Rocks And Minerals Quiz Questions

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Questions: 22 | Attempts: 298

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Rock And Mineral Quizzes & Trivia

This quiz is covers the three types of rocks, as well as the rock cycle.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is true about rocks?

    • A.

      Rocks are composed of only one mineral.

    • B.

      Rocks do not contain minerals.

    • C.

      Coal is not considered a rock.

    • D.

      Most rocks are a mixture of minerals.

    Correct Answer
    D. Most rocks are a mixture of minerals.
    Explanation
    Most rocks are a mixture of minerals because rocks are made up of different minerals that have been compacted or cemented together over time. These minerals can vary in composition and can include quartz, feldspar, mica, and many others. This is why rocks often have different colors and textures. Additionally, rocks can also contain other materials such as organic matter or fossils. Therefore, the statement "Most rocks are a mixture of minerals" accurately describes the composition of rocks.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is NOT one of the three types of rock?

    • A.

      Igneous

    • B.

      Sedimentary

    • C.

      Magma

    • D.

      Metamorphic

    Correct Answer
    C. Magma
    Explanation
    Magma is not one of the three types of rock. Magma is a molten mixture of minerals and gases found beneath the Earth's surface. It is the precursor to igneous rocks, which are formed when magma cools and solidifies. The three types of rock are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Igneous rocks are formed from cooled magma or lava, sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and compaction of sediments, and metamorphic rocks are formed from the transformation of existing rocks through heat and pressure.

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  • 3. 

    Metamorphic rock forms as a result of

    • A.

      Heat and pressure

    • B.

      The cooling of magma

    • C.

      Compaction of sediments

    • D.

      The melting of rock

    Correct Answer
    A. Heat and pressure
    Explanation
    Metamorphic rock forms as a result of heat and pressure. When existing rocks are subjected to high temperatures and intense pressure, the minerals within them undergo chemical and physical changes, leading to the formation of metamorphic rock. This process can occur deep within the Earth's crust or during tectonic activity, such as mountain-building events. The combination of heat and pressure causes the minerals to recrystallize, resulting in the transformation of the original rock into a new, harder, and more compact rock with different mineral compositions and textures.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is NOT part of the rock cycle?

    • A.

      Magma or lava cools, forming igneous rocks.

    • B.

      Sediments melt deep beneath Earth's surface.

    • C.

      Extreme heat and pressure form metamorphic rocks.

    • D.

      Rocks at Earth's surface are broken down into smaller pieces.

    Correct Answer
    B. Sediments melt deep beneath Earth's surface.
    Explanation
    The rock cycle is a continuous process that involves the formation, transformation, and destruction of rocks on Earth's surface. It includes the formation of igneous rocks from the cooling of magma or lava, the formation of metamorphic rocks through extreme heat and pressure, and the breaking down of rocks at Earth's surface into smaller pieces. The statement "Sediments melt deep beneath Earth's surface" is not part of the rock cycle because sediments are typically compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rocks, rather than melting.

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  • 5. 

    A rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface is called an

    • A.

      Intrusive metamorphic rock.

    • B.

      Intrusive igneous rock.

    • C.

      Extrusive sedimentary rock.

    • D.

      Extrusive igneous rock.

    Correct Answer
    B. Intrusive igneous rock.
    Explanation
    An intrusive igneous rock is formed when magma cools and solidifies beneath the Earth's surface. This process allows for slow cooling, resulting in the formation of large crystals within the rock. This is in contrast to extrusive igneous rocks, which are formed when magma erupts onto the Earth's surface and cools quickly, resulting in smaller crystals or even a glassy texture. Metamorphic rocks, on the other hand, are formed from pre-existing rocks that have been subjected to high pressure and temperature, causing them to undergo physical and chemical changes. Therefore, the correct answer is intrusive igneous rock.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is an example of an extrusive igneous rock?

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Coal

    • C.

      Sandstone

    • D.

      Granite

    Correct Answer
    A. Basalt
    Explanation
    Basalt is an example of an extrusive igneous rock because it is formed from lava that cools quickly on the Earth's surface. This rapid cooling prevents large mineral crystals from forming, resulting in a fine-grained texture. Basalt is commonly found in volcanic areas and is known for its dark color and high density. On the other hand, coal, sandstone, and granite are not extrusive igneous rocks. Coal is a sedimentary rock formed from the remains of plants, sandstone is also a sedimentary rock made of sand-sized grains, and granite is an intrusive igneous rock formed from slowly cooling magma beneath the Earth's surface.

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  • 7. 

    Lava that cools so quickly that crystals do not have time to form will lead to igneous rocks with a

    • A.

      Porphyritic texture.

    • B.

      Coarse-grained texture.

    • C.

      Glassy texture.

    • D.

      Fine-grained texture.

    Correct Answer
    C. Glassy texture.
    Explanation
    When lava cools rapidly, it does not provide enough time for crystals to form. This results in the formation of a glassy texture in igneous rocks. The quick cooling prevents the atoms in the lava from arranging themselves into a crystalline structure, leading to a smooth and glass-like appearance. This texture is commonly found in volcanic glass, such as obsidian, which is formed when lava cools almost instantaneously upon contact with water or air.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following represents the correct order of the processes responsible for the formation of sedimentary rocks?

    • A.

      Erosion, weathering, compaction, cementation, deposition

    • B.

      Compaction, cementation, deposition, weathering, erosion

    • C.

      Deposition, cementation, compaction, erosion, weathering

    • D.

      Weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, cementation

    Correct Answer
    D. Weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, cementation
    Explanation
    The correct order of the processes responsible for the formation of sedimentary rocks is weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation. Weathering refers to the breakdown of rocks into smaller particles, which are then transported through erosion. The eroded particles are then deposited in a new location, where they undergo compaction due to the weight of overlying sediments. Finally, cementation occurs when the sediments are bound together by minerals, forming solid sedimentary rocks.

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  • 9. 

    Fossils are found only in

    • A.

      Intrusive igneous rocks.

    • B.

      Extrusive igneous rocks.

    • C.

      Sedimentary rocks.

    • D.

      Metamorphic rocks.

    Correct Answer
    C. Sedimentary rocks.
    Explanation
    Fossils are found only in sedimentary rocks because these rocks are formed from layers of sediments that accumulate over time. When plants or animals die, their remains can become buried in these sediments and preserved as fossils. In contrast, igneous rocks are formed from molten lava or magma and do not typically contain fossils. Metamorphic rocks are formed from the transformation of existing rocks under high heat and pressure, which can destroy any fossils that were present. Therefore, sedimentary rocks are the most likely place to find fossils.

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  • 10. 

    What rock-forming process occurs when hot magma comes near and heats up rock?

    • A.

      Regional metamorphism

    • B.

      Biochemical sedimentation

    • C.

      Contact metamorphism

    • D.

      Deposition

    Correct Answer
    C. Contact metamorphism
    Explanation
    Contact metamorphism occurs when hot magma comes near and heats up rock. This process happens when the heat from the magma causes the surrounding rock to undergo changes in mineralogy, texture, and sometimes even chemical composition. The intense heat from the magma alters the rock, leading to the formation of new minerals and the recrystallization of existing ones. This process typically occurs in areas of high heat and pressure, such as near igneous intrusions or volcanic activity.

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  • 11. 

    A student obtains a cup of quartz sand from a beach.  A saltwater solution is poured into the sand and allowed to evaporate.  The mineral residue from the saltwater solution cements the sand grains together, forming a material that is most similar to:

    • A.

      An extrusive igneous rock.

    • B.

      An intrusive igneous rock.

    • C.

      A sedimentary rock.

    • D.

      A metamorphic rock.

    Correct Answer
    C. A sedimentary rock.
    Explanation
    When the saltwater solution is poured into the quartz sand and allowed to evaporate, the mineral residue from the saltwater solution acts as a cementing agent, binding the sand grains together. This process is similar to the formation of sedimentary rocks, where sediments are compacted and cemented together over time. Sedimentary rocks are formed through the accumulation and lithification of sediments, making them the most similar material to the one formed in this scenario.

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  • 12. 

    The rock shown below has a foliated texture and contains the minerals amphibole, quartz, and feldspar arranged in coarse-grained bands.   Which rock is pictured?

    • A.

      Slate

    • B.

      Pumice

    • C.

      Gneiss

    • D.

      Quartzite

    Correct Answer
    C. Gneiss
    Explanation
    The rock shown in the question has a foliated texture, which means it has distinct bands or layers. Gneiss is a type of metamorphic rock that commonly exhibits foliation and contains the minerals amphibole, quartz, and feldspar. It is characterized by its coarse-grained bands, which can be seen in the picture. Therefore, the correct answer is Gneiss.

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  • 13. 

    A(n) ______________________________ is a solid mass of mineral material or other matter that occurs naturally.

    Correct Answer
    rock
    Explanation
    A rock is a solid mass of mineral material or other matter that occurs naturally. Rocks are formed through various geological processes such as cooling and solidification of magma or lava, compaction and cementation of sediments, or the alteration of existing rocks through heat and pressure. They can be composed of minerals, organic material, or a combination of both. Rocks are an essential part of the Earth's crust and are classified into three main types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. They play a crucial role in shaping the Earth's surface and provide valuable information about the planet's history and processes.

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  • 14. 

    Rocks are generally classified as igneous, ___________________________, or metamorphic.

    Correct Answer
    sedimentary
    sedementary
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "sedimentary". Rocks are generally classified into three main types: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and compaction of sediments, such as sand, silt, and clay, over time. They are typically found in layers and often contain fossils. On the other hand, "sedementary" is not a recognized term and does not accurately describe any type of rock.

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  • 15. 

    Intrusive igneous rocks form when ______________________ hardens and cools.

    Correct Answer
    magma
    Explanation
    Intrusive igneous rocks form when magma, which is molten rock beneath the Earth's surface, hardens and cools. Magma is generated through the melting of pre-existing rocks in the Earth's mantle or crust and then rises to the surface or solidifies underground. As it cools, the magma solidifies and crystallizes, forming intrusive igneous rocks such as granite, diorite, and gabbro. These rocks have a coarse-grained texture due to the slow cooling process, which allows for the growth of large mineral crystals.

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  • 16. 

    Slow cooling produces igneous rocks with large crystals and a(n) ____________________________ texture.

    Correct Answer
    coarse
    coarse grain
    coarse-grain
    coarse-grained
    Explanation
    Slow cooling allows more time for the molten rock to solidify, which results in the formation of larger crystals. This process is known as crystallization. Therefore, slow cooling produces igneous rocks with a coarse or coarse-grained texture, where the individual mineral grains are easily visible to the naked eye.

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  • 17. 

    The most common intrusive igneous rock is

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Gabbro

    • C.

      Granite

    • D.

      Pumice

    Correct Answer
    C. Granite
    Explanation
    Granite is the correct answer because it is the most common intrusive igneous rock. Intrusive igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and solidifies beneath the Earth's surface. Granite is composed mainly of quartz, feldspar, and mica minerals and has a coarse-grained texture. It is widely distributed and commonly found in continental crusts. Basalt, gabbro, and pumice are also igneous rocks, but they are not as common as granite in terms of intrusiveness.

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  • 18. 

    The breaking down of a rock by rain, wind, or ice is known as _______________________.

    Correct Answer
    weathering
    Explanation
    Weathering refers to the process of breaking down rocks into smaller particles or fragments through the actions of natural elements such as rain, wind, or ice. This process occurs over time and can result in the physical or chemical alteration of rocks, leading to their eventual decomposition. Weathering is an important geological process that contributes to the formation of soil and the shaping of landscapes.

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  • 19. 

    Small pieces of rock or plant/animal material is called __________________________

    Correct Answer
    sediment
    sediments
    Explanation
    The correct answer for the given question is "sediment" or "sediments". Sediment refers to small pieces of rock or plant/animal material that settle at the bottom of bodies of water or accumulate on land. It is the result of erosion, weathering, and the deposition of particles carried by water, wind, or ice. Sediments can vary in size, composition, and origin, and they play an important role in geological processes and the formation of sedimentary rocks.

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  • 20. 

    A(n) _______________________sedimentary rock is made of pieces of other rocks.

    Correct Answer
    clastic
    Explanation
    A clastic sedimentary rock is formed from the accumulation of fragments or pieces of other rocks. These fragments, called clasts, can be of various sizes and are typically cemented together by minerals such as quartz or calcite. Clastic rocks are commonly found in environments where erosion and transportation of sediments occur, such as riverbeds or coastal areas. The process of weathering and erosion breaks down existing rocks into smaller particles, which then get transported and deposited, eventually forming a clastic sedimentary rock.

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  • 21. 

    True or False: Rocks can move through the rock cycle only once.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The rock cycle is a continuous process where rocks undergo various changes over time. Rocks can go through multiple cycles, transitioning from one type of rock to another through processes like weathering, erosion, and metamorphism. Therefore, rocks can move through the rock cycle more than once, making the statement false.

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  • 22. 

    True or False: A metamorphic rock that has grains arranged in bands is said to be nonfoliated.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A metamorphic rock that has grains arranged in bands is actually said to be foliated, not nonfoliated. Foliation refers to the alignment of minerals or grains within a rock, creating distinct bands or layers. Nonfoliated rocks, on the other hand, lack this banding and have a more uniform texture. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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