Semester 2 Neuro, Week 2 - Cortex And Cortical Function

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Semester 2 Neuro, Week 2 - Cortex And Cortical Function - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Broca's area corresponds to which of the following Brodmann’s numbers?

    • A.

      BA 22

    • B.

      BA 39/40

    • C.

      BA 44

    • D.

      BA 39

    • E.

      BA 44/45

    Correct Answer
    E. BA 44/45
    Explanation
    Broca's area is a region in the frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in speech production and language comprehension. It is commonly associated with the ability to articulate words and form sentences. Brodmann's numbers are a way of classifying different areas of the brain based on their cytoarchitecture. BA 44/45 refers to the specific region of the brain that corresponds to Broca's area. Therefore, BA 44/45 is the correct answer for the question.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following receives a larger area of cortex when considering motor cortex somatotopy?

    • A.

      Erector spinae musculature

    • B.

      Gastrocnemius

    • C.

      Hypothenar muscles

    • D.

      Biceps Brachii

    • E.

      Quadratus plantae

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothenar muscles
    Explanation
    The hypothenar muscles receive a larger area of cortex when considering motor cortex somatotopy. This is because the hypothenar muscles are responsible for fine motor movements of the hand, such as controlling the movement of the little finger. These fine motor movements require more precise control and coordination, thus requiring a larger area of cortex for their representation.

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  • 3. 

    In which of the following lobes is the primary auditory cortex located?

    • A.

      Parietal lobe

    • B.

      Occipital lobe

    • C.

      Frontal lobe

    • D.

      Insular lobe

    • E.

      Temporal lobe

    Correct Answer
    E. Temporal lobe
    Explanation
    The primary auditory cortex is located in the temporal lobe. This lobe is responsible for processing auditory information such as sound perception and language comprehension. It is located on the sides of the brain, near the temples, and is involved in the interpretation of sound signals received from the ears.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following areas is not involved in language for a person who is left- dominant?

    • A.

      Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    • B.

      Left opercular gyrus

    • C.

      Left angular gyrus

    • D.

      Right plenum temporale

    • E.

      Right primary auditory cortex

    Correct Answer
    A. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
    Explanation
    The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is not involved in language for a person who is left-dominant. This area of the brain is responsible for executive functions such as decision-making, problem-solving, and working memory, but not specifically for language processing. Language processing is primarily associated with areas such as the left opercular gyrus, left angular gyrus, right plenum temporale, and right primary auditory cortex.

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  • 5. 

    A 56-year old man has a stroke in branches of the posterior cerebral artery, which affects the majority of his Brodmann's area 17. What major problem do you expect this individual to exhibit?

    • A.

      Difficulties in the comprehension of speech

    • B.

      Difficulties hearing

    • C.

      Disruptions with the perception of pain and temperature

    • D.

      Disruptions in visual processing

    • E.

      Disruptions in voluntary motor output

    Correct Answer
    D. Disruptions in visual processing
    Explanation
    A stroke in branches of the posterior cerebral artery affecting the majority of Brodmann's area 17 would result in disruptions in visual processing. Brodmann's area 17, also known as the primary visual cortex or V1, is responsible for processing visual information from the eyes. Damage to this area can lead to difficulties in perceiving and interpreting visual stimuli, such as recognizing objects, faces, or colors. This can manifest as visual field defects, visual hallucinations, or difficulty with visual perception tasks.

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  • 6. 

    A 71-year old man has a stroke in small branches of the middle cerebral artery that supplies Brodmann's areas 41/42. What major problem do you expect this individual to exhibit?

    • A.

      Difficulty in the comprehension of speech

    • B.

      Disruptions with the perception of pain and temperature

    • C.

      Disruptions in visual processing

    • D.

      Disruptions in voluntary motor output

    • E.

      Difficulty hearing

    Correct Answer
    E. Difficulty hearing
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Difficulty hearing" because Brodmann's areas 41/42 are located in the auditory cortex of the brain, which is responsible for processing sound and speech. Therefore, damage to this area due to a stroke would likely result in difficulty hearing.

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  • 7. 

    An area of the brain involved in language functions exhibits measurable volume difference between the right and the left hemisphere, in relation with the degree of lateralization of those language functions. What is the name of this area?

    • A.

      Triangular area

    • B.

      Opercular area

    • C.

      Angular gyrus

    • D.

      Planum temporale

    • E.

      Primary auditory cortex

    Correct Answer
    D. Planum temporale
    Explanation
    The Planum temporale is the correct answer. The Planum temporale is an area of the brain that is involved in language functions. It has been found that there is a measurable volume difference between the right and left hemisphere of the brain in relation to the degree of lateralization of language functions. This suggests that the Planum temporale plays a role in the lateralization of language functions in the brain.

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  • 8. 

    During his various craniotomies for removal of brain tumors, Wilder Penfield (1891- 1976) working at the Montreal Neurological Institute, discovered that very low voltage electrical stimulation of certain areas of the brain in conscious but anesthetized patients consistently generated reports from the patients that they could hear familiar sounds or music playing. Which part of the human cerebral cortex is best mapped for audition?

    • A.

      Areas 21 and 22 of Brodmann

    • B.

      Areas 44 and 45 of Brodmann

    • C.

      Areas 41 and 42 of Brodmann

    • D.

      Areas 6 and 8 of Brodmann

    • E.

      Areas 17 and 18 of Brodmann

    Correct Answer
    C. Areas 41 and 42 of Brodmann
    Explanation
    During his craniotomies, Wilder Penfield discovered that electrical stimulation of certain areas of the brain resulted in patients reporting hearing sounds or music. This suggests that these areas are involved in auditory processing. The areas 41 and 42 of Brodmann's map are known as the primary and secondary auditory cortices, respectively. These areas are responsible for processing sound information and are therefore best mapped for audition.

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  • 9. 

    A 52-year old man has a stroke in branches of the anterior cerebral artery supplying the anterior paracentral lobule. What major problem do you expect this individual to exhibit?

    • A.

      Loss of touch and pain perception in the hand

    • B.

      Loss of touch and pain perception in the foot

    • C.

      Loss of voluntary motor output to the foot

    • D.

      Loss of voluntary motor output to the hand

    • E.

      Disruptions in visual processing

    Correct Answer
    C. Loss of voluntary motor output to the foot
    Explanation
    The anterior paracentral lobule is responsible for controlling voluntary motor output to the lower extremities. Therefore, if this area is affected by a stroke, it is expected that the individual will exhibit a loss of voluntary motor output to the foot.

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  • 10. 

    A 49-year old man suffers from a stroke and he is unable to move his right upper limb and has lost sensation to that region as well. Which of the following arteries do your suspect to be compromised?

    • A.

      Right anterior cerebral artery

    • B.

      Left anterior cerebral artery

    • C.

      Right middle cerebral artery

    • D.

      Left middle cerebral artery

    • E.

      Right posterior cerebral artery

    Correct Answer
    D. Left middle cerebral artery
    Explanation
    The left middle cerebral artery is the most likely artery to be compromised in this case. The middle cerebral artery supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the motor and sensory areas responsible for controlling movement and sensation in the contralateral (opposite) side of the body. Since the patient is unable to move his right upper limb and has lost sensation to that region, it suggests that the left middle cerebral artery, which supplies blood to the right side of the brain, is compromised.

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  • 11. 

    What layer is mostly composed of pyramidal cells?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      II

    • C.

      V

    • D.

      IV

    • E.

      VI

    Correct Answer
    C. V
    Explanation
    Layer V of the cerebral cortex is mostly composed of pyramidal cells. These cells have a triangular-shaped cell body and an apical dendrite that extends towards the surface of the cortex. They are involved in transmitting information from the cortex to other regions of the brain and are particularly important for motor control and higher cognitive functions.

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  • 12. 

    What is the anatomical marker of lateralization of language?

    • A.

      Structure of the arcuate fasciculus

    • B.

      Asymmetry of primary auditory cortex surface

    • C.

      Presence of angular gyrus on the dominant hemisphere

    • D.

      Involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    • E.

      Asymmetry of planum temporale surface

    Correct Answer
    E. Asymmetry of planum temporale surface
    Explanation
    The asymmetry of the planum temporale surface is the anatomical marker of lateralization of language. This means that the left planum temporale is typically larger than the right planum temporale in individuals with language dominance in the left hemisphere. This structural difference suggests that the left hemisphere is specialized for language processing.

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  • 13. 

    What is the role of non-dominant equivalent to Wernicke area?

    • A.

      Language production

    • B.

      Language understanding

    • C.

      Semantic aspects of language

    • D.

      Prosodic aspects of language

    • E.

      Syntactic aspects of language

    Correct Answer
    D. Prosodic aspects of language
    Explanation
    The role of the non-dominant equivalent to Wernicke area is related to prosodic aspects of language. Prosody refers to the rhythm, intonation, and stress patterns in speech, which play a crucial role in conveying meaning and emotions. The non-dominant equivalent to Wernicke area is responsible for processing and interpreting these prosodic cues in language. It helps individuals understand the emotional tone, emphasis, and melodic contours of speech, allowing for a deeper understanding of communication beyond just the words themselves.

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  • 14. 

    Left hemineglect suggests lesion of the

    • A.

      Prefrontal cortex

    • B.

      Right hemisphere

    • C.

      Left hemisphere

    • D.

      Optic nerve

    • E.

      Visual cortex

    Correct Answer
    B. Right hemisphere
    Explanation
    Left hemineglect refers to a condition where individuals are unable to attend or respond to stimuli on the left side of their body or environment. This suggests a lesion or damage to the right hemisphere of the brain. The right hemisphere is responsible for processing information from the left side of the body and the left side of the environment. When this hemisphere is affected, individuals may fail to notice or acknowledge objects, people, or sensations on their left side. Therefore, the correct answer is the right hemisphere.

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