Grade 10 Science Practice Exam With Answers

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Grade 10 Science Practice Exam With Answers - Quiz

Are you familiar with all the basic science concepts related to Grade 10 science? If so, attempt these practice exam questions with answers and test your knowledge. Many important topics are discussed in the following quiz. No matter if you've passed the 10th grade or are yet to, in both cases, the quiz is perfect for improving your knowledge.

Step into the realm of academic excellence with our meticulously curated Grade 10 Science Practice Exam, accompanied by comprehensive answers. Tailored to challenge and fortify the understanding of budding scientists, this exam delves into the intricacies of physics, chemistry, biology, Read moreand environmental sciences.

Crafted with a keen eye on the curriculum, each question serves as a gauge for students' grasp of scientific principles and their real-world applications. Beyond a mere test, this practice exam is a dynamic tool for self-assessment, fostering critical thinking and conceptual clarity.

Equip yourself with the knowledge and confidence needed for academic success. Let this practice exam be your guiding compass toward mastering the captivating world of Grade 10 Science.


Grade 10 Science Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    In all living things, the basic unit of life is the:

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Cell

    • C.

      Nucleolus

    • D.

      Brain

    Correct Answer
    B. Cell
    Explanation
    The basic unit of life in all living things is the cell. Cells are the smallest structural and functional units of organisms, capable of carrying out all the processes necessary for life. They contain genetic material, organelles, and a plasma membrane that separates the internal environment of the cell from the external environment. Cells can exist as single-celled organisms or be part of a multicellular organism, working together to perform specific functions and maintain the overall health and functioning of the organism.

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  • 2. 

    A group of tissues working together to perform a common function is called a(n):

    • A.

      Cell

    • B.

      Specialized Cell

    • C.

      Organ System

    • D.

      Organ

    Correct Answer
    D. Organ
    Explanation
    A group of tissues working together to perform a common function is called an organ. This is because organs are composed of different types of tissues that work together to carry out specific functions in the body.

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  • 3. 

    Plant cells that can develop into any type of tissue are called:

    • A.

      Embryonic stem cells

    • B.

      Meristems

    • C.

      Blood cells

    • D.

      Xylems

    Correct Answer
    B. Meristems
    Explanation
    Meristems are plant cells that have the ability to differentiate into any type of tissue, making them capable of giving rise to various plant structures. They are found in the growing tips of roots and shoots and are responsible for the growth and development of plants. Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are found in animal embryos and have the potential to develop into any type of cell in the body, meristems specifically refer to plant cells with this regenerative capacity. Blood cells and xylems are not able to develop into other tissues.

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  • 4. 

    Chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the cell during:

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      Anaphase

    • C.

      Telophase

    • D.

      Metaphase

    Correct Answer
    B. Anaphase
    Explanation
    During anaphase, the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the cell. This is facilitated by the spindle fibers, which attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes and pull them apart. As the spindle fibers shorten, the chromosomes are separated and move towards the poles of the cell. This process ensures that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes during cell division.

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  • 5. 

    Plant cells are different from animal cells because they have:

    • A.

      Cell walls

    • B.

      Large vacuole

    • C.

      Chloroplasts

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Plant cells are different from animal cells because they have cell walls, which provide structural support and protection. They also have a large vacuole, which helps maintain turgor pressure and store water, nutrients, and waste products. Additionally, plant cells have chloroplasts, which are responsible for photosynthesis and contain chlorophyll. Therefore, all of the given options are correct and contribute to the unique characteristics of plant cells.

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  • 6. 

    Epithelial, connective, vascular, and nervous tissues are the four types of animal tissues.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False. Epithelial, connective, and nervous tissues are three of the four primary types of animal tissues. Vascular tissues are not a type of animal tissue. The fourth type is muscle tissue. So, the four types of animal tissues are epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous tissues.

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  • 7. 

    A cell spends most of its life in metaphase.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A cell spends most of its life in interphase

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  • 8. 

    The mitochondria and chloroplast are mostly responsible for:

    • A.

      Energy Production

    • B.

      Reproduction

    • C.

      Mitosis

    • D.

      Waste Removal

    Correct Answer
    A. Energy Production
    Explanation
    The mitochondria and chloroplast are mostly responsible for energy production. Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell because they generate the majority of the cell's energy through cellular respiration. Chloroplasts, on the other hand, are found in plant cells and are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which sunlight is converted into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Both of these organelles play crucial roles in energy production within cells.

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  • 9. 

    Prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells because prokaryotic cells do not contain: 

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      DNA

    • C.

      Organelles

    • D.

      A nucleus

    Correct Answer
    D. A nucleus
    Explanation
    Prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells in that they lack a nucleus. While eukaryotic cells have a well-defined nucleus that houses the genetic material, prokaryotic cells do not possess a true nucleus. Instead, their DNA is found in a region called the nucleoid, which is not enclosed by a membrane. This distinction is one of the defining characteristics of prokaryotic cells and is a fundamental difference between the two types of cells.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is the tube that leads from the throat to the stomach?

    • A.

      Trachea

    • B.

      Esophagus

    • C.

      Bronchioles

    • D.

      Nasal Cavity

    Correct Answer
    B. Esophagus
    Explanation
    The esophagus is the tube that leads from the throat to the stomach. It is responsible for transporting food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion. The trachea, on the other hand, is the tube that leads from the throat to the lungs and is involved in the process of breathing. The bronchioles are small branches of the bronchi in the lungs, and the nasal cavity is the hollow space behind the nose.

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  • 11. 

    In humans, after which stage of the gastrointestinal (digestive) tract is food fully digested?

    • A.

      Large Intestines

    • B.

      Stomach

    • C.

      Small Intestines

    • D.

      Rectum

    Correct Answer
    C. Small Intestines
    Explanation
     Food is fully digested after the small intestine stage of the gastrointestinal tract. The small intestines are responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption and digestion. In the small intestines, the breakdown of food into smaller molecules occurs, allowing for the absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The large intestines primarily absorb water and electrolytes and are not involved in the final stages of digestion. The stomach aids in the digestion process by breaking down food with stomach acid, but it is not the final stage of digestion. The rectum is the final part of the digestive tract where waste is stored before elimination, but it is not where food is fully digested.

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  • 12. 

    White blood cells:

    • A.

      Fight infection

    • B.

      Carry oxygen

    • C.

      Help with clotting

    • D.

      Carry carbon dioxide to the heart

    Correct Answer
    A. Fight infection
    Explanation
    White blood cells are an essential part of the immune system. Their main function is to fight infection. They help to identify and destroy pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and other harmful substances that enter the body. White blood cells play a crucial role in defending the body against infections and maintaining overall health. They are also responsible for recognizing and eliminating pathogens, promoting inflammation, and coordinating immune responses to protect the body from illness and disease.

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  • 13. 

    Veins:

    • A.

      Have valves the prevent back flow

    • B.

      Are under less pressure than arteries

    • C.

      Contain deoxygenated blood 

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The given answer "all of the above" is correct because veins contain deoxygenated blood have valves that prevent backflow, and are under less pressure than arteries. Veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart, which gives them a bluish appearance. The valves in veins ensure that blood flows in one direction, preventing any backflow. Additionally, veins have thinner walls and lower pressure compared to arteries because they do not need to withstand as much force from the heart's contractions. Therefore, all the statements mentioned in the question are true for veins.

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  • 14. 

    If peristalsis is an action of a particular organ, you would expect this organ to be partly composed of:

    • A.

      Cartilage

    • B.

      Smooth muscle tissue

    • C.

      Epithelial tissue

    • D.

      Connective tissue

    Correct Answer
    B. Smooth muscle tissue
    Explanation
    Peristalsis is the coordinated muscular contraction and relaxation that propels materials through the digestive tract. It is a characteristic action of organs such as the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Smooth muscle tissue is responsible for this rhythmic movement, as it is capable of involuntary contractions. Cartilage, epithelial tissue, and connective tissue do not have the contractile ability required for peristalsis.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following are involved in involuntary contraction and relaxation?

    • A.

      Heartbeat

    • B.

      Diaphragm

    • C.

      Internal anal sphincter

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above" because all three options mentioned, namely heartbeat, diaphragm, and internal anal sphincter, are involved in involuntary contraction and relaxation. The heartbeat is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and occurs without conscious control. The diaphragm is a muscle involved in the process of breathing, which is also an involuntary action. The internal anal sphincter is a smooth muscle that helps regulate the passage of stool and is under involuntary control., All three options are correct.

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  • 16. 

    Large vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called:

    • A.

      Veins

    • B.

      Alveoli

    • C.

      Arteries

    • D.

      Capillaries

    Correct Answer
    C. Arteries
    Explanation
    Large vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries. Arteries have thick, muscular walls that allow them to withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped by the heart. They transport oxygenated blood to various parts of the body, delivering nutrients and oxygen to the tissues. Unlike veins, arteries carry oxygen-rich blood, and they play a crucial role in maintaining the circulatory system's overall function.

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  • 17. 

    Which system in an animal cell could be compared to the vascular system in a plant?

    • A.

      Roots

    • B.

      Xylem and phloem

    • C.

      Stamen and pistil

    • D.

      Ground tissue system

    Correct Answer
    B. Xylem and phloem
    Explanation
    In an animal cell, the system that could be compared to the vascular system in a plant is the xylem and phloem. These structures are responsible for transporting water, nutrients, and sugars within a plant, similar to the circulatory system in animals. The other options (roots, stamen and pistil, ground tissue system) are not directly analogous to the plant's vascular system.

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  • 18. 

    A heart attack occurs when coronary arteries get blocked.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A heart attack, also known as a myocardial infarction, happens when the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, become blocked. This blockage is usually caused by a buildup of plaque, a fatty substance, in the arteries. When the arteries are blocked, the heart muscle is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, leading to damage or death of the heart tissue. The statement that a heart attack occurs when coronary arteries get blocked is true.

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  • 19. 

    In what order does oxygen travel through the lungs?

    • A.

      Bronchus, Bronchiole, Alveoli

    • B.

      Bronchus, Arteriole, Bronchiole

    • C.

      Alveoli, Bronchiole, Bronchus

    • D.

      Bronchiole, Alveoli, Arteriole

    Correct Answer
    A. Bronchus, Bronchiole, Alveoli
    Explanation
    Oxygen travels through the lungs from the bronchus to the bronchiole to the alveoli. The bronchus is the main airway that leads from the trachea into the lungs. It branches into smaller tubes called bronchioles, which further divide into tiny air sacs called alveoli. In the alveoli, oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide in the capillaries.

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  • 20. 

    Which best describes the path of blood through the vessels of the circulatory system?

    • A.

      Arteries, Veins, Capillaries, Venules, Arterioles

    • B.

      Capillaries, Arterioles, Arteries, Venules, Veins

    • C.

      Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, Veins

    • D.

      Veins, Venules, Capillaries, Arterioles, Arteries

    Correct Answer
    C. Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Venules, Veins
    Explanation
    Blood flows from the heart to the arteries, which are large blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart. From the arteries, blood flows into smaller blood vessels called arterioles. Arterioles then lead into tiny blood vessels called capillaries, where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products occurs between the blood and the surrounding tissues. After passing through the capillaries, blood enters the venules, which are small veins. Finally, blood flows from the venules into larger veins, which carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

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  • 21. 

    Ingested food passes through which of the following organs?

    • A.

      Gall Bladder

    • B.

      Pancreas

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The gall bladder, pancreas, and liver are not directly involved in the passage of ingested food. The gall bladder stores bile produced by the liver. The pancreas produces digestive enzymes.  The liver produces bile. The correct answer, "None of the above," implies that the passage of ingested food does not involve any of these organs.

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  • 22. 

    The starting materials in a chemical reaction are called______________.

    Correct Answer
    reactants, Reactants
    Explanation
    In a chemical reaction, the substances that undergo a change are known as reactants. The reactants are the starting materials that react with each other to form new substances. Reactants are consumed during the reaction and are transformed into products. 

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  • 23. 

    The _________ on the periodic table indicates the number of energy shells an atom has.

    Correct Answer
    periods, period
    Explanation
    The term "periods" refers to the horizontal rows on the periodic table. Each period represents a different energy level or shell in an atom. The number of periods indicates the number of energy shells an atom has. 

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  • 24. 

    A charged atom is called a(n) __________

    Correct Answer
    ion, Ion, cation, anion
    Explanation
    An atom becomes charged when it gains or loses electrons. A charged atom is called an ion. Ions can be positively charged if they lose electrons, or negatively charged if they gain electrons. The term "ion" is used to refer to both positively and negatively charged atoms.

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  • 25. 

    The proton is a subatomic particle with a ___________ charge.

    Correct Answer
    positive, Positive
    Explanation
    A proton is a subatomic particle that carries a positive charge. It is one of the fundamental particles found in the nucleus of an atom. The positive charge of a proton is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the negative charge of an electron. This charge difference between protons and electrons is what allows for the formation of electric fields and the attraction between atoms, leading to the formation of molecules and matter as we know it.

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  • 26. 

    A __________ is formed when 2 or more elements are combined together.

    Correct Answer
    compound
    Explanation
    A compound is formed when 2 or more elements are combined together. In chemistry, elements can react with each other to form compounds through chemical reactions. These compounds have their own unique properties and characteristics that are different from the elements they are made up of. Compounds are formed by the sharing, gaining, or losing of electrons between the atoms of different elements, resulting in the formation of new chemical bonds. This process allows for the creation of a wide variety of compounds with different compositions and structures.

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  • 27. 

    A negative ion is created when an atom _________ electrons.

    Correct Answer
    gains
    Explanation
    A negative ion is created when an atom gains electrons. When an atom gains one or more electrons, it becomes negatively charged because the number of negatively charged electrons now exceeds the number of positively charged protons in the atom. This creates an imbalance of charges, resulting in the formation of a negative ion.

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  • 28. 

    Compounds that only contain non-metals are called ionic compounds.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false because compounds that only contain non-metals are called covalent compounds, not ionic compounds. Ionic compounds are usually formed when a metal and a nonmetal combine through ionic bonding, while covalent compounds are usually formed when nonmetals share electrons through covalent bonding.

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  • 29. 

    When naming molecular (covalent) compounds, prefixes are used.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When naming molecular (covalent) compounds, prefixes are used. This is true because covalent compounds are formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms. The prefixes indicate the number of each type of atom present in the compound. These prefixes include mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and so on. By using these prefixes, we can accurately name and identify the different molecular compounds based on their composition.

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  • 30. 

    A positively charged ion is called an anion. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A positively charged ion is called a cation, not an anion. An anion is a negatively charged ion. Therefore, the statement is incorrect.

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  • 31. 

    A new smell may indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A new smell can indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred.  During a chemical reaction, new substances are formed with different properties than the original substances. These new substances can have distinct odors, which can be detected by our sense of smell. Therefore, if a new smell is noticed, it suggests that a chemical reaction has taken place.

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  • 32. 

    When writing the chemical names for some transition elements, Roman numerals may be required.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When writing the chemical names for some transition elements, Roman numerals may be required. This is because transition elements can form multiple ions with different charges. The Roman numerals indicate the charge of the ion. For example, iron can form ions with a charge of +2 or +3, so the chemical names for these ions would be iron(II) and iron(III), respectively. 

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  • 33. 

    Check the box of every ionic compound below.

    • A.

      Calcium iodide

    • B.

      Potassium nitride

    • C.

      Carbon monoxide

    • D.

      Lead (II) sulfate

    • E.

      Nitrogen trifluoride

    • F.

      Aluminum hydroxide

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Calcium iodide
    B. Potassium nitride
    D. Lead (II) sulfate
    F. Aluminum hydroxide
    Explanation
    The correct answer is calcium iodide, potassium nitride, lead (II) sulfate, and aluminum hydroxide. These compounds are all ionic because they consist of a metal cation (calcium, potassium, lead, aluminum ) and a nonmetal anion (iodide, nitride, sulfate, hydroxide). Ionic compounds form when electrons are transferred from metal to non-metal, resulting in the formation of positive and negative ions that are attracted to each other through electrostatic forces. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen trifluoride are not ionic compounds because the electronegativity difference between the elements involved is small.

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  • 34. 

    Water and salt are the products of most acid/base neutralization reactions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In most acid/base neutralization reactions, water, and salt are products. When an acid reacts with a base, it neutralizes each other, usually resulting in the formation of water and a salt compound.  Acids release hydrogen ions (H+) and bases release hydroxide ions (OH-). When these ions combine, they form water (H2O), and the remaining positive and negative ions form a salt. 

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  • 35. 

    The correct chemical formula for copper (I) bromide is __________

    Correct Answer
    CuBr
    Explanation
    Copper (I) bromide is a compound formed by the combination of copper and bromine. In this compound, copper has a +1 oxidation state, indicated by the Roman numeral I in parentheses. Bromine has a -1 oxidation state. The chemical formula CuBr represents one copper atom bonded to one bromine atom, which satisfies the valency requirements of both elements. Therefore, CuBr is the correct chemical formula for copper (I) bromide.

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  • 36. 

    A chemical property is illustrated by the following:

    • A.

      Wood burns

    • B.

      Water is a colorless liquid

    • C.

      Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius

    • D.

      The density of water is 1.0g/ml

    Correct Answer
    A. Wood burns
    Explanation
    Wood burning is an example of a chemical property because it involves a chemical reaction. When wood is exposed to heat, it undergoes combustion, breaking down its chemical structure and releasing energy in the form of heat and light. This process is irreversible and results in the formation of new substances, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor.

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  • 37. 

    A covalent bond would most likely form between a:

    • A.

      Chlorine atom and a magnesium atom

    • B.

      Chlorine atom and another chlorine atom

    • C.

      Chlorine atom and an iron atom

    • D.

      Sodium atom and a fluorine atom

    Correct Answer
    B. Chlorine atom and another chlorine atom
    Explanation
    A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share electrons. In this case, a chlorine atom and another chlorine atom would most likely form a covalent bond because both chlorine atoms have the same electronegativity, meaning they have similar tendencies to attract electrons. This allows them to share electrons equally and form a stable molecule. On the other hand, bonds between chlorine and magnesium, chlorine and iron, or sodium and fluorine would be less likely to be covalent due to the significant difference in electronegativity between these elements.

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  • 38. 

    Which group on the periodic table has elements with full valence shells?

    • A.

      Alkali metals

    • B.

      Halogens

    • C.

      Oxygen family

    • D.

      Noble gases

    Correct Answer
    D. Noble gases
    Explanation
    Noble gasses have elements with full valence shells. Valence shells are the outermost electron shells of an atom, and having a full valence shell makes an element stable and less likely to react with other elements. Noble gasses, such as helium, neon, and argon, have full valence shells, which is why they are chemically unreactive.

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  • 39. 

    When forming compounds, metal elements tend to:

    • A.

      Lose electrons

    • B.

      Share electrons

    • C.

      Gain electrons

    • D.

      Form diatomic molecules

    Correct Answer
    A. Lose electrons
    Explanation
    When forming compounds, metal elements tend to lose electrons. This is because metals have fewer valence electrons, which are the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom. By losing these electrons, metals can achieve a stable electron configuration similar to that of a noble gas. This process of losing electrons is known as oxidation and allows metals to form positive ions, which can then bond with other elements to form compounds.

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  • 40. 

    On the periodic table, elements in the same vertical column have the same:

    • A.

      Number of neutrons

    • B.

      Number of valence shells

    • C.

      Number of valence electrons

    • D.

      Number of total electrons

    Correct Answer
    C. Number of valence electrons
    Explanation
    Elements in the same vertical column on the periodic table, also known as groups or families, have the same number of valence electrons. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom and are responsible for the chemical properties of the element. Elements in the same group have similar chemical behavior because they have the same number of valence electrons, which determines how they interact with other atoms to form compounds. 

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  • 41. 

    Check the boxes of all the oxyacids

    • A.

      Phosphorous acid

    • B.

      HF

    • C.

      Hydroiodic acid

    • D.

      Carbonic acid

    • E.

      Sulphuric acid

    • F.

      Hydrochloric acid

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Phosphorous acid
    D. Carbonic acid
    E. Sulphuric acid
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes phosphorous acid, carbonic acid, and sulphuric acid. These are all examples of oxyacids, which are acids that contain oxygen. Phosphorous acid (H3PO3) contains one oxygen atom, carbonic acid (H2CO3) contains two oxygen atoms, and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) contains four oxygen atoms. HF (hydrofluoric acid) and hydroiodic acid do not contain oxygen and are therefore not oxyacids. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) also does not contain oxygen and is not an oxyacid.

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  • 42. 

    PH stands for "potential of Hydrogen" on the pH scale

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement "pH stands for 'potential of hydrogen' on the pH scale" is true. The pH scale measures the acidity or alkalinity of a substance. It is a logarithmic scale that ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. The term "pH" is derived from the words "potential hydrogen" because it represents the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. A lower pH value indicates higher acidity, while a higher pH value indicates higher alkalinity.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following does not represent a chemical change?

    • A.

      NaCl dissolves easily in water

    • B.

      A match burns when struck and exposed to oxygen in air

    • C.

      A solid, precipitate form when two liquids are mixed together

    • D.

      Bread forms a crust when baked

    Correct Answer
    A. NaCl dissolves easily in water
    Explanation
    NaCl dissolving easily in water does not represent a chemical change, it is a physical change. Dissolving is a process where molecules are separated and dispersed in the water, but no new substances are formed.  NaCl reforms into the same substance when water containing it is evaporated.

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  • 44. 

    The atomic mass of potassium (K) listed on the periodic table is 39.1 atomic mass units. The atomic mass is not a whole number because:

    • A.

      Potassium atoms have an odd number of protons

    • B.

      Potassium atoms exist as positive cations

    • C.

      The atomic mass of an element is an average of the atomic masses of all of the isotopes of that element occurring in nature

    • D.

      Potassium atoms give up electrons when they bond with non-metals

    Correct Answer
    C. The atomic mass of an element is an average of the atomic masses of all of the isotopes of that element occurring in nature
    Explanation
    The atomic mass of an element is an average of the atomic masses of all of the isotopes of that element occurring in nature. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. Since different isotopes of an element have different masses, the atomic mass is calculated by taking into account the abundance of each isotope and its respective mass. This results in a decimal value for the atomic mass, rather than a whole number.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following pairs of elements would be most likely to combine to form an ionic bond?

    • A.

      Iron and silver

    • B.

      Potassium and sodium

    • C.

      Sulfur and potassium

    • D.

      Neon and argon

    Correct Answer
    C. Sulfur and potassium
    Explanation
    Sulfur and potassium would be most likely to combine to form an ionic bond. This is because sulfur has six valence electrons and can gain two electrons to achieve a stable octet, while potassium has one valence electron and can easily lose it to achieve a stable octet. This transfer of electrons from potassium to sulfur would result in the formation of an ionic bond between the two elements. The electronegativity difference between sulfur, an electronegative element, and potassium, an electropositive element, is high.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of a base, such as NaOH?

    • A.

      Tastes bitter

    • B.

      Conducts electricity

    • C.

      Has a pH greater than 7

    • D.

      Releases hydrogen ions

    Correct Answer
    D. Releases hydrogen ions
    Explanation
    A base, such as NaOH, does not release hydrogen ions. Bases are substances that accept or react with hydrogen ions rather than releasing them.  Bases normally release hydroxide ions (OH-).

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following best describes light made through incandescence?

    • A.

      Coals in a wood stove

    • B.

      Sparks from grinding metal

    • C.

      Filament light bulb

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Filament light bulb
    Explanation
    The option that best describes light made through incandescence is "filament light bulb." Incandescence is the emission of light as a result of being heated to a high temperature. In a filament light bulb, the filament (usually made of tungsten) is heated by an electric current until it becomes white-hot and emits visible light. Coals in a wood stove and sparks from grinding metal are not typically associated with incandescence but rather with combustion and frictional heat, respectively. Therefore, the most relevant example is a filament light bulb.

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  • 48. 

    Through which type of material does light pass through most easily?

    • A.

      Translucent

    • B.

      Transparent

    • C.

      Opaque

    • D.

      Reflective

    Correct Answer
    B. Transparent
    Explanation
    Light passes through transparent materials most easily because they allow light to pass through without scattering or absorbing it. Transparent materials have a high degree of clarity, allowing light to travel through them with minimal obstruction. This is in contrast to translucent materials, which allow some light to pass through but scatter it in different directions, and opaque materials, which allow very little light to pass through at all. Reflective materials, on the other hand, reflect light back rather than allowing it to pass through.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following has the longest wavelength?

    • A.

      Radio waves

    • B.

      Microwaves

    • C.

      Ultraviolet (UV) rays

    • D.

      Visible light

    Correct Answer
    A. Radio waves
    Explanation
    Radio waves have the longest wavelength among the given options. Radio waves have wavelengths ranging from about one millimeter to hundreds of kilometers, making them longer than microwaves, ultraviolet rays, and visible light. This longer wavelength allows radio waves to travel long distances and penetrate through obstacles, making them ideal for communication purposes such as radio broadcasting and wireless communication.

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  • 50. 

    As the index of refraction increases, the speed of light:

    • A.

      Experiences no change

    • B.

      Speeds up

    • C.

      Slows down

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Slows down
    Explanation
    As the index of refraction increases, the speed of light slows down. This is because the index of refraction is a measure of how much a material can slow down the speed of light as it passes through it. When light travels from a medium with a lower index of refraction to a medium with a higher index of refraction, it slows down due to interactions with the atoms or molecules in the material. 

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Daniel P |MSEd, Science |
Science Education
With 11 years of urban teaching, Daniel excels as a STEM club teacher, demonstrating expertise in curriculum design, differentiated instruction for IEPs, and adept use of Google Classroom. His commitment to education shines through in his impactful contributions to STEM learning. Daniel holds a MSEd in Science Education from The City College of New York and a BA in History from Binghamton University. With certifications in Special Education and Biology, he is dedicated to curriculum development and enhancing educational experiences for students.

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