Biology Quiz: Types Of Genetic Mutations!

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, PhD, Biological Sciences
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Biology Quiz: Types Of Genetic Mutations! - Quiz

There are different types of genetic mutations in the world today, and all these are due to the DNA of a person being changed through the addition, deletion, or change of a nucleotide in a gene. Most of the mutations we hear about cause illnesses, and as a medical practitioner, you should know how to correct or create mutations. Do take the quiz and see how well you will do.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    If transcription is like copying out a recipe, translation is like...

    • A.

      Actually baking a cake

    • B.

      Eating a cake

    • C.

      Being a cake

    Correct Answer
    A. Actually baking a cake
    Explanation
    Translation is like actually baking a cake because it involves taking the original text in one language and recreating it in another language, just like following a recipe and creating a cake from scratch. Both processes require understanding the ingredients (words or phrases) and their meanings, as well as the overall structure and context, in order to produce a final product that is accurate and coherent. Both translation and baking a cake also require skill, attention to detail, and creativity to ensure a successful outcome.

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  • 2. 

    If a sequence of DNA codes  AAA TCG GGC GTA CCT What will be the sequence of the corresponding mRNA? Type your answer with a space between each codon.

    Correct Answer
    UUU AGC CCG CAU GGA, uuu agc ccg cau gga, UUUAGCCCGCAUGGA
    Explanation
    The given sequence of DNA codes (AAA TCG GGC GTA CCT) will be transcribed into mRNA using the complementary base pairing rule. The corresponding mRNA sequence will be UUU AGC CCG CAU GGA. The answer is provided in both uppercase and lowercase letters for clarity.

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  • 3. 

    Which of these is a mutagen (anything that can cause genetic mutation)? 

    • A.

      UV Radiation

    • B.

      Fibreglass dust

    • C.

      Lead and Mercury

    • D.

      X Rays

    • E.

      Vitamin C

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. UV Radiation
    C. Lead and Mercury
    D. X Rays
    Explanation
    UV radiation, lead and mercury, and X-rays are all known mutagens because they have the ability to cause genetic mutations. UV radiation from the sun can directly damage DNA, while lead and mercury are heavy metals that can interfere with DNA replication and repair processes. X-rays, which are a form of ionizing radiation, can cause breaks in the DNA strands. On the other hand, fibreglass dust and vitamin C do not possess mutagenic properties and therefore are not considered mutagens.

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  • 4. 

    Imagine that a mutation occurs so that the codon UAU mutates to UAA. What type of mutation occurs? ACA AUU CGG UAU GAG UUU AGC

    • A.

      Frameshift

    • B.

      Deletion mutation

    • C.

      Point mutation

    • D.

      Insertion mutation

    Correct Answer
    C. Point mutation
    Explanation
    A point mutation occurs when a single nucleotide in the DNA sequence is changed, resulting in the substitution of one nucleotide for another. In this case, the codon UAU mutates to UAA, indicating a change from encoding the amino acid tyrosine to encoding a stop signal. This alteration in a single nucleotide is an example of a point mutation.

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  • 5. 

    If the end of a gene has the DNA sequence: CCT GTG ACC AAA ACT. The last codon, ACT, mutates to ACC, what type of mutation will result?

    • A.

      Deletion mutation

    • B.

      Insertion mutation

    • C.

      Point mutation

    • D.

      Messed up mutation

    Correct Answer
    C. Point mutation
    Explanation
    A point mutation is a type of mutation that occurs when a single nucleotide in a DNA sequence is changed. In this case, the last codon "ACT" mutated to "ACC", which is a change in a single nucleotide. Therefore, this is a point mutation.

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  • 6. 

    For the same sequence of DNA, CCT GTG ACC AAA ACT what type of mutation would occur if a Thymine was inserted between Adenine and Cytosine in the triplet ACC?

    • A.

      Silent Mutation

    • B.

      Insertion mutation

    • C.

      Point mutation

    • D.

      Frameshift mutation

    Correct Answer
    B. Insertion mutation
    Explanation
    An insertion mutation occurs when an extra nucleotide is added to the DNA sequence. In this case, a Thymine is inserted between Adenine and Cytosine in the triplet ACC, resulting in the sequence CCT GTG ATC CAA ACT. This insertion alters the reading frame of the sequence, causing a shift in the codons and potentially changing the resulting protein. Therefore, the correct answer is insertion mutation.

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  • 7. 

    For the same DNA sequence, CCT GTG ACC AAA ACT What type of mutation would result if ACC changed to CCA?

    • A.

      Inversion mutation

    • B.

      Frameshift deletion mutation

    • C.

      Point mutation

    • D.

      Deletion mutation

    Correct Answer
    A. Inversion mutation
    Explanation
    An inversion mutation occurs when a segment of DNA is reversed within the chromosome. In this case, the sequence ACC changing to CCA would result in a reversal of the segment. This is different from a frameshift deletion mutation, which involves the insertion or deletion of nucleotides, or a point mutation, which involves the substitution of a single nucleotide. Therefore, the correct answer is inversion mutation.

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  • 8. 

    A mutation is ...

    • A.

      A permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene

    • B.

      What happened to the Incredible Hulk

    • C.

      Doesn't happen very often  in DNA

    • D.

      Only happens to people on drugs

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. A permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene
    C. Doesn't happen very often  in DNA
    Explanation
    A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene. This means that there is a modification in the genetic material that can be inherited and passed on to future generations. Mutations can occur spontaneously during DNA replication or as a result of exposure to certain environmental factors such as radiation or chemicals. However, mutations do not happen very often in DNA, as most DNA replication processes have built-in mechanisms to correct errors and maintain the integrity of the genetic code. Therefore, mutations are relatively rare events in the DNA sequence.

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  • 9. 

    Which mutations cause a frameshift in the nitrogen bases?

    • A.

      Point

    • B.

      Deletion

    • C.

      Inversion

    • D.

      Insertion

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Deletion
    D. Insertion
    Explanation
    Deletion and insertion mutations cause a frameshift in the nitrogen bases. In a frameshift mutation, one or more nucleotides are either added or removed from the DNA sequence, causing a shift in the reading frame during translation. This shift alters the codon sequence, leading to the production of a completely different amino acid sequence. Deletion removes nucleotides, causing a loss of genetic information, while insertion adds extra nucleotides, resulting in a shift in the reading frame. Both types of mutations can have significant impacts on protein structure and function.

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  • 10. 

    Which mutations will most likely cause a protein to be non-functional?

    • A.

      Point

    • B.

      Inversion

    • C.

      Insertion

    • D.

      Deletion

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Insertion
    D. Deletion
    Explanation
    Insertion and deletion mutations are most likely to cause a protein to be non-functional because they involve the addition or removal of nucleotides in the DNA sequence. This alters the reading frame and disrupts the codons, leading to a shift in the amino acid sequence during translation. As a result, the protein may not fold correctly or may lack essential functional domains, rendering it non-functional. Point mutations and inversions, on the other hand, typically involve smaller changes in the DNA sequence and may not have as significant an impact on protein function.

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  • 11. 

    THE DOG SAT changes to THE DOG TAS

    • A.

      Point mutation

    • B.

      Deletion mutation

    • C.

      Inversion mutation

    • D.

      Insertion mutation

    Correct Answer
    C. Inversion mutation
    Explanation
    Inversion mutation involves the reversal of a segment of DNA. In this case, the sequence "SAT" has been reversed to "TAS". This type of mutation does not involve the addition or deletion of nucleotides, but rather rearranges the existing sequence. Therefore, inversion mutation is the most appropriate explanation for the given change in the sequence.

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  • 12. 

    THE DOG ATE THE BAT mutated to THE LDO GAT ETH EBA T

    • A.

      Point mutation

    • B.

      Insertion mutation

    • C.

      Inversion mutation

    • D.

      Deletion mutation

    Correct Answer
    B. Insertion mutation
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "insertion mutation". This is because the original phrase "THE DOG ATE THE BAT" has undergone a mutation where an extra letter "L" has been inserted, resulting in "THE LDO GAT ETH EBA T". This mutation involves the insertion of an additional letter into the sequence, causing a change in the genetic code.

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  • 13. 

    THE BAT PAT THE CAT mutated to THE BAT ATT HEC AT

    • A.

      Point mutation

    • B.

      Inversion mutation

    • C.

      Insertion mutation

    • D.

      Deletion mutation

    Correct Answer
    D. Deletion mutation
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is deletion mutation. This is because the original sequence "THE BAT PAT THE CAT" has undergone a mutation where a portion of the sequence has been deleted, resulting in "THE BAT ATT HEC AT". This deletion of a section of the sequence is a type of mutation known as deletion mutation.

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  • 14. 

    What is permanently changed when a mutation occurs?

    Correct Answer
    DNA
    Explanation
    When a mutation occurs, the DNA is permanently changed. Mutations are alterations in the DNA sequence, which can involve the addition, deletion, or substitution of nucleotides. These changes can affect the genetic information encoded in the DNA, leading to variations in the traits and characteristics of an organism. Therefore, DNA is the correct answer as it undergoes permanent changes when mutations happen.

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Stephen Reinbold |PhD, Biological Sciences |
Biology Expert
Stephen Reinbold has a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences with a particular interest in teaching. He taught General Biology, Environmental Science, Zoology, Genetics, and Anatomy & Physiology for almost thirty years at Metropolitan Community College in Kansas City, Missouri. He particularly enjoyed emphasizing scientific methodology and student research projects. Now, enjoying retirement, he works part-time as an editor while also engaging in online activities.

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