Sedatives, Hypnotics, & Anxiolytics

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Sedatives, Hypnotics, & Anxiolytics - Quiz

Clinical neuro 3


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    High doses of this drug are associated w/reduced REM sleep..

    • A.

      Zolpidem

    • B.

      Meprobanmate

    • C.

      Etomidate

    Correct Answer
    B. Meprobanmate
    Explanation
    Meprobamate is a drug that is known to have sedative effects and is commonly used as a sleep aid. High doses of meprobamate have been found to decrease the amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which is the stage of sleep associated with dreaming. This reduction in REM sleep can lead to a decrease in the quality of sleep and may result in daytime drowsiness. Therefore, the statement that high doses of meprobamate are associated with reduced REM sleep is a valid explanation.

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  • 2. 

    Similar to alcohol, this drug stimulates the release of GABA into the synaptic cleft..

    • A.

      Propofol

    • B.

      Buspirone

    • C.

      Alpraxolam

    Correct Answer
    A. Propofol
    Explanation
    Propofol is the correct answer because it is a drug that stimulates the release of GABA into the synaptic cleft, similar to alcohol. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps to reduce brain activity and induce sedation. Propofol is commonly used as an anesthetic agent due to its sedative and hypnotic effects. Buspirone and alprazolam are not known to stimulate the release of GABA into the synaptic cleft.

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  • 3. 

    DOC for pre-operative sedation..

    • A.

      Chlordiazepoxide

    • B.

      Meprobamate

    • C.

      Phenobarbital

    Correct Answer
    C. Phenobarbital
    Explanation
    Phenobarbital is commonly used as a pre-operative sedative due to its sedative and hypnotic properties. It is a long-acting barbiturate that acts on the central nervous system to induce sleep and relaxation. Its effects last for several hours, making it an effective choice for pre-operative sedation. Chlordiazepoxide and meprobamate are also sedatives, but they are not typically used for pre-operative sedation.

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  • 4. 

    This drug preferentially affects GABAa type 1 receptors..

    • A.

      Etomidate

    • B.

      Secobarbital

    • C.

      Zaleplon

    Correct Answer
    C. Zaleplon
    Explanation
    Zaleplon is the correct answer because it specifically targets GABAa type 1 receptors. This means that it has a higher affinity for and selectively binds to these receptors, leading to its desired effects. Etomidate and secobarbital may also affect GABA receptors, but they do not preferentially target GABAa type 1 receptors like zaleplon does.

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  • 5. 

    This drugs stimulates melatonin receptors..

    • A.

      Phenobarbital

    • B.

      Ramelteon

    • C.

      Buspirone

    Correct Answer
    B. Ramelteon
    Explanation
    Ramelteon is the correct answer because it is a drug that specifically targets and stimulates melatonin receptors. Melatonin receptors are involved in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, and ramelteon is commonly used as a sleep aid to treat insomnia. Phenobarbital and buspirone, on the other hand, do not have a direct effect on melatonin receptors and are used for different purposes such as seizure control and anxiety treatment, respectively.

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  • 6. 

    This drug is associated w/congenital malformations..

    • A.

      Meprobanmate

    • B.

      Propofol

    • C.

      Ramelteon

    Correct Answer
    A. Meprobanmate
    Explanation
    Meprobamate is the correct answer because it is a drug that has been linked to congenital malformations. Congenital malformations refer to structural abnormalities present at birth, which can affect various parts of the body such as organs, limbs, or the central nervous system. Meprobamate is a medication that is primarily used as an anxiolytic and sedative, but it has been associated with an increased risk of birth defects when used during pregnancy. Therefore, it is important to avoid the use of meprobamate during pregnancy to minimize the risk of congenital malformations in the developing fetus.

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  • 7. 

    Contraindicated in pts w/pulmonary issues..

    • A.

      Alprazolam

    • B.

      Chlordiazepoxide

    • C.

      Phenobarbital

    Correct Answer
    A. Alprazolam
    Explanation
    Alprazolam is contraindicated in patients with pulmonary issues. This means that it is not recommended to use alprazolam in individuals who have existing respiratory problems. The reason for this contraindication may be that alprazolam can potentially cause respiratory depression or worsen pre-existing respiratory conditions. Therefore, it is important to avoid prescribing alprazolam to patients with pulmonary issues to prevent any potential harm or adverse effects.

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  • 8. 

    DOC for elderly pt's with limited CV reserve..

    • A.

      Zaleplon

    • B.

      Etomidate

    • C.

      Buspirone

    Correct Answer
    B. Etomidate
    Explanation
    Etomidate is the correct answer because it is a short-acting intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent that is commonly used for anesthesia induction in elderly patients with limited cardiovascular reserve. It has minimal effects on the cardiovascular system, making it a safer option for elderly patients who may have compromised cardiac function. Zaleplon is a sedative-hypnotic used for the treatment of insomnia, but it is not indicated for elderly patients with limited cardiovascular reserve. Buspirone is an anxiolytic medication used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, but it is not relevant in this context.

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  • 9. 

    DOC for panic attacks, acute anxiety, and PMS..

    • A.

      Alprazolam

    • B.

      Zolpidem

    • C.

      Propanolol

    Correct Answer
    A. Alprazolam
    Explanation
    Alprazolam is the correct answer because it is commonly prescribed for panic attacks, acute anxiety, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It belongs to the class of drugs known as benzodiazepines, which work by enhancing the effects of a natural chemical in the body to promote relaxation and reduce anxiety. Alprazolam is known for its fast-acting properties, making it effective in managing panic attacks and acute anxiety symptoms. It can also be used to alleviate the emotional and physical symptoms associated with PMS. Zolpidem is primarily used for insomnia, while propanolol is commonly prescribed for high blood pressure and certain heart conditions.

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  • 10. 

    DOC for performance anxiety..

    • A.

      Propanolol

    • B.

      Phenobarbital

    • C.

      Ramelteon

    Correct Answer
    A. Propanolol
    Explanation
    Propanolol is the correct answer because it is a medication commonly used to treat performance anxiety. It belongs to a class of drugs called beta blockers, which work by blocking the effects of adrenaline in the body. This helps to reduce symptoms of anxiety such as increased heart rate, trembling, and sweating. Propanolol is often prescribed to individuals who experience anxiety in situations such as public speaking or performing on stage, as it can help to calm the physical symptoms and improve overall performance. Phenobarbital and ramelteon are not typically used for performance anxiety.

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  • 11. 

    Use of this drug must be closely monitored, since it has been associate w/suicidal ideation..

    • A.

      Zaleplon

    • B.

      Chlordiazepoxide

    • C.

      Meprobanmate

    Correct Answer
    B. Chlordiazepoxide
    Explanation
    Chlordiazepoxide is the correct answer because it is a drug that needs to be closely monitored due to its association with suicidal ideation. This means that individuals who take this drug may experience thoughts of suicide, making it important for healthcare professionals to closely watch their patients while they are on this medication. Zaleplon and meprobamate are not associated with suicidal ideation, so they do not require the same level of monitoring.

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  • 12. 

    This drug may produce hyperactivity in children..

    • A.

      Phenobarbital

    • B.

      Propanolol

    • C.

      Propofol

    Correct Answer
    A. Phenobarbital
    Explanation
    Phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is known to have stimulant effects on the central nervous system. This can lead to increased activity and hyperactivity in children. Propanolol and propofol, on the other hand, are not associated with hyperactivity and do not produce this side effect. Therefore, phenobarbital is the most likely drug to produce hyperactivity in children.

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  • 13. 

    Contraindicated in children due to acidosis..

    • A.

      Phenobarbital

    • B.

      Propanolol

    • C.

      Propofol

    Correct Answer
    C. Propofol
    Explanation
    Propofol is contraindicated in children due to acidosis. This means that it is not recommended to be used in children who have acidosis, a condition characterized by an imbalance of acid in the body. Acidosis can be dangerous for children, and the use of propofol may worsen this condition. Therefore, propofol should be avoided in pediatric patients with acidosis.

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  • 14. 

    This drug preferrentially affects the GABAa type 1 receptors..

    • A.

      Chlordiazepoxide

    • B.

      Zolpidem

    • C.

      Busprione

    Correct Answer
    B. Zolpidem
    Explanation
    Zolpidem is the correct answer because it is a sedative-hypnotic drug that primarily targets the GABAa type 1 receptors in the brain. By binding to these receptors, zolpidem enhances the inhibitory effects of GABA neurotransmitter, leading to sedative and hypnotic effects. Chlordiazepoxide is also a benzodiazepine that acts on GABA receptors, but it does not specifically target the GABAa type 1 receptors. Buspirone, on the other hand, is an anxiolytic drug that acts on serotonin receptors rather than GABA receptors. Therefore, zolpidem is the only option that preferentially affects the GABAa type 1 receptors.

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  • 15. 

    This drug can be used w/alcohol and isn't high risk for abuse

    • A.

      Propofol

    • B.

      Phenobarbital

    • C.

      Buspirone

    Correct Answer
    C. Buspirone
    Explanation
    Buspirone is the correct answer because it is a drug that can be used in combination with alcohol without any significant risks. Additionally, buspirone is known to have a low potential for abuse compared to other drugs like propofol and phenobarbital.

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  • 16. 

     pre-midazolam IV, then propofol/ketamine/opioids describes..

    • A.

      Monitored anesthesia care

    • B.

      Conscious sedation

    • C.

      Deep sedation

    Correct Answer
    A. Monitored anesthesia care
    Explanation
    The given answer, "monitored anesthesia care," is the correct answer because pre-midazolam IV is a medication used to induce sedation before a procedure, and propofol/ketamine/opioids are commonly used in monitored anesthesia care to provide sedation and pain control. Monitored anesthesia care involves the administration of sedatives and analgesics to ensure patient comfort and safety during a procedure, while still allowing the patient to maintain consciousness and the ability to respond to verbal and tactile stimuli.

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  • 17. 

    IV thiopental, midazolam, propofol,opiods, and ketamine describes..

    • A.

      Monitored anesthesia care

    • B.

      Conscious sedation

    • C.

      Deep sedation

    Correct Answer
    C. Deep sedation
    Explanation
    The given answer, deep sedation, is the most appropriate description for the combination of IV thiopental, midazolam, propofol, opioids, and ketamine. Deep sedation refers to a state of sedation where the patient is in a depressed level of consciousness but can still respond to repeated or painful stimuli. This combination of medications is commonly used to achieve deep sedation during medical procedures or surgeries, providing a high level of sedation and analgesia to ensure the patient's comfort and safety.

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  • 18. 

    IV diazepam, midazolam, propofol describes..

    • A.

      Monitored anesthesia care

    • B.

      Conscious sedation

    • C.

      Deep sedation

    Correct Answer
    B. Conscious sedation
    Explanation
    The combination of IV diazepam, midazolam, and propofol is commonly used to achieve conscious sedation. Conscious sedation is a state in which the patient is sedated but still able to respond to verbal commands and maintain their own airway. This level of sedation is often used for minor procedures or diagnostic tests, where the patient needs to be relaxed and comfortable but not completely unconscious.

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  • 19. 

    DOC for ambulatory surgery..

    • A.

      Etomidate

    • B.

      Alprazolam

    • C.

      Propofol

    Correct Answer
    C. Propofol
    Explanation
    Propofol is a suitable choice for ambulatory surgery because it has a rapid onset and short duration of action, allowing for a quick induction and recovery. It also provides smooth sedation and amnesia, making it an ideal choice for procedures that require patient cooperation and comfort. Additionally, propofol has a low incidence of side effects and a minimal hangover effect, further supporting its use in ambulatory settings where patients need to be discharged quickly.

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  • 20. 

    DOC for long-term anxiety..

    • A.

      Buspirone

    • B.

      Propanolol

    • C.

      Meprobanmate

    Correct Answer
    A. Buspirone
    Explanation
    Buspirone is the correct answer for long-term anxiety because it is an anxiolytic medication that is commonly prescribed for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. It works by affecting the levels of certain chemicals in the brain that are associated with anxiety. Unlike other medications used for anxiety, buspirone does not cause sedation or dependence, making it a suitable option for long-term use. Propanolol is a beta-blocker primarily used for treating high blood pressure and heart-related conditions, while meprobamate is a sedative-hypnotic medication primarily used for short-term relief of anxiety symptoms.

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  • 21. 

    BZs have some teratogenicity during..

    • A.

      1st trimester

    • B.

      2nd trimester

    • C.

      3rd trimester

    Correct Answer
    A. 1st trimester
    Explanation
    During the 1st trimester of pregnancy, benzodiazepines (BZs) have been found to have teratogenic effects. Teratogenicity refers to the ability of a substance to cause abnormalities in the development of a fetus. The 1st trimester is a critical period for fetal development, as major organ systems are forming. Exposure to BZs during this time can increase the risk of congenital malformations and developmental disorders in the baby. It is important for pregnant women to be cautious when using BZs and to consult with their healthcare provider for safer alternatives.

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  • 22. 

    This drug is less effective in recent BZ users..

    • A.

      Etomidate

    • B.

      Birspirone

    • C.

      Zaleplon

    Correct Answer
    B. Birspirone
    Explanation
    Birspirone is the correct answer because it is a drug that is less effective in recent benzodiazepine (BZ) users. This means that individuals who have recently used benzodiazepines may not experience the desired effects or benefits from taking birspirone. The other two options, etomidate and zaleplon, do not have this specific characteristic mentioned in the question.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • May 18, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 09, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Drhermy
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