SCID 242 - Disease Quiz

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Quizzes Created: 15 | Total Attempts: 28,633
Questions: 11 | Attempts: 266

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SCID Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A 45-year-old patient with breast cancer subsequently develops metastases in her vertebral column. The most direct route for spread of the tumor to the vertebral column was via: 

    • A.

      Branches of the cephalic vein

    • B.

      Branches of the lateral thoracic vein

    • C.

      Branches of the thoracoacromial veins

    • D.

      Ymphatic vessels draining into the axilla

    • E.

      Branches of the intercostal veins

    Correct Answer
    E. Branches of the intercostal veins
    Explanation
    he most likely route for the cancer to reach the vertebral column is through the intercostal veins, i.e. hematogenous spread. The cephalic vein and thoracoacromial vein would not be draining the breast, and the lateral thoracic vein would not be directing blood toward the vertebral column. Lymphatic vessels may carry some tumor cells to the axillary lymph nodes and may participate in the spread of the cancer, but this isn't the best answer for this question. The most direct way for the cancer to spread to the vertebral column is through the venous system.

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  • 2. 

    In the process of doing an axillary lymph node dissection in a 50 year-old patient, the surgery resident cleans the space between the pectoralis major and minor muscles, in an attempt to remove all of the lateral pectoral lymph nodes. Upon recovery it is noted that the patient's lower pectoralis major is paralyzed. The nerve most likely injured is the: 

    • A.

      Thoracodorsal

    • B.

      Suprascapular

    • C.

      Medial pectoral

    • D.

      Lateral pectoral

    • E.

      Axillary

    Correct Answer
    C. Medial pectoral
    Explanation
    Since the medial pectoral nerve pierces pectoralis minor to reach pectoralis major, it seems likely for this nerve to be injured from trauma to the space between pectoralis minor and major. Also, remember that the medial pectoral nerve innervates the inferior part of pectoralis major, while the lateral pectoral nerve innervates the superior part of pectoralis major.

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  • 3. 

    In lymphatic drainage of the breast, the major portion (about 75%) enters eventually into which group of nodes? 

    • A.

      Central axillary

    • B.

      Deltopectoral

    • C.

      Lateral axilllary

    • D.

      Parasternal

    • E.

      Subscapular

    Correct Answer
    A. Central axillary
    Explanation
    About 75% of the lymph draining the breast goes to the axillary lymph nodes, via the pectoral lymph nodes. All of this lymph from the pectoral lymph nodes must drain to the central lymph nodes as well. This is why it is so important to examine all these groups of axillary lymph nodes when performing a breast exam.

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  • 4. 

    The prognosis in breast cancer is poorer as more proximal lymph nodes are found to have cancerous cells in them. Spread of cancer to which of the following axillary nodes would indicate the worst prognosis? 

    • A.

      Apical

    • B.

      Central

    • C.

      Lateral

    • D.

      Pectoral

    • E.

      Subscapular

    Correct Answer
    A. Apical
    Explanation
    As lymph drains from the breast into the axillary system, it moves from pectoral, lateral, and subscapular nodes to the central nodes, and then to the apical nodes. If cancer is found in the apical axillary nodes, this is a sign that the cancer has spread through the regional lymphatic system and may have metastasized to the rest of the body.

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  • 5. 

    After a blunt injury to the left anterior shoulder region, a young man was told by an examining physician that he had a muscle tear that resulted directly from the superolateral distraction of a fractured coracoid process. Which muscle was torn? 

    • A.

      Subclavius

    • B.

      Serratus anterior

    • C.

      Pectoralis major

    • D.

      Pectoralis minor

    • E.

      Deltoid

    Correct Answer
    D. Pectoralis minor
    Explanation
    Of the muscles listed, pectoralis minor is the only one which is attached to the coracoid process.

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  • 6. 

    Breast cancer cells can spread directly to the cranial cavity and brain via the vertebral venous plexus. Through which route can they reach this plexus? 

    • A.

      Axillary lymph nodes

    • B.

      Internal thoracic vein

    • C.

      Intercostal veins

    • D.

      Parasternal lymph nodes

    • E.

      Thoracoacromial artery

    Correct Answer
    C. Intercostal veins
    Explanation
    Hematogenous spread through the intercostal veins is the easiest way for breast cancer to reach the internal vertebral venous plexus. It is true that the axillary lymph nodes drain 75% of the lymph from the breast, and the parasternal lymph nodes drain most of the remaining lymph. However, these lymphatic channels are not the major way that cancer would be transmitted to the internal vertebral venous plexus.

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  • 7. 

    After being thrown from a motorcycle moving at high speed, a 15-year-old female was found to have a paralyzed right pectoralis major muscle. Which set of movements at the shoulder joint would be found greatly weakened? 

    • A.

      Abduction and extension

    • B.

      Abduction and lateral rotation

    • C.

      Adduction and flexion

    • D.

      Lateral rotation and extension

    Correct Answer
    C. Adduction and flexion
    Explanation
    Pectoralis major flexes, adducts, and medially rotates the arm. It is innervated by the lateral and medial pectoral nerves, from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus.

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  • 8. 

    While observing a mastectomy on a 60-year-old female patient, a medical student was asked by the surgeon to help tie off the arteries that supply the medial side of the breast. The artery that gives origin to these small branches is the: 

    • A.

      Thoracoacromial

    • B.

      Superior epigastric

    • C.

      Posterior intercostal

    • D.

      Musculophrenic

    • E.

      Internal thoracic

    Correct Answer
    E. Internal thoracic
    Explanation
    Small branches from the internal thoracic artery, known as medial mammary branches, supply the medial side of the mammary gland. The lateral side of the mammary gland is supplied by the lateral thoracic artery.

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  • 9. 

    In the axilla, the pectoralis minor is a landmark, being closely related to all of the following structures except: 

    • A.

      Second part of the axillary artery

    • B.

      Cords of the brachial plexus

    • C.

      Medial pectoral nerve

    • D.

      Lateral thoracic artery

    • E.

      Cephalic vein

    Correct Answer
    E. Cephalic vein
    Explanation
    The cephalic vein is the only structure listed that does not have a special relationship to pectoralis minor. The cords of the brachial plexus are found deep to pectoralis minor. The second part of the axillary artery is defined as the segment of the axillary artery which is covered by the pectoralis minor muscle. So, branches of the second part of the axillary artery, including the lateral thoracic artery, lie deep to pectoralis minor. The medial pectoral nerve pierces pectoralis minor to reach pectoralis major.

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  • 10. 

    Common routes for metastasis of breast cancer include hematogenous spread and lymphatic spread. Which route is more likely for metastases from breast tissue to ribs and other bones?

    • A.

      Hematogenous spread

    • B.

      Lymphatic spread

    • C.

      Option 3

    • D.

      Option 4

    Correct Answer
    A. Hematogenous spread
    Explanation
    The most likely route for breast cancer to reach the bones is hematogenous spread via the intercostal veins.

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  • 11. 

    Which one do you like?

    • A.

      Option 1

    • B.

      Option 2

    • C.

      Option 3

    • D.

      Option 4

    Correct Answer
    A. Option 1

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 18, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 23, 2015
    Quiz Created by
    Permphan
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