Rock Assessment Noel Pd 4

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Rock Assessment Noel Pd 4 - Quiz



Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Sandstone is a ______________ sedimentary rock.

    • A.

      Chemical

    • B.

      Detrital

    • C.

      Organic

    Correct Answer
    B. Detrital
    Explanation
    Detrital sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation of solid fragments or detritus that have been weathered and transported by wind, water, or ice. Sandstone, being composed mainly of sand-sized grains, is a type of detrital sedimentary rock. This suggests that sandstone is formed from the deposition and lithification of sand-sized particles, rather than being chemically or organically formed.

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  • 2. 

    Igneous rocks that form_____________ the surface are called intrusive.

    • A.

      Above

    • B.

      Below

    • C.

      On

    Correct Answer
    B. Below
    Explanation
    Igneous rocks that form below the surface are called intrusive because they are formed from magma that cools and solidifies beneath the Earth's crust. This slow cooling process allows for the formation of large crystals within the rocks. In contrast, igneous rocks that form above the surface, such as volcanic rocks, are called extrusive. These rocks cool quickly and do not have the same crystal size and texture as intrusive rocks.

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  • 3. 

    The figure below shows that the processes involved in the rock cycle include all of the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Condensation

    • B.

      Erosion

    • C.

      Weathering

    • D.

      Compaction

    Correct Answer
    A. Condensation
    Explanation
    Condensation is not a process involved in the rock cycle. The rock cycle is a continuous process that involves the formation, breakdown, and reformation of rocks. It includes processes such as weathering, erosion, and compaction, which contribute to the transformation of rocks from one type to another. However, condensation is a process related to the water cycle, not the rock cycle. It refers to the conversion of water vapor into liquid water, leading to the formation of clouds and precipitation. Therefore, condensation is not a part of the rock cycle.

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  • 4. 

    The _____ in the figure below shows how one rock changes into another.

    • A.

      Rock cycle

    • B.

      Melting process

    • C.

      Formation of crystals

    Correct Answer
    A. Rock cycle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is rock cycle. The figure below illustrates the process of how one type of rock transforms into another over time. The rock cycle involves various processes such as weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation that lead to the formation of sedimentary rocks. These rocks can then undergo heat and pressure to become metamorphic rocks, and further, if subjected to extreme heat and melting, can form magma that eventually cools and solidifies into igneous rocks. The rock cycle is a continuous and dynamic process that demonstrates the interconnectedness and transformation of different types of rocks.

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  • 5. 

     The figure below shows that sedimentary rocks are changed to sediments by ________________.

    • A.

      Compaction

    • B.

      Weathering and erosion

    • C.

      Cementation

    • D.

      Heat and pressure

    Correct Answer
    B. Weathering and erosion
    Explanation
    Weathering and erosion are the processes by which sedimentary rocks are broken down into smaller particles and transported to new locations. Weathering refers to the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks, while erosion involves the movement of these broken-down materials by wind, water, or ice. Therefore, weathering and erosion are responsible for changing sedimentary rocks into sediments, which can then undergo further processes like compaction and cementation to form new sedimentary rocks.

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  • 6. 

    Igneous rocks form from ____________ when it cools.

    • A.

      Magma

    • B.

      Lava

    • C.

      Both magma and lava

    Correct Answer
    C. Both magma and lava
    Explanation
    Igneous rocks form from both magma and lava when they cool. Magma refers to molten rock beneath the Earth's surface, while lava is molten rock that flows out onto the Earth's surface. When these molten materials cool and solidify, they form igneous rocks. This can occur both underground, where magma cools slowly and forms intrusive igneous rocks, and on the Earth's surface, where lava cools quickly and forms extrusive igneous rocks.

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  • 7. 

    The molten material found beneath the Earth's surface is called  __________

    • A.

      Magma

    • B.

      Lava

    • C.

      Neither magma or lava

    • D.

      Both magma and lava

    Correct Answer
    A. Magma
    Explanation
    Magma is the correct answer because it refers to the molten material that is found beneath the Earth's surface. Lava, on the other hand, is the term used for magma that reaches the Earth's surface through volcanic eruptions. Therefore, magma is the appropriate term to describe the molten material beneath the Earth's surface, while lava is the term used for the same material when it reaches the surface.

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  • 8. 

    Foliated rocks are distinguished by ______________

    • A.

      Layers

    • B.

      Lack of layers

    • C.

      Large mineral grains

    • D.

      Air holes

    Correct Answer
    A. Layers
    Explanation
    Foliated rocks are distinguished by layers. This means that these types of rocks have a banded or striped appearance due to the presence of parallel layers or bands of minerals. The layers are typically formed as a result of the rock undergoing intense pressure or heat, causing the minerals within the rock to align in a parallel fashion. This layering gives the rock its characteristic texture and appearance, making it easily distinguishable from other types of rocks.

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  • 9. 

    A classification of metamorphic rocks would include whether they are

    • A.

      Chemical or organic

    • B.

      Intrusive or extrusive

    • C.

      Foliated or nonfoliated

    • D.

      Basaltic or granitic

    Correct Answer
    C. Foliated or nonfoliated
    Explanation
    Metamorphic rocks can be classified based on whether they are foliated or nonfoliated. Foliated rocks have a layered or banded appearance due to the alignment of minerals, indicating that they have undergone intense pressure and heat. Nonfoliated rocks, on the other hand, lack this layered structure and have a more uniform composition. This classification is important as it helps in understanding the geological processes and conditions that led to the formation of these rocks.

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  • 10. 

    Sedimentary rocks are

    • A.

      Formed when loose material become pressed or cemented together or when minerals form from solutions

    • B.

      Formed from magma

    • C.

      A type of foliated igneous rock

    • D.

      Formed because of changes in temperature and pressure, or the presence of hot watery fluids

    Correct Answer
    A. Formed when loose material become pressed or cemented together or when minerals form from solutions
    Explanation
    Sedimentary rocks are formed when loose materials such as sediment, sand, and clay become pressed or cemented together over time. This process is known as lithification. Alternatively, sedimentary rocks can also form when minerals precipitate out of a solution, such as when saltwater evaporates and leaves behind salt crystals. These processes occur at or near the Earth's surface, and they are responsible for the formation of various types of sedimentary rocks, including sandstone, limestone, and shale.

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  • 11. 

    A rock is always

    • A.

      Made of molten material

    • B.

      A mixture of minerals, organic matter, volcanic glass, or other materials

    • C.

      Formed by heat and pressure

    • D.

      Either igneous or sedimentary

    Correct Answer
    B. A mixture of minerals, organic matter, volcanic glass, or other materials
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a mixture of minerals, organic matter, volcanic glass, or other materials." This answer encompasses the various components that can make up a rock. Rocks can be composed of different minerals, such as quartz, feldspar, or mica. They can also contain organic matter, such as plant or animal remains. Additionally, rocks can have volcanic glass or other materials, depending on their formation process. This answer covers the broad range of possible compositions for rocks.

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  • 12. 

    The crystals that form in slowly cooled magma produce _______ mineral grains in igneous rock.

    • A.

      Tiny

    • B.

      Invisible

    • C.

      Fine-grined

    • D.

      Large

    Correct Answer
    D. Large
    Explanation
    The crystals that form in slowly cooled magma have more time to grow, resulting in larger mineral grains in igneous rock.

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  • 13. 

    Changes that take place in rocks never create or destroy __________.

    • A.

      Rocks

    • B.

      Crystals

    • C.

      Matter

    • D.

      Minerals

    Correct Answer
    C. Matter
    Explanation
    Changes that take place in rocks may result in the formation of new rocks or the breakdown of existing rocks, but they do not create or destroy matter. Matter is conserved in these processes, meaning that the atoms and molecules that make up the rocks are rearranged but not lost or gained. Therefore, the correct answer is matter.

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  • 14. 

    Magma from deep inside Earth rises toward the surface because _____________.

    • A.

      It is denser than the surrounding solid rock

    • B.

      It is less dense than the surrounding solid rock

    • C.

      Heat and pressure

    • D.

      It has the same density as the surrounding solid rock

    Correct Answer
    B. It is less dense than the surrounding solid rock
    Explanation
    Magma from deep inside Earth rises toward the surface because it is less dense than the surrounding solid rock. This is because magma is composed of molten rocks and minerals, which have a lower density compared to the solid rock. As a result, the magma is buoyant and able to rise through the cracks and fissures in the Earth's crust. The pressure and heat from the Earth's interior also contribute to the upward movement of the less dense magma.

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  • 15. 

    When lava cools on the Earth's surface, _______ igneous rocks are formed. 

    • A.

      Extrusive

    • B.

      Intrusive

    • C.

      Detrital

    • D.

      Coarse-grained

    Correct Answer
    A. Extrusive
    Explanation
    When lava cools on the Earth's surface, extrusive igneous rocks are formed. This is because extrusive rocks are formed from lava that erupts onto the surface and cools quickly, resulting in small mineral grains. In contrast, intrusive rocks are formed when magma cools slowly beneath the Earth's surface, resulting in larger mineral grains. Detrital and coarse-grained are not applicable in this context as they refer to sedimentary rocks and the size of mineral grains, respectively.

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  • 16. 

    When magma cools deep inside the Earth, __________________ igneous rocks are formed.

    • A.

      Extrusive

    • B.

      Fine-grained

    • C.

      Detrital

    • D.

      Intrusive

    Correct Answer
    D. Intrusive
    Explanation
    When magma cools deep inside the Earth, intrusive igneous rocks are formed. This is because intrusive rocks are formed when magma solidifies slowly beneath the Earth's surface, allowing for the growth of large mineral crystals. These rocks have a coarse-grained texture and are typically found in plutons, which are large bodies of igneous rock that have solidified beneath the surface. In contrast, extrusive rocks are formed when magma erupts onto the Earth's surface and cools rapidly, resulting in a fine-grained texture. Therefore, the correct answer is intrusive.

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  • 17. 

    Basaltic igneous rocks are dark colored because they are  ___________.

    • A.

      Silica rich

    • B.

      Lower in density than granitic rocks

    • C.

      Rich in iron and magnesium

    Correct Answer
    C. Rich in iron and magnesium
    Explanation
    Basaltic igneous rocks are dark colored because they are rich in iron and magnesium. Iron and magnesium minerals, such as pyroxene and olivine, are commonly found in basaltic rocks, giving them their dark color. These minerals have a higher content of these elements compared to other types of rocks, resulting in their characteristic dark appearance.

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  • 18. 

    An igneous rock can form from _________magma.

    • A.

      Basaltic

    • B.

      Andesitic

    • C.

      Granitic

    • D.

      All of the possibilities listed with this question

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the possibilities listed with this question
    Explanation
    An igneous rock can form from basaltic, andesitic, and granitic magma. Basaltic magma is formed from the melting of the Earth's mantle and is associated with the formation of basaltic rocks such as basalt. Andesitic magma is formed from the partial melting of the Earth's crust and is associated with the formation of andesitic rocks such as andesite. Granitic magma is formed from the melting of continental crust and is associated with the formation of granitic rocks such as granite. Therefore, all of the possibilities listed with this question can form igneous rocks.

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  • 19. 

    Sedimentary rocks form because of all the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Sediments becoming pressed or cemented together

    • B.

      Crystals solidifying from magma

    • C.

      Sediments forming from solution

    • D.

      Water evaporating leaving crystals behind

    Correct Answer
    B. Crystals solidifying from magma
    Explanation
    Sedimentary rocks form through the process of sediments becoming pressed or cemented together, sediments forming from solution, and water evaporating leaving crystals behind. However, crystals solidifying from magma is not a process involved in the formation of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks are primarily formed through the accumulation and compaction of sediments, rather than the solidification of crystals from magma, which is characteristic of igneous rocks.

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  • 20. 

    Sediments in sedimentary rocks are often ____________________.

    • A.

      Held together with natural cements

    • B.

      Formed when atoms of melted minerals rearrange themselves

    • C.

      Formed when lava erupts from a volcano

    • D.

      Formed by magma trapped below Earth's surface

    Correct Answer
    A. Held together with natural cements
    Explanation
    Sediments in sedimentary rocks are often held together with natural cements. This means that the loose particles that make up sedimentary rocks are bound together by natural materials, such as minerals or organic matter, that act as a glue. These cements can be precipitated from water, such as calcite or silica, or can be formed by the compaction and recrystallization of existing sediment particles. The cementation process helps to solidify the sedimentary rock, making it more durable and resistant to weathering and erosion.

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  • 21. 

    Sedimentary rocks formed from the remains of once living things are ________________.

    • A.

      Metamorphic

    • B.

      Detrital

    • C.

      Organic

    • D.

      Chemical

    Correct Answer
    C. Organic
    Explanation
    Sedimentary rocks formed from the remains of once living things are organic. This is because organic sedimentary rocks, such as coal or limestone, are derived from the accumulation and compaction of organic material, such as plant or animal remains. These rocks preserve the organic structures and compositions of the original organisms, making them different from detrital or chemical sedimentary rocks, which are formed from weathered fragments or chemical precipitates, respectively. Metamorphic rocks, on the other hand, are formed from the transformation of pre-existing rocks under high pressure and temperature conditions, and are not directly related to once living things.

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  • 22. 

    Sedimentary rocks formed from broken fragments of other rocks are _________________.

    • A.

      Chemical

    • B.

      Detrital

    • C.

      Organic

    • D.

      Basaltic

    Correct Answer
    B. Detrital
    Explanation
    Sedimentary rocks formed from broken fragments of other rocks are called detrital. Detrital rocks are formed when pre-existing rocks are weathered and eroded, and the resulting sediments are transported and deposited in layers. These sediments are then compacted and cemented together to form detrital sedimentary rocks. This process does not involve any chemical reactions or organic material, making the other options incorrect. Basaltic rocks, on the other hand, are igneous rocks formed from solidified lava.

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  • 23. 

    Gneiss, shown below is an example of what type of rock?

    • A.

      Foliated metamorphic

    • B.

      Nonfoliated metamorphic

    • C.

      Basaltic

    • D.

      Organic

    Correct Answer
    A. Foliated metamorphic
    Explanation
    Gneiss is an example of a foliated metamorphic rock. This means that it has undergone intense heat and pressure, causing the minerals within it to align and create distinct layers or bands. Gneiss typically has a banded appearance with alternating light and dark colored layers. This is in contrast to nonfoliated metamorphic rocks, which do not have a layered structure. Basaltic rocks are igneous rocks, and organic rocks are formed from the remains of living organisms.

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  • 24. 

    The process in which a rock is exposed to air, water, or ice and breaks into pieces

    • A.

      Compaction

    • B.

      Cementation

    • C.

      Weathering

    • D.

      Erosion

    Correct Answer
    C. Weathering
    Explanation
    Weathering is the correct answer because it refers to the process in which a rock is exposed to elements such as air, water, or ice and breaks into smaller pieces. This process occurs due to the physical or chemical breakdown of the rock's minerals, leading to its disintegration. Weathering is a fundamental process in the formation of soil and the shaping of Earth's surface. It is distinct from erosion, which involves the transport and removal of the weathered rock particles by wind, water, or ice. Compaction and cementation are processes related to the formation of sedimentary rocks, not the breaking down of rocks.

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  • 25. 

    The process in which pressure from the upper layers of sediment pushes down on the lower layers, causing the sediments to begin forming solid rock.

    • A.

      Compaction

    • B.

      Cementation

    • C.

      Weathering

    • D.

      Erosion

    Correct Answer
    A. Compaction
    Explanation
    Compaction refers to the process of pressure from upper layers of sediment pushing down on lower layers, causing the sediments to become more tightly packed. This pressure squeezes out air and water from the sediment, reducing the volume and increasing the density. Over time, this compaction leads to the formation of solid rock. Cementation, on the other hand, involves the binding of sediments together by minerals, while weathering and erosion are processes that involve the breaking down and transportation of rock materials.

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  • 26. 

    The process in which minerals hold sediment together making a detrital sedimentary rock..

    • A.

      Compaction

    • B.

      Cementation

    • C.

      Weathering

    • D.

      Erosion

    Correct Answer
    B. Cementation
    Explanation
    Cementation is the correct answer because it is the process by which minerals act as a glue, binding sediment particles together to form a detrital sedimentary rock. During cementation, minerals precipitate out of groundwater and fill the spaces between sediment grains, creating a solid rock. Compaction refers to the process of squeezing sediment grains together due to the weight of overlying layers, while weathering and erosion are processes that break down and transport rocks and minerals, respectively.

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  • 27. 

    Volcanic glass such as Obsidian is an example of  ___________________ rock.

    • A.

      A sedimentary

    • B.

      An igneous

    • C.

      A metamorphic

    Correct Answer
    B. An igneous
    Explanation
    Volcanic glass such as Obsidian is formed from the rapid cooling of lava, which solidifies into a glass-like substance. This process occurs in volcanic environments, where molten rock (magma) is ejected onto the Earth's surface. Therefore, the correct answer is an igneous rock, as it is formed through the cooling and solidification of molten material. Sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and cementation of sediments, while metamorphic rocks are formed from the alteration of existing rocks through heat and pressure.

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  • 28. 

    Rocks that form from _________________ magma have mineral composition between those of granitic and basaltic.  

    • A.

      Andesitic

    • B.

      Basaltic

    • C.

      Granitic

    Correct Answer
    A. Andesitic
    Explanation
    Andesitic rocks form from magma that has a mineral composition between that of granitic and basaltic rocks. This means that andesitic rocks have a moderate amount of silica content, which is higher than basaltic rocks but lower than granitic rocks. The mineral composition of andesitic rocks typically includes plagioclase feldspar, amphibole, and biotite. These rocks are commonly found in volcanic arcs and are associated with intermediate volcanic activity.

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  • 29. 

    The picture below is an example of  ________________________ igneous rock 

    • A.

      An intrusive

    • B.

      An extrusive

    • C.

      A foliated

    Correct Answer
    B. An extrusive
    Explanation
    The picture below is an example of an extrusive igneous rock. Extrusive igneous rocks are formed from lava that cools and solidifies on the Earth's surface. They have a fine-grained texture due to rapid cooling, which prevents large mineral crystals from forming. This is evident in the picture, as the rock appears to have a smooth and uniform texture. In contrast, intrusive igneous rocks are formed from magma that cools and solidifies beneath the Earth's surface, resulting in a coarse-grained texture. Foliated rocks, on the other hand, are metamorphic rocks that have undergone intense pressure and have a layered or banded appearance.

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  • 30. 

    The picture below is an example of  ________________________ igneous rock

    • A.

      An intrusive

    • B.

      An extrusive

    • C.

      A foliated

    Correct Answer
    A. An intrusive
    Explanation
    The picture below is an example of an intrusive igneous rock. This can be inferred because the rock appears to have a coarse-grained texture, indicating that it cooled slowly beneath the Earth's surface, allowing larger crystals to form. Intrusive igneous rocks are formed from magma that solidifies within the Earth's crust, while extrusive igneous rocks are formed from lava that solidifies on the Earth's surface. Since the rock in the picture does not show any signs of being formed from lava, it is more likely to be an intrusive rock.

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  • 31. 

    The conglomerate sample below is an example of a __________________ rock.

    • A.

      Igneous

    • B.

      Sedimentary

    • C.

      Metamorphic

    Correct Answer
    B. Sedimentary
    Explanation
    The conglomerate sample is an example of a sedimentary rock because it is composed of rounded fragments of different sizes and shapes that have been cemented together. Sedimentary rocks are formed through the accumulation and compaction of sediment, which can include rock fragments, minerals, and organic material. The process of cementation binds the sediment particles together, forming a solid rock.

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  • 32. 

    Limestone, rock salt, and chalk are all examples of ___________________ rock

    • A.

      Igneous

    • B.

      Sedimentary

    • C.

      Metamorphic

    Correct Answer
    B. Sedimentary
    Explanation
    Limestone, rock salt, and chalk are all examples of sedimentary rock because they are formed from the accumulation and compaction of sediment over time. Sedimentary rocks are typically formed near the Earth's surface through processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These rocks often contain fossils and are characterized by their layered structure.

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  • 33. 

    Metamorphic rocks are formed by which of the following processes.

    • A.

      Heat and pressure

    • B.

      Melting and cooling

    • C.

      Weathering and erosion

    • D.

      Cementation and compaction

    Correct Answer
    A. Heat and pressure
    Explanation
    Metamorphic rocks are formed through the process of heat and pressure. This occurs when existing rocks, called parent rocks, are subjected to high temperatures and intense pressure deep within the Earth's crust. These conditions cause the minerals within the parent rocks to recrystallize and rearrange, resulting in the formation of new rocks with different textures and structures. The heat and pressure can come from various sources such as tectonic activity, burial under layers of sediment, or contact with hot magma. This process can occur over long periods of time and can transform rocks like shale into slate, limestone into marble, and sandstone into quartzite.

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  • 34. 

    The Pumice and Obsidian samples shown below are what type of igneous rock?

    • A.

      Volcanic Glass

    • B.

      Intrusive

    • C.

      Detrital

    Correct Answer
    A. Volcanic Glass
    Explanation
    The Pumice and Obsidian samples shown are classified as volcanic glass because they both have a glassy texture and are formed from the rapid cooling of lava. Volcanic glass is a type of igneous rock that lacks crystal structure due to its quick cooling process. Pumice is formed from frothy lava with trapped gas bubbles, while Obsidian is formed from lava that cools so rapidly that crystals do not have time to form. Both rocks have a smooth, glass-like appearance.

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  • 35. 

    This igneous was fast cooling.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
  • 36. 

    This sedimentary rock is detrital.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Detrital rocks are formed from the accumulation of sedimentary particles, such as sand, silt, and clay, that have been weathered and transported by wind, water, or ice. This process results in the formation of sedimentary rocks like sandstone, shale, and conglomerate. Since the statement mentions that the rock in question is detrital, it implies that it is formed from the accumulation of sedimentary particles, making the answer "True" correct.

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  • 37. 

    What is the best term to describe the color of this rock?

    • A.

      Basaltic

    • B.

      Granitic

    Correct Answer
    B. Granitic
    Explanation
    Granitic is the best term to describe the color of this rock. This suggests that the rock has characteristics similar to granite, which is typically light-colored and can range from white to pink or gray. The term "basaltic" refers to rocks that are rich in basalt, which is typically dark-colored. Therefore, granitic is the more appropriate choice to describe the color of the rock.

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  • 38. 

    Click on ALL the terms that apply to this igneous rock.

    • A.

      Intrusive

    • B.

      Extrusive

    • C.

      Slow Cooling

    • D.

      Fast Cooling

    • E.

      Formed from Lava

    • F.

      Formed from Magma

    • G.

      Basaltic Color

    • H.

      Andesitic Color

    • I.

      Granitic Color

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Extrusive
    D. Fast Cooling
    E. Formed from Lava
    G. Basaltic Color
    Explanation
    The given rock is extrusive because it was formed from lava that cooled on the Earth's surface. It also indicates fast cooling as the lava cools quickly on the surface. The rock's basaltic color suggests that it is composed of basalt, which is a common type of extrusive igneous rock.

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  • 39. 

    This sample of coal is which type of sedimentary rock?

    • A.

      Detrital

    • B.

      Chemical

    • C.

      Organic

    Correct Answer
    C. Organic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is organic because coal is formed from the remains of plant material that has been subjected to heat and pressure over millions of years. This process results in the formation of coal, which is a type of sedimentary rock.

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  • 40. 

    Marble, shown below, is an example of what type of rock?

    • A.

      Foliated metamorphic

    • B.

      Nonfoliated metamorphic

    • C.

      Extrusive

    • D.

      Organic

    Correct Answer
    B. Nonfoliated metamorphic
    Explanation
    Marble is a type of rock that is formed through the metamorphism of limestone. It is composed primarily of calcite and has a non-foliated texture, meaning it does not have distinct layers or bands. This distinguishes it from foliated metamorphic rocks, which have a layered or banded appearance. Marble is also not classified as extrusive or organic, as it is not formed from volcanic activity or the remains of living organisms. Therefore, the correct answer is nonfoliated metamorphic.

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  • Apr 17, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Jan 16, 2015
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