for marginalized groups.

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  • 36. 

    The people who work for wages and do not own capital, the means of production, in an industrial, capitalist society

    Explanation
    The correct answer is workers/proletariat. In an industrial, capitalist society, the workers or proletariat are the individuals who work for wages and do not own capital or the means of production. They rely on selling their labor to earn a living and are often exploited by the capitalist class who control the means of production. The term "proletariat" is commonly used to refer to this working class in Marxist theory.

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  • 37. 

    -       a system by which society ranks categories of people into hierarchy

    Explanation
    Social stratification refers to the division of society into different social classes or categories based on factors such as wealth, occupation, education, and social status. This system creates a hierarchy where individuals or groups are ranked based on their perceived social standing. It determines the opportunities, privileges, and resources available to individuals, often leading to inequalities and disparities in society. Social stratification is a fundamental aspect of social organization and plays a significant role in shaping social relationships and power dynamics within a society.

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  • 38. 

    ·      Mainly those who control/own large corporations

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "dominant capitalist class." This refers to the group of individuals who have significant control and ownership over large corporations. They hold a dominant position in the capitalist system and have a strong influence on the economy and society.

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  • 39. 

    ·      Small business people, educated professionals-technical or adminastrive personal, and other skilled peoples

    Explanation
    The given answer "middle class" is a suitable explanation for the description provided. The description mentions small business people, educated professionals, technical or administrative personnel, and other skilled individuals. These groups typically fall within the middle class category, as they have a certain level of education, skills, and income that places them between the lower and upper classes. Therefore, "middle class" accurately represents the social and economic status of the mentioned individuals.

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  • 40. 

    ·      Those who lack resources or capacities apart from their own labor power

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "working class." The given statement describes individuals who do not have access to resources or abilities beyond their own labor power. This aligns with the definition of the working class, which typically includes individuals who rely on their physical or mental labor to earn a living and do not possess significant wealth or ownership of means of production.

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  • 41. 

    Denoting a factor of secondary significance to a more significant cause.

    Explanation
    Epiphenomenal means denoting a factor of secondary significance to a more significant cause. In other words, it refers to something that is a byproduct or a secondary effect of a more important cause.

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  • 42. 

    A class system that exists when members of different ethnic groups typically adopt occupations that are ranked differently ( e.g, administration vs laborers ). And ethnic class system has existed in Quebec for most of the 20th century

    Explanation
    The term "ethnic class" refers to a social class system based on ethnicity, where individuals from different ethnic groups tend to have different occupational rankings. This means that certain ethnic groups may predominantly occupy higher-ranking positions, such as administration, while others may be more likely to hold lower-ranking positions, like laborers. In the context of Quebec, this ethnic class system has been present for a significant portion of the 20th century.

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  • 43. 

    A colonial policy in which a European nation uses members of a particular ethnic as it intermediaries in ruling an area.  Often leads to dual colonialism and internal colonialism. 

    Explanation
    Indirect rule is a colonial policy where a European nation employs members of a specific ethnic group as intermediaries to govern a region. This approach often results in dual colonialism, where both the European nation and the ethnic intermediaries hold power, and internal colonialism, which refers to the exploitation and marginalization of the local population.

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  • 44. 

    A sociological approach that focuses on situations in which ethnic leaders mobilize groups in order to develop the groups' political and social strength.

    Explanation
    Instrumentalism is a sociological approach that emphasizes the role of ethnic leaders in mobilizing groups to enhance their political and social power. It suggests that these leaders strategically use ethnic identity to achieve specific goals, such as gaining political representation or improving social conditions for their group. This approach focuses on the instrumental nature of ethnic identity, viewing it as a means to an end rather than an inherent aspect of individuals' identities. By understanding instrumentalism, we can gain insights into the dynamics of ethnic mobilization and the strategies employed by leaders to strengthen their groups.

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  • 45. 

    A situation that occurs when people within a country are colonized or put in a subordinate position (ex Aboriginal people in Canada)

    Explanation
    Internal colonialism refers to a situation where a group of people within a country are subjected to colonization or are placed in a subordinate position. This term is often used to describe the experiences of marginalized communities within a nation, such as the Aboriginal people in Canada. It highlights the unequal power dynamics and exploitation that exist within a country, where certain groups are oppressed and their resources and rights are controlled by a dominant group.

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  • 46. 

    Denoting as identifiable social group that is discriminated against by mainstream society

    Explanation
    The term "minoritized" refers to the process of categorizing a social group as a minority and subjecting them to discrimination by the dominant or mainstream society. This term highlights the power dynamics and systemic oppression faced by marginalized groups. It recognizes that the discrimination is not inherent to the group, but rather imposed upon them by societal structures. The term "minoritized" emphasizes the need to address and challenge this discrimination and work towards creating a more inclusive and equitable society.

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  • 47. 

    The set of policies and practices directed  towards the respect for cultural differences in a country

    Explanation
    Multiculturalism refers to the set of policies and practices directed towards the respect for cultural differences in a country. It promotes the idea that diverse cultural groups should be able to coexist and maintain their unique identities within a society. This can include policies such as promoting diversity in education, protecting minority rights, and fostering inclusivity. Multiculturalism recognizes the value of cultural diversity and aims to create a society that embraces and celebrates different cultures.

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  • 48. 

    The view that every ethnic is made up of a list of readily identifiable traits that have been passed down from the past to the present with little or no change

    Explanation
    The correct answer for this question is primordialism and essentialism. Primordialism refers to the belief that every ethnic group is composed of distinct and unchanging traits that have been inherited from the past. This perspective emphasizes the importance of biological and cultural factors in shaping ethnic identity. Essentialism, on the other hand, is a related concept that suggests that ethnic identities are based on essential characteristics that are inherent to a group and define its members. Both primordialism and essentialism highlight the idea that ethnic identities are deeply rooted and enduring.

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  • 49. 

    Was the 1960s period of intense change in Quebec, Canada, characterized by the rapid and effective secularization of society, the creation of a welfare state (État-providence) and a re-alignment of politics into federalist and separatist factions.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "quiet revolution." The term "quiet revolution" refers to the period of intense change in Quebec, Canada during the 1960s. This period was marked by significant societal changes, including the rapid and effective secularization of society, the establishment of a welfare state, and a re-alignment of political factions into federalist and separatist groups. The term "quiet revolution" is used to describe these transformative changes that occurred in Quebec during this time.

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  • 50. 

    An approach that balances the social portrayal of a people so that both strengths and weaknesses, problems and successes are seen

    Explanation
    Relational accountability refers to the practice of balancing the portrayal of a group of people in a way that showcases both their strengths and weaknesses, problems and successes. It emphasizes the importance of presenting a fair and accurate representation that takes into account the complexities and nuances of a community or society. This approach ensures that the social portrayal is not biased or one-sided, but rather provides a balanced perspective that promotes understanding and empathy.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Apr 12, 2010
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    Theacammie
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