RMT Prep: Cardiology/Cardiac Surgery/Thoracic Surgery

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RMT Prep: Cardiology/Cardiac Surgery/Thoracic Surgery - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The smooth layer of endothelial cells that lines the interior of the heart and the heart valves is called

    • A.

      Endocardium

    • B.

      Interventricular septum

    • C.

      Myocardium

    • D.

      Pericardium

    Correct Answer
    A. Endocardium
    Explanation
    The smooth layer of endothelial cells that lines the interior of the heart and the heart valves is called the endocardium. This layer helps to prevent blood clots and provides a smooth surface for blood flow within the heart. It also helps to maintain the integrity and function of the heart valves. The endocardium is essential for the proper functioning of the heart and plays a crucial role in maintaining cardiovascular health.

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  • 2. 

    The record used to detect electrical changes in the heart muscle as the heart is beating is called a (an)

    • A.

      Echocardiogram

    • B.

      Electrocardiogram

    • C.

      Electgroencephalogram

    • D.

      Sphygmomanometer

    Correct Answer
    B. Electrocardiogram
    Explanation
    An electrocardiogram is a record used to detect electrical changes in the heart muscle as the heart is beating. It is a non-invasive procedure that involves placing electrodes on the skin to measure the electrical activity of the heart. This test is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, such as arrhythmias, heart attacks, and heart failure. It provides valuable information about the heart's rhythm, rate, and overall function, helping healthcare professionals make accurate diagnoses and determine appropriate treatment plans.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is given to treat acute attacks of angina by increasing coronary blood flow?

    • A.

      An ACE inhibitor

    • B.

      Aspirin

    • C.

      Nitroglycerin

    • D.

      A statin

    Correct Answer
    C. Nitroglycerin
    Explanation
    Nitroglycerin is given to treat acute attacks of angina by increasing coronary blood flow. It works by dilating the blood vessels, allowing more blood to flow to the heart. This helps to relieve the chest pain associated with angina. ACE inhibitors, aspirin, and statins are not typically used to treat acute attacks of angina. ACE inhibitors are used to lower blood pressure, aspirin is used to prevent blood clots, and statins are used to lower cholesterol levels.

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  • 4. 

    Retrosternal pain is located

    • A.

      Above the sternum

    • B.

      Behind the sternum

    • C.

      Below the sternum

    • D.

      Beside the sternum

    Correct Answer
    B. Behind the sternum
    Explanation
    Retrosternal pain refers to pain that is felt behind the sternum, which is the bone in the middle of the chest. This pain is typically caused by conditions that affect the organs or structures located behind the sternum, such as the heart, esophagus, or lungs. Therefore, the correct answer is "behind the sternum."

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following types of medications has the primary function of preventing blood clots?

    • A.

      ACE inhibitors

    • B.

      Angiotensis II receptor blocker

    • C.

      Antiplatelet drugs

    • D.

      Antiarrhythmic medications

    Correct Answer
    C. Antiplatelet drugs
    Explanation
    Antiplatelet drugs have the primary function of preventing blood clots. These medications work by inhibiting the aggregation of platelets, which are responsible for clot formation. By preventing platelets from sticking together, antiplatelet drugs help to reduce the risk of clot formation and subsequent complications such as heart attack or stroke. Examples of commonly used antiplatelet drugs include aspirin, clopidogrel, and ticagrelor.

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  • 6. 

    A patient comes in with trouble breathing and swelling in the lower legs.  The provider suspects

    • A.

      Congestive heart failure

    • B.

      A heart murmur

    • C.

      Myocardial infarction

    • D.

      Aneurysm

    Correct Answer
    A. Congestive heart failure
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms of trouble breathing and swelling in the lower legs are indicative of congestive heart failure. This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fluid buildup in the lungs and extremities. A heart murmur and myocardial infarction (heart attack) may also cause similar symptoms, but congestive heart failure is the most likely explanation based on the given information. An aneurysm, which is the abnormal enlargement of a blood vessel, is less likely to cause these specific symptoms.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following risk factors for cardiac disease can be modified?

    • A.

      Age

    • B.

      Diabetes mellitus

    • C.

      Family history

    • D.

      Genter

    Correct Answer
    B. Diabetes mellitus
    Explanation
    Diabetes mellitus can be modified as a risk factor for cardiac disease. People with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing heart disease, but by managing their blood sugar levels through medication, diet, and exercise, they can reduce this risk. Therefore, diabetes mellitus is a risk factor that can be modified to lower the chances of developing cardiac disease.

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  • 8. 

    Which test, when elevated, is most indicative of heart failure?

    • A.

      BMP

    • B.

      BNP

    • C.

      CMP

    • D.

      INR

    Correct Answer
    B. BNP
    Explanation
    BNP stands for B-type natriuretic peptide, which is a hormone secreted by the heart in response to increased pressure and stretching of the heart muscle. Elevated levels of BNP in the blood are highly indicative of heart failure. Therefore, BNP is the most appropriate test to determine the presence of heart failure. The other options, BMP (basic metabolic panel), CMP (comprehensive metabolic panel), and INR (international normalized ratio), are not specifically related to heart failure and would not provide the same level of diagnostic information.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following is a type of heart murmur?

    • A.

      Cyanotic

    • B.

      Serophilic

    • C.

      Sessile

    • D.

      Systolic

    Correct Answer
    D. Systolic
    Explanation
    A heart murmur is an abnormal sound heard during a heartbeat, caused by turbulent blood flow. Systolic refers to the phase of the heartbeat when the heart contracts and pumps blood out. Therefore, systolic is the correct answer as it is a type of heart murmur that occurs during this specific phase of the heartbeat. Cyanotic, serophilic, and sessile are unrelated to heart murmurs.

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  • 10. 

    What suffix combined with cardio- means enlarged heart?

    • A.

      -megaly

    • B.

      -metry

    • C.

      -malacia

    • D.

      -myotomy

    Correct Answer
    A. -megaly
    Explanation
    The suffix "-megaly" is combined with "cardio-" to form the term "cardiomegaly," which refers to an enlarged heart. This suffix is commonly used in medical terminology to indicate an abnormal enlargement of an organ or body part. In this case, it specifically denotes the abnormal enlargement of the heart.

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  • 11. 

    In this procedure, a small flexible tube is guided into the heart via the femoral artery in order to detect pressures and patterns of blood flow in the heart.

    • A.

      Coronary artery bypass graft

    • B.

      Exercise tolerance test

    • C.

      Cardiac catheterization

    • D.

      Endarterectomy

    Correct Answer
    C. Cardiac catheterization
    Explanation
    Cardiac catheterization is a procedure where a small flexible tube is inserted into the heart through the femoral artery. This allows doctors to measure pressures and patterns of blood flow in the heart. The other options, coronary artery bypass graft, exercise tolerance test, and endarterectomy, do not involve the insertion of a tube into the heart.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following laboratory tests is used to diagnose a myocardial infarction?

    • A.

      CEA and CA 19-9

    • B.

      CK-MB and troponin

    • C.

      MCH and MCV

    • D.

      PSA and PTH

    Correct Answer
    B. CK-MB and troponin
    Explanation
    CK-MB and troponin are laboratory tests used to diagnose a myocardial infarction. CK-MB is an enzyme found in heart muscle cells, and its levels increase when there is damage to the heart. Troponin is a protein found in heart muscle cells, and its levels also rise when there is damage to the heart. Therefore, measuring the levels of CK-MB and troponin in the blood can help in diagnosing a myocardial infarction.

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  • 13. 

    The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is

    • A.

      Diastole

    • B.

      Endocardium

    • C.

      Systole

    • D.

      Tachycardia

    Correct Answer
    C. Systole
    Explanation
    The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is referred to as systole. During systole, the heart muscles contract, pumping blood out of the chambers and into the arteries. This is an essential part of the cardiac cycle as it ensures that oxygenated blood is delivered to the body's tissues and organs.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is the medical term for a heart attack?

    • A.

      Diphtheritic myocarditis

    • B.

      Myocardial hamartoma

    • C.

      Myocardial infarction

    • D.

      Septal myomectomy

    Correct Answer
    C. Myocardial infarction
    Explanation
    Myocardial infarction is the correct answer for the medical term for a heart attack. Myocardial refers to the heart muscle, and infarction refers to the obstruction of blood supply to a specific area, resulting in tissue death. Therefore, myocardial infarction accurately describes the condition where there is a blockage in the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle, leading to the death of a portion of the heart muscle.

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  • 15. 

    Blood pressure measurement is expressed as

    • A.

      Diastolic pressure over systolic pressure

    • B.

      Sacral pressure over diagonal pressure

    • C.

      Systemic pressure over diaphragm pressure

    • D.

      Systolic pressure over diastolic pressure

    Correct Answer
    D. Systolic pressure over diastolic pressure
    Explanation
    Blood pressure measurement is expressed as systolic pressure over diastolic pressure because systolic pressure represents the maximum pressure exerted on the arteries when the heart contracts, while diastolic pressure represents the minimum pressure exerted on the arteries when the heart is at rest. This ratio is commonly used to indicate the overall health of the cardiovascular system and to diagnose conditions such as hypertension.

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  • 16. 

    The antiarrhythmic agent used to treat congestive heart failure and arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation is

    • A.

      Digoxin

    • B.

      Doxepin

    • C.

      Doxycycline

    • D.

      Doxidan

    Correct Answer
    A. Digoxin
    Explanation
    Digoxin is an antiarrhythmic agent that is commonly used to treat congestive heart failure and arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation. It works by increasing the force of contraction of the heart and slowing down the electrical conduction system. This helps to regulate the heart rhythm and improve symptoms associated with heart failure. Doxepin, doxycycline, and Doxidan are not antiarrhythmic agents and are not typically used to treat congestive heart failure or arrhythmias.

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  • 17. 

    Which of these terms means an abnormal bulge in the wall of an artery?

    • A.

      Aneuploidy

    • B.

      Aneurysm

    • C.

      Angionecrosis

    • D.

      Annulus

    Correct Answer
    B. Aneurysm
    Explanation
    An aneurysm refers to an abnormal bulge in the wall of an artery. It occurs when the artery weakens and bulges out, potentially leading to a rupture and severe health complications. Aneuploidy refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, angionecrosis refers to the death of blood vessel walls, and annulus refers to a ring-shaped structure.

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  • 18. 

    Premature heartbeat is also known as

    • A.

      Arrhythmia

    • B.

      Bradycardia

    • C.

      Extrasystole

    • D.

      Tachycardia

    Correct Answer
    C. Extrasystole
    Explanation
    Extrasystole is a condition characterized by premature heartbeats, where the heart contracts earlier than expected. These premature beats can disrupt the normal rhythm of the heart, causing it to feel like the heart is skipping a beat or having an extra beat. This condition is also known as premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) and can be caused by various factors such as stress, caffeine, nicotine, or heart disease. It is important to monitor and manage extrasystole to prevent any potential complications.

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  • 19. 

    Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking with absence of the pain at rest is called

    • A.

      Claudication

    • B.

      Embolus

    • C.

      Infarction

    • D.

      Occlusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Claudication
    Explanation
    Claudication refers to the pain, tension, and weakness that occurs in a leg after walking or exercising. This condition is typically caused by a reduced blood flow to the leg muscles due to narrowed or blocked arteries. The symptoms of claudication usually improve with rest. On the other hand, an embolus refers to a blood clot or foreign material that travels through the bloodstream and blocks a blood vessel. Infarction refers to the death of tissue due to a lack of blood supply, and occlusion refers to the complete blockage of a blood vessel.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following tests is used to monitor a patient on Coumadin therapy?

    • A.

      INR

    • B.

      Transferrin

    • C.

      CBC

    • D.

      Platelet count

    Correct Answer
    A. INR
    Explanation
    The International Normalized Ratio (INR) is used to monitor patients on Coumadin therapy. Coumadin is a blood-thinning medication that is commonly prescribed to prevent blood clots. INR measures the time it takes for blood to clot and compares it to a standardized value. This helps healthcare providers determine the appropriate dosage of Coumadin for each patient, ensuring that their blood is within the desired therapeutic range. Regular monitoring of INR helps prevent complications such as bleeding or clotting disorders.

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  • 21. 

    Which node is considered the dominant pacemaker?

    • A.

      Antrioventricular node

    • B.

      Coronary node

    • C.

      Sentinel node

    • D.

      Sinonatrial node

    Correct Answer
    D. Sinonatrial node
    Explanation
    The sinoatrial (SA) node is considered the dominant pacemaker because it is responsible for initiating the electrical impulses that regulate the heart's rhythm. Located in the right atrium, the SA node sets the pace for the rest of the heart by generating a regular electrical signal that causes the atria to contract. This signal then travels to the atrioventricular (AV) node, which passes the electrical impulse to the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is placed within a coronary artery to keep the artery patent?

    • A.

      Valve

    • B.

      Stint

    • C.

      Stent

    • D.

      Catheter

    Correct Answer
    C. Stent
    Explanation
    A stent is placed within a coronary artery to keep the artery patent. A stent is a small mesh-like tube made of metal or plastic that is inserted into the narrowed or blocked artery. It helps to prop the artery open, allowing blood to flow freely through the artery and preventing further blockages. This procedure is commonly used to treat coronary artery disease and prevent heart attacks.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following are forms of cholesterol?

    • A.

      Homocysteine and fibrinogen

    • B.

      Creatinine and LH

    • C.

      AST and ALT

    • D.

      HDL and LDL

    Correct Answer
    D. HDL and LDL
    Explanation
    HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) are forms of cholesterol. Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is found in all cells of the body. HDL is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove LDL (often called "bad" cholesterol) from the bloodstream, while LDL can build up in the arteries and lead to heart disease. Therefore, HDL and LDL are both important forms of cholesterol that play a role in maintaining overall health.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is a surgical procedure used to restore blood flow to an area of the heart when an artery is occluded by atherosclerosis?

    • A.

      Echocardiogram

    • B.

      Pacemaker implantation

    • C.

      AV node ablation

    • D.

      CABG

    Correct Answer
    D. CABG
    Explanation
    CABG stands for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, which is a surgical procedure used to restore blood flow to an area of the heart when an artery is blocked by atherosclerosis. During CABG, a healthy blood vessel is taken from another part of the body, usually the leg or chest, and is attached to the blocked coronary artery, bypassing the blockage and allowing blood to flow freely to the heart muscle. This procedure is commonly performed to relieve symptoms of coronary artery disease and reduce the risk of heart attack.

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  • 25. 

    How many leads are in a standard electrocardiogram?

    • A.

      9

    • B.

      11

    • C.

      12

    • D.

      13

    Correct Answer
    C. 12
    Explanation
    A standard electrocardiogram (ECG) consists of 12 leads. These leads are electrodes that are placed on specific locations on the body to measure the electrical activity of the heart. Each lead provides a different perspective of the heart's electrical signals, allowing healthcare professionals to analyze the heart's function and diagnose any abnormalities. Therefore, the correct answer is 12.

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  • 26. 

    Fainting is also referred to as

    • A.

      A cerebrovascular accident

    • B.

      Thrombosis

    • C.

      Claudication

    • D.

      Syncope

    Correct Answer
    D. Syncope
    Explanation
    Syncope is the correct answer because it refers to the medical term for fainting. Fainting occurs when there is a temporary loss of consciousness due to a decrease in blood flow to the brain. It can be caused by various factors such as low blood pressure, dehydration, or a sudden drop in heart rate. Syncope is commonly used by healthcare professionals to describe this condition and differentiate it from other medical terms like cerebrovascular accident (stroke), thrombosis (blood clot), or claudication (muscle pain during exercise).

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  • 27. 

    Which are normal heart sounds?

    • A.

      S1 and S2

    • B.

      S1 and S4

    • C.

      S2 and S3

    • D.

      S3 and S4

    Correct Answer
    A. S1 and S2
    Explanation
    S1 and S2 are normal heart sounds. S1, also known as the first heart sound or "lub," is caused by the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves. S2, also known as the second heart sound or "dub," is caused by the closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves. These two sounds represent the normal functioning of the heart's valves and are heard during a regular heartbeat. S4 and S3 are abnormal heart sounds that may indicate underlying cardiac conditions.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is a humming or buzzing sound caused by the passage of blood through an artery narrowed by arteriosclerosis?

    • A.

      PMI

    • B.

      Rub

    • C.

      Click

    • D.

      Bruit

    Correct Answer
    D. Bruit
    Explanation
    A bruit is a humming or buzzing sound caused by the passage of blood through an artery narrowed by arteriosclerosis. This narrowing of the artery leads to turbulent blood flow, which produces the abnormal sound. A bruit is often heard with a stethoscope and is an important clinical finding that can indicate the presence of arterial disease. It is different from other options like PMI (point of maximal impulse), rub, and click, which are not specifically associated with the passage of blood through a narrowed artery.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is a diuretic that is often combined with antihypertensive medications?

    • A.

      Ibuprofen

    • B.

      Acetylsalicylic acid

    • C.

      Lovostatin

    • D.

      Hydrochlorothiazide

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydrochlorothiazide
    Explanation
    Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic that is commonly combined with antihypertensive medications. Diuretics are drugs that increase the production of urine, helping to reduce fluid buildup in the body and lower blood pressure. Hydrochlorothiazide works by increasing the excretion of sodium and water from the kidneys, which leads to decreased blood volume and subsequently, lower blood pressure. It is often prescribed in combination with other antihypertensive medications to enhance their effectiveness in managing hypertension. Ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, and lovostatin are not diuretics and do not have the same mechanism of action as hydrochlorothiazide.

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  • 30. 

    Sudden episodes of labored breathing that awaken the patient from sleep is referred to as

    • A.

      P and D

    • B.

      PCP

    • C.

      PND

    • D.

      O and P

    Correct Answer
    C. PND
    Explanation
    PND stands for paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, which is a medical term used to describe sudden episodes of labored breathing that awaken the patient from sleep. This condition is often associated with heart failure and can be caused by fluid accumulation in the lungs during periods of lying flat. The patient may experience a feeling of suffocation and may need to sit up or stand to relieve the symptoms. Therefore, PND is the correct answer for the given question.

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