Main Function Of The Respiratory System

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Main Function Of The Respiratory System - Quiz

Basic overview of the Respiratory System.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are the 4 processes of respiration? (Mark the 4 that apply)

    • A.

      Breathing

    • B.

      Swallowing

    • C.

      Internal Respiration

    • D.

      Cellular Respiration

    • E.

      External Respiration

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Breathing
    C. Internal Respiration
    D. Cellular Respiration
    E. External Respiration
    Explanation
    The four processes of respiration are breathing, internal respiration, cellular respiration, and external respiration. Breathing refers to the inhalation and exhalation of air, while internal respiration involves the exchange of gases between the blood and body tissues. Cellular respiration is the process by which cells convert glucose and oxygen into energy, and external respiration is the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood.

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  • 2. 

    External Respiration occurs...

    • A.

      In the tissues.

    • B.

      In the mouth.

    • C.

      In the lungs.

    • D.

      In the skin.

    • E.

      In the digestive system.

    Correct Answer
    C. In the lungs.
    Explanation
    External respiration refers to the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the external environment and the lungs. This process takes place in the alveoli of the lungs, where oxygen from the air is taken up by the blood and carbon dioxide is released from the blood into the air. Therefore, external respiration occurs in the lungs.

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  • 3. 

    Internal & Cellular Respiration takes place in the...

    • A.

      Lungs

    • B.

      Larynx

    • C.

      Pharynx

    • D.

      Tissues

    • E.

      Epiglottis

    Correct Answer
    D. Tissues
    Explanation
    Internal & Cellular Respiration refers to the process by which cells convert oxygen and glucose into energy, carbon dioxide, and water. This process occurs in the tissues of the body, specifically within the mitochondria of cells. The lungs, larynx, pharynx, and epiglottis are all parts of the respiratory system that are involved in the exchange of gases, but they are not directly responsible for the cellular respiration process. Therefore, the correct answer is tissues.

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  • 4. 

    The respiratory system consists of what 2 tracts?

    • A.

      Anterior and Posterior

    • B.

      Upper and Lower

    • C.

      Lateral and Bilateral

    Correct Answer
    B. Upper and Lower
    Explanation
    The respiratory system consists of two tracts: the upper and lower tracts. The upper respiratory tract includes the nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx, while the lower respiratory tract includes the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. These two tracts work together to facilitate the process of breathing and oxygen exchange in the body.

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  • 5. 

    What are the 3 functions of your nose?

    • A.

      Filters

    • B.

      Itches

    • C.

      Warms

    • D.

      Smells

    • E.

      Moistens air

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Filters
    C. Warms
    E. Moistens air
    Explanation
    The nose has three main functions: filtering, warming, and moistening the air. It acts as a filter by trapping dust, pollen, and other particles in the nasal hairs and mucus. It also warms the air as it passes through the nasal passages, bringing it closer to body temperature before it reaches the lungs. Additionally, the nose moistens the air by adding moisture to it, preventing the respiratory system from drying out. Smelling and itching are not primary functions of the nose.

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  • 6. 

    True or FalseUnder normal conditions of quiet breathing at rest, both inspiration and expiration are active processes, requiring contraction of opposing skeletal muscle groups.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Under normal conditions of quiet breathing at rest, both inspiration and expiration are active processes, requiring contraction of opposing skeletal muscle groups. During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, while the external intercostal muscles contract, causing the ribcage to move up and out. This increases the volume of the thoracic cavity, creating a pressure gradient that allows air to flow into the lungs. During expiration, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax, and the elastic recoil of the lungs and chest wall helps to push air out of the lungs. Therefore, both inspiration and expiration involve muscle contractions and are active processes.

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  • 7. 

    True or FalseUnder normal conditions, the rate and depth of breathing are adjusted by homeostatic control mechanism for CO2, not O2.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that under normal conditions, the rate and depth of breathing are primarily adjusted by the body's homeostatic control mechanism for carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, rather than oxygen (O2) levels. This is because the body's main drive to breathe is to remove excess CO2 and maintain a stable pH level in the blood. When CO2 levels rise, the brain signals the respiratory system to increase the rate and depth of breathing, allowing more CO2 to be exhaled. Therefore, the statement that the rate and depth of breathing are adjusted by the homeostatic control mechanism for CO2, not O2, is true.

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  • 8. 

    True or FalseThe inner surfaces of the airways (trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles) are lined with smooth muscle.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The inner surfaces of the airways (trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles) are lined with smooth muscle. This smooth muscle helps to regulate the diameter of the airways, allowing them to constrict or dilate as needed to control airflow. This muscle contraction is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and can be influenced by various factors such as inflammation or the release of certain chemicals.

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  • 9. 

    The flexible flap of cartilage that closes off the airway during swallowing is called the

    Correct Answer
    Epiglottis
    Explanation
    The flexible flap of cartilage that closes off the airway during swallowing is called the epiglottis. The epiglottis is located at the base of the tongue and prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea and lungs when we swallow. It acts as a protective mechanism to ensure that food and liquid go down the esophagus and into the stomach, rather than into the respiratory system.

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  • 10. 

    The single airway between the larynx and the two main bronchi is called the ________.

    Correct Answer
    Trachea
    Explanation
    The single airway between the larynx and the two main bronchi is called the trachea. The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure that connects the throat to the lungs. It is made up of rings of cartilage that provide support and prevent collapse, allowing air to pass through and reach the lungs. The trachea is responsible for conducting air in and out of the respiratory system, making it an essential part of the breathing process.

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  • 11. 

    Layers of epithelial tissue that cover the outer surface of the lung and line the chest cavity are called ___________.

    Correct Answer
    Pleural Membranes
    Explanation
    The layers of epithelial tissue that cover the outer surface of the lung and line the chest cavity are called pleural membranes. These membranes consist of two layers: the visceral pleura, which covers the lung surface, and the parietal pleura, which lines the chest cavity. The pleural membranes help to protect the lungs and facilitate smooth movement during breathing. They also produce a small amount of fluid that lubricates the surfaces, reducing friction as the lungs expand and contract.

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  • 12. 

    The __________ establishes a regular, rhythmic cycle of breathing.

    Correct Answer
    Medulla Oblongata
    Respiratory Center
    Explanation
    The medulla oblongata is responsible for regulating many automatic functions in the body, including breathing. It contains the respiratory center, which controls the rhythmic cycle of breathing by sending signals to the muscles involved in respiration. This ensures that the body receives a regular supply of oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide.

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  • 13. 

    During inspiration, the dome-shaped _____________ contracts and flattens.

    Correct Answer
    Diaphragm
    Explanation
    During inspiration, the dome-shaped diaphragm contracts and flattens. The diaphragm is a large muscle located at the base of the lungs. When it contracts, it moves downward, causing the volume of the thoracic cavity to increase. This expansion creates negative pressure within the lungs, allowing air to rush in and fill the lungs. The flattening of the diaphragm also helps to push down the abdominal organs, allowing for more space in the chest cavity for the lungs to expand.

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  • 14. 

    The _____________ and _______________ bodies contain sensory receptors that monitor blood PO2.

    Correct Answer
    Carotid and Aortic
    Explanation
    The carotid and aortic bodies are two specialized structures located in the carotid arteries and aorta respectively. These bodies contain sensory receptors that are responsible for monitoring the levels of oxygen in the blood, known as blood PO2. These receptors are able to detect changes in blood oxygen levels and send signals to the brain to regulate breathing and maintain homeostasis.

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  • 15. 

    DefineExternal Respiration

    Correct Answer
    Relaxed state.
    The diaphragm and the intercostal muscles are relaxed.
    Exhalation.
    Expiration.
    The pressure increases, volume decreases.
    Explanation
    External respiration refers to the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the lungs and the external environment. During the relaxed state, the diaphragm and intercostal muscles are relaxed, resulting in the expansion of the thoracic cavity. Exhalation, also known as expiration, occurs when the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax further, causing the volume of the thoracic cavity to decrease. This decrease in volume leads to an increase in pressure, causing air to be expelled from the lungs. Therefore, the correct answer includes the description of the relaxed state, exhalation, and the relationship between pressure and volume during expiration.

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  • 16. 

    DefineCellular Respiration

    Correct Answer
    The process of using oxygen to produce ATP within cells. Generates CO2 as a waste product.
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the metabolic process by which cells use oxygen to convert organic molecules into ATP, the main energy currency of the cell. During this process, glucose and other organic molecules are broken down in a series of chemical reactions, releasing energy that is used to produce ATP. As a byproduct of cellular respiration, carbon dioxide (CO2) is generated and released as a waste product.

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  • 17. 

    DefineNasal Cavity

    Correct Answer
    Filters, warms, and moistens air.
    Explanation
    The nasal cavity is a part of the respiratory system that performs several functions. It filters the air we breathe, removing dust, pollen, and other particles. It also warms the air, bringing it to body temperature before it reaches the lungs. Additionally, the nasal cavity moistens the air, adding moisture to prevent dryness in the respiratory system. These functions are important for maintaining the health and proper functioning of the respiratory system.

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  • 18. 

    DefineEpiglottis

    Correct Answer
    Covers the larynx during swallowing.
    Explanation
    The epiglottis is a flap of tissue located at the base of the tongue that covers the opening of the larynx during swallowing. Its main function is to prevent food or liquid from entering the airway and instead direct it towards the esophagus. This helps to protect the lungs from aspiration and choking.

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  • 19. 

    DefineLarynx

    Correct Answer
    Production of sound.
    Explanation
    The larynx is a part of the human body responsible for the production of sound. It is also known as the voice box. The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, creating sound. This sound is then modified by the mouth, tongue, and other parts of the vocal tract to produce speech and other vocalizations. Therefore, the correct answer, "Production of sound," accurately describes the function of the larynx.

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  • 20. 

    DefineTrachea

    Correct Answer
    Main airway.
    Explanation
    The trachea is the main airway in the respiratory system. It is a tube-like structure that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi, allowing air to pass in and out of the lungs. The trachea is lined with ciliated cells and mucus-producing cells, which help to trap and remove foreign particles and keep the airway clear. It is also supported by rings of cartilage, which help to keep the trachea open and prevent collapse. Overall, the trachea plays a crucial role in the transportation of air to and from the lungs, making it the main airway in the body.

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  • 21. 

    DefineBronchi

    Correct Answer
    Branching airways.
    Explanation
    The term "bronchi" refers to the branching airways in the respiratory system. These airways are responsible for carrying air from the trachea into the lungs. They further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles, which eventually lead to the alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Therefore, the answer "branching airways" accurately defines bronchi.

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  • 22. 

    DefineBronchioles

    Correct Answer
    Smaller airways that branch off the bronchi.
    Explanation
    The bronchioles are smaller airways that branch off from the bronchi. They are responsible for carrying air to the alveoli in the lungs, where gas exchange occurs. The bronchioles are lined with smooth muscle, which allows them to constrict or dilate to regulate airflow. These smaller airways play a crucial role in the respiratory system by delivering oxygen to the alveoli and removing carbon dioxide from the body.

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  • 23. 

    DefineAlveoli

    Correct Answer
    Air sacs for gas exchange.
    Explanation
    The alveoli are small air sacs found in the lungs where gas exchange takes place. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the bloodstream through the thin walls of the alveoli, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the bloodstream into the alveoli to be exhaled. These tiny structures greatly increase the surface area available for gas exchange, allowing for efficient oxygenation of the blood and removal of carbon dioxide.

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  • 24. 

    DefineLungs

    Correct Answer
    Organ of gas exchange.
    Explanation
    The given definition accurately describes the function of the lungs, which is to facilitate the exchange of gases, specifically oxygen and carbon dioxide, between the body and the environment. The lungs contain millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where this gas exchange takes place. Oxygen from the inhaled air enters the bloodstream through the alveoli, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, is removed from the bloodstream and exhaled. Therefore, the lungs can be defined as the organ responsible for gas exchange in the body.

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  • 25. 

    What is a tracheostomy?

    Correct Answer
    An incision made in the trachea.
    Explanation
    A tracheostomy is a surgical procedure where an incision is made in the trachea (windpipe) to create a temporary or permanent opening. This opening, called a stoma, allows for direct access to the airway and is usually done to assist with breathing or to remove secretions from the lungs. It is commonly performed in cases of severe respiratory distress, obstruction, or when a patient requires long-term mechanical ventilation.

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  • 26. 

    How is the alveolus designed for gas exchange?

    Correct Answer
    The alveoli are arranged in clusters of thin bubble of squamous epithelial cells, have a large surface area, and are thin enough to exchange with nearby capillaries.
    Explanation
    The alveoli are designed for gas exchange by being arranged in clusters of thin bubbles of squamous epithelial cells. This arrangement allows for a large surface area, maximizing the area available for gas exchange. Additionally, the alveoli are thin enough to easily exchange gases with nearby capillaries, facilitating the diffusion of oxygen into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide out of the bloodstream.

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  • 27. 

    Premature babies often are unable to produce adequate amounts of surfactant. Why is this a problem?

    Correct Answer
    The surface tension could collapse the alveoli.
    Explanation
    Premature babies often have underdeveloped lungs, which can result in insufficient production of surfactant, a substance that helps reduce surface tension in the alveoli (tiny air sacs in the lungs). Without enough surfactant, the surface tension in the alveoli increases, making it difficult for them to stay open during exhalation. This can lead to the collapse of the alveoli, causing respiratory distress and making it harder for the baby to breathe effectively.

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  • 28. 

    Explain how carbon dioxide is transported in the blood.

    Correct Answer
    Carbon dioxide dissolves in blood plasma, binds to hemoglobin, or in the form of plasma bicarbonate.
    Explanation
    Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood through three main mechanisms. Firstly, it can dissolve directly in the blood plasma. Secondly, a small portion of carbon dioxide can bind to hemoglobin, the protein responsible for carrying oxygen in the blood. Lastly, the majority of carbon dioxide is converted into bicarbonate ions in the red blood cells. This conversion is facilitated by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. The bicarbonate ions are then transported in the plasma, while chloride ions move into the red blood cells to maintain electrical neutrality. This process, known as the bicarbonate buffer system, helps regulate the pH of the blood.

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  • 29. 

    What forces move oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveolar air and blood; and between blood and body cells?

    Correct Answer
    Skeletal muscles and the nervous system.
  • 30. 

    Why do people get sick at high altitudes?

    Correct Answer
    The amount of oxygen is reduced at high altitudes reducing the pressure of oxygen in the air. As a result oxygen diffuses in the lungs more slowly.
    Explanation
    At high altitudes, the amount of oxygen in the air is reduced, which in turn lowers the pressure of oxygen. This reduction in oxygen availability causes oxygen to diffuse more slowly in the lungs, leading to a decrease in the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues. This lack of oxygen can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and headache, collectively known as altitude sickness.

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  • 31. 

    The basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by neurons in the medulla oblongata. This region is called the respiratory center. What types of input from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid stimulates changes in respiration?

    Correct Answer
    Decreased oxygen levels or pH or increases in carbon dioxide levels result in an increase in breathing rate.
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that decreased oxygen levels or pH or increases in carbon dioxide levels result in an increase in breathing rate. This is because the medulla oblongata, which is responsible for controlling the basic rhythm of respiration, receives input from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. When oxygen levels are decreased, pH is decreased, or carbon dioxide levels are increased, these changes are detected by the medulla oblongata. In response, the respiratory center stimulates an increase in breathing rate to bring in more oxygen, restore pH balance, and eliminate excess carbon dioxide from the body.

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  • 32. 

    How is lung function measured?

    Correct Answer
    Spirometer measures lung volume.
    Explanation
    A spirometer is a device used to measure lung volume, which is the amount of air a person can inhale or exhale. This measurement is important in assessing lung function and diagnosing respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). By analyzing the volume and flow of air during breathing, a spirometer can provide valuable information about lung capacity and the efficiency of the respiratory system. Therefore, the statement that a spirometer measures lung volume is correct.

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  • 33. 

    Explain tidal volume and vital capacity.

    Correct Answer
    Tidal volume: volume of air inhaled and exhaled in a resting single breath. Vital capacity: the maximal volume that can be exhaled after maximal inhalation in a single breath.
    Explanation
    Tidal volume refers to the amount of air that is inhaled and exhaled during a normal, resting breath. It represents the volume of air exchanged with each breath and is typically measured in milliliters.

    Vital capacity, on the other hand, is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled forcefully after taking in a deep breath. It represents the total volume of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs and is measured in liters.

    In summary, tidal volume is the amount of air exchanged during a single breath at rest, while vital capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a deep inhalation.

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  • 34. 

    Explain the following disorderApnea

    Correct Answer
    Breathing stopped.
    Explanation
    Apnea is a disorder characterized by the temporary cessation of breathing. During apnea, breathing stops, which can lead to a decrease in oxygen levels in the body. This interruption in breathing can occur during sleep, known as sleep apnea, or it can be caused by other factors such as respiratory or neurological issues. It is important to diagnose and treat apnea as it can have serious health consequences if left untreated.

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  • 35. 

    Explain the following disorderEmphysema

    Correct Answer
    Damage to the alveoli.
    Explanation
    Emphysema is a disorder characterized by the damage to the alveoli, which are tiny air sacs in the lungs responsible for gas exchange. This damage results in the loss of elasticity in the lung tissue, making it difficult for the alveoli to expand and contract properly during breathing. As a result, the lungs are unable to efficiently take in oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and wheezing. The damage to the alveoli is often caused by long-term exposure to irritants, such as cigarette smoke, which triggers inflammation and the destruction of lung tissue.

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  • 36. 

    Explain the following disorderPneumonia

    Correct Answer
    Infection inflames the lungs usually caused by bacteria or virus. The alveoli secrete fluid impairing the oxygen and carbon dioxide.
    Explanation
    Pneumonia is a disorder characterized by the inflammation of the lungs, which is typically caused by a bacterial or viral infection. This infection leads to the secretion of fluid by the alveoli, small air sacs in the lungs, which impairs the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

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  • 37. 

    Explain the following disorderBronchitis

    Correct Answer
    Inflammation of the bronchi. Maybe acute or chronic.
    Explanation
    Bronchitis is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, which are the air passages in the lungs. This inflammation can be either acute or chronic. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection and is characterized by a cough, chest congestion, and shortness of breath. It typically lasts for a few weeks and resolves on its own. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition often caused by smoking or exposure to irritants. It is characterized by a persistent cough that lasts for at least three months in two consecutive years. Treatment for bronchitis involves managing symptoms and addressing the underlying cause.

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  • 38. 

    Explain the following disorderAsthma

    Correct Answer
    Spasmodic contraction of bronchial muscle, bronchial swelling, and increased production of mucus. An asthma attack causes partial closure of the bronchi.
    Explanation
    Asthma is a disorder characterized by spasmodic contraction of the bronchial muscle, bronchial swelling, and increased production of mucus. These factors contribute to the narrowing and partial closure of the bronchi during an asthma attack. This leads to difficulty in breathing, wheezing, and coughing. By understanding the underlying mechanisms of asthma, healthcare professionals can develop appropriate treatment plans to alleviate symptoms and manage the condition effectively.

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  • 39. 

    Explain the following disorderTuberculosis

    Correct Answer
    Infectious disease caused by bacteria. Can be passed on through airborne droplets.
    Explanation
    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria. It can be transmitted through airborne droplets, usually when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The bacteria primarily affect the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms include persistent cough, chest pain, fatigue, weight loss, and fever. Tuberculosis can be treated with a combination of antibiotics, but it is important to complete the full course of treatment to prevent drug resistance.

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  • 40. 

    Explain the following disorderAvian Influenza (H5N1)

    Correct Answer
    Viral infection, spread person to person. Avian Influenza is spread from poultry to humans.
    Explanation
    Avian Influenza, also known as H5N1, is a viral infection that can be transmitted from poultry to humans. It is not typically spread from person to person, but rather through close contact with infected birds or their contaminated environments. This infectious disease can cause severe respiratory illness in humans and has the potential to cause a global pandemic if it were to acquire the ability for efficient human-to-human transmission. Therefore, it is crucial to closely monitor and control outbreaks in poultry populations to prevent the spread of Avian Influenza to humans.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Mar 25, 2009
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