Genomes, Transcriptomes And Proteomes! Trivia Questions Quiz

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Genomes, Transcriptomes And Proteomes! Trivia Questions Quiz - Quiz

The cell is the building block for living things, and they have different purposes that they serve within the body. The genes in the human body are contained in a cell and act as markers for specific attributes. The quiz below is perfect for a medical student who has just covered genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes, is that you? Well, take it up and get a better understanding of the subjects.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The entire genetic complement of a living organism is called _________

    Explanation
    The correct answer for this question is "genome". The genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in an organism. It includes all the genes, chromosomes, and other DNA sequences that determine the characteristics and functions of that organism. The term "genom" is a misspelling of "genome" and does not have any scientific meaning.

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  • 2. 

    The collection of functioning proteins synthesized by a living cell is called _______

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "proteome". The term "proteome" refers to the entire set of proteins that are produced or expressed by a living cell. It includes all the proteins that are synthesized, modified, and interact with other molecules within the cell. The term "proteom" is not a correct term and does not accurately describe the collection of functioning proteins in a cell.

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  • 3. 

    The series of events by which the biological information carried by a genome is released and made available to the cell is called _______________

    Explanation
    The correct answer is genome expression. Genome expression refers to the process by which the biological information encoded in a genome is utilized and made available to the cell. It involves the transcription of DNA into RNA and the subsequent translation of RNA into proteins, which are the functional molecules that carry out various cellular processes. The term "ekspresi" and "ekspresi genom" are the translations of genome expression in different languages.

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  • 4. 

    The synthesis of an RNA copy of a gene is called __________

    Explanation
    The correct answer for this question is "transcription" or "transkripsi". Transcription refers to the process of synthesizing an RNA copy of a gene from the DNA template. It is a crucial step in gene expression and is carried out by RNA polymerase enzyme. Transkripsi is the Indonesian translation of transcription. Both terms describe the same process of generating an RNA copy of a gene.

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  • 5. 

    The transcriptome is constructed by the process called _____________, in which individual genes are copied into RNA molecules

    Explanation
    The correct answer is transcription. Transcription is the process by which individual genes are copied into RNA molecules. During transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is transcribed into a complementary RNA sequence, which can then be used as a template for protein synthesis. Transkripsi is the Indonesian term for transcription, so both options are correct.

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  • 6. 

    Construction of the proteome involves _____________  of these RNA molecules into protein.

    Explanation
    The construction of the proteome involves the process of translating RNA molecules into proteins. This process is known as translation. Translasi is not a recognized term or process in biology. Therefore, the correct answer is translation.

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  • 7. 

    In genome expression, this step involves various processes that influence chromatin structure and nucleosome positioning in the parts of the genome that contain active genes, ensuring that these genes are accessible and are not buried deep within highly packaged parts of the chromosomes

    • A.

      Accessing the genome

    • B.

      Assembly of the transcription initiation complex

    • C.

      Synthesis of RNA

    • D.

      Processing of RNA

    • E.

      RNA degradation

    Correct Answer
    A. Accessing the genome
    Explanation
    This step involves various processes that influence chromatin structure and nucleosome positioning in the parts of the genome that contain active genes, ensuring that these genes are accessible and are not buried deep within highly packaged parts of the chromosomes. This allows the transcription machinery to bind to the DNA and initiate transcription, leading to the synthesis of RNA. Therefore, accessing the genome is crucial for gene expression to occur.

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  • 8. 

    In genome expression, this step involves a series of alterations that are made to the sequence of the RNA molecule and to its chemical structure, and which must occur before the RNA molecules can be translated into protein or, in the case of non-coding RNA, before they can carry out their other functions in the cell.

    • A.

      Accessing the genome

    • B.

      Assembly of the transcription initiation complex

    • C.

      Synthesis of RNA

    • D.

      Processing of RNA

    • E.

      RNA degradation

    Correct Answer
    D. Processing of RNA
    Explanation
    Processing of RNA involves a series of alterations made to the sequence and chemical structure of the RNA molecule. These alterations are necessary for the RNA molecules to be translated into proteins or to carry out their other functions in the cell. This step occurs after the synthesis of RNA and before RNA degradation.

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  • 9. 

    In genome expression, this step occurs near the 5′ termini of coding RNA molecules and is a prerequisite for translation of these molecules.

    • A.

      Accessing the genome

    • B.

      Assembly of the translation initiation complex

    • C.

      Synthesis of RNA

    • D.

      Processing of RNA

    • E.

      RNA degradation

    Correct Answer
    B. Assembly of the translation initiation complex
    Explanation
    Assembly of the translation initiation complex is the correct answer because it is the step that occurs near the 5' termini of coding RNA molecules and is necessary for the translation of these molecules. This complex includes various proteins and factors that come together to recognize the start codon and initiate the process of translation. Without the assembly of this complex, the coding RNA molecules would not be able to undergo translation and produce proteins.

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  • 10. 

    The coding RNA comprises the transcriptome and is made up of molecule __________, which are transcripts of protein-coding genes and hence are translated into protein in the latter stages of genome expression

    Correct Answer
    Messenger RNA
    mRNA
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mRNA. mRNA, also known as messenger RNA, is a type of coding RNA that is transcribed from protein-coding genes. It carries the genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis. Therefore, mRNA molecules are translated into proteins during the later stages of genome expression.

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  • 11. 

    The most abundant RNAs in the cell, making up over 80% of the total in actively dividing bacteria are ______________

    Correct Answer
    Ribosomal RNA
    rRNA
    Explanation
    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the correct answer because it is the most abundant type of RNA in the cell, constituting over 80% of the total RNA in actively dividing bacteria. rRNA plays a crucial role in protein synthesis by forming the structural and functional components of ribosomes, the cellular machinery responsible for translating mRNA into proteins. Its abundance reflects its essential role in cellular processes and its high demand for protein production.

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  • 12. 

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are small molecules that are also involved in protein synthesis, carrying amino acids to the ribosome and ensuring that these are linked together in the order specified by the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA that is being translated.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) play a crucial role in protein synthesis by carrying amino acids to the ribosome. They ensure that the amino acids are linked together in the correct order as specified by the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA being translated. This is an essential step in the process of protein synthesis, making the statement true.

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  • 13. 

    Small nuclear RNA (snRNA; also called U-RNA because these molecules are rich in uridine nucleotides), which is involved in mRNA processing.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is indeed involved in mRNA processing. snRNA molecules are a component of the spliceosome, a complex responsible for removing introns from pre-mRNA during the process of splicing. These molecules play a crucial role in ensuring the accurate and precise removal of introns and the joining of exons to produce mature mRNA molecules. Therefore, the statement that snRNA is involved in mRNA processing is correct.

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  • 14. 

    Small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), which plays a central role in the processing of rRNA molecules.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) does indeed play a central role in the processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules. SnoRNAs guide chemical modifications and cleavage reactions that are necessary for the maturation of rRNA. These modifications are crucial for the proper functioning of ribosomes, which are responsible for protein synthesis. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 15. 

    Small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA), a diverse group including molecules with a range of functions, some understood and others still mysterious.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    The statement is true because small cytoplasmic RNA (scRNA) is indeed a diverse group of molecules with various functions. While some functions of scRNA are well understood, there are still many mysteries surrounding its role in cellular processes.

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  • 16. 

    In bacteria they include one interesting RNA type, apparently present in most if not all species, called____________

    Correct Answer
    transfer-messenger RNA
    tmRNA
    Explanation
    Transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is an interesting RNA type found in bacteria, believed to be present in most, if not all, species. tmRNA serves a crucial role in rescuing stalled ribosomes during translation by acting as a hybrid molecule between tRNA and mRNA. It adds a short peptide tag to the incomplete protein, targeting it for degradation. This process helps maintain the quality control of protein synthesis and ensures the efficient recycling of ribosomes.

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  • 17. 

    The enzymes responsible for transcription of DNA into RNA are called ________________

    Correct Answer
    DNA-dependent RNA polymerases
    RNA polymerases
    Explanation
    The enzymes responsible for transcription of DNA into RNA are called DNA-dependent RNA polymerases or RNA polymerases. These enzymes catalyze the synthesis of RNA molecules from a DNA template. They are able to recognize specific DNA sequences known as promoters and initiate transcription at these sites. DNA-dependent RNA polymerases are essential for gene expression and play a crucial role in the regulation of cellular processes.

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  • 18. 

    The initiation complexes are constructed at the appropriate positions, and not at random points within the genome, because their target sites are marked by specific nucleotide sequences called ________

    Correct Answer
    promoters
    promoter
    Explanation
    The initiation complexes are constructed at the appropriate positions, and not at random points within the genome, because their target sites are marked by specific nucleotide sequences called promoters. Promoters are regions of DNA that provide a binding site for RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for initiating transcription. They contain specific nucleotide sequences that are recognized by transcription factors, which help recruit RNA polymerase to the correct location. By having specific promoters, the initiation complexes can be directed to the correct positions within the genome to ensure accurate and efficient transcription.

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  • 19. 

    The primary transcript of a protein-coding gene

    • A.

      Pre-mRNA

    • B.

      Prepriming complex

    • C.

      Pre-RNA

    • D.

      Pre-rRNA

    • E.

      Pre-spliceosome complex

    Correct Answer
    A. Pre-mRNA
    Explanation
    Pre-mRNA refers to the initial transcript produced during transcription of a protein-coding gene. It is an immature form of mRNA that undergoes various modifications, including splicing and addition of a poly-A tail, before it becomes mature mRNA and is transported out of the nucleus for translation. The other options listed are not the correct terms for the initial transcript of a protein-coding gene.

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  • 20. 

    Many RNAs, especially in eukaryotes, are initially synthesized as  _________ which has to be processed before it can carry out its function.

    Correct Answer
    pre-RNA,
    precursor RNA
    prekursor
    Explanation
    Many RNAs, especially in eukaryotes, are initially synthesized as pre-RNA, which is an immature form of RNA that needs to undergo processing before it can carry out its function. This processing involves modifications such as splicing, capping, and polyadenylation to produce a mature and functional RNA molecule. Precursor RNA is another term used to describe this immature form of RNA that requires processing. Prekursor is likely a misspelling or alternative term for precursor RNA.

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  • 21. 

    End-modifications occur during the synthesis of eukaryotic and archaeal mRNAs, most of which have a single, unusual nucleotide called a cap attached at the 5′ end and a poly(A) tail attached to the 3′ end.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    During the synthesis of eukaryotic and archaeal mRNAs, end-modifications occur which involve the addition of a cap at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. These modifications are unique to these types of mRNA and help in stabilizing the mRNA molecule, facilitating its transport out of the nucleus, and enhancing translation efficiency. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 22. 

    The removal of introns from a precursor RNA is _____________.

    Correct Answer
    splicing
    Explanation
    The process of removing introns from a precursor RNA is called splicing. This process involves the removal of non-coding regions (introns) and joining together of coding regions (exons) to produce the mature mRNA molecule. Splicing is an essential step in gene expression and allows for the production of functional proteins from the genetic information encoded in DNA.

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  • 23. 

    Unspliced pre-mRNA forms the nuclear RNA fraction called heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNA).

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    The correct answer is TRUE because unspliced pre-mRNA molecules are a part of the heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) fraction in the nucleus. This fraction includes both spliced and unspliced pre-mRNA molecules, and it is the precursor to mature mRNA that is eventually exported to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis. Therefore, it is true that unspliced pre-mRNA forms the hnRNA fraction.

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  • 24. 

    Cutting events are particularly important in the processing of rRNA and tRNA, many of which are initially synthesized from transcription units that specify more than one molecule.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    The statement is true because cutting events play a crucial role in the processing of rRNA and tRNA molecules. These molecules are initially synthesized from transcription units that contain multiple copies of the same molecule. In order to generate functional rRNA and tRNA, these transcription units undergo cutting events to remove the excess copies and produce the final, mature molecules. Therefore, cutting events are indeed important in the processing of rRNA and tRNA.

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  • 25. 

    The pre-rRNAs and pre-tRNAs must therefore be cut into pieces to produce the mature RNAs. This type of processing occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    The statement is true because both prokaryotes and eukaryotes require processing of pre-rRNAs and pre-tRNAs to produce mature RNAs. These precursors need to be cut into smaller pieces in order to form the final functional RNAs. This processing is necessary for the proper functioning of ribosomes and tRNAs, which are essential for protein synthesis. Therefore, the statement is correct.

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  • 26. 

    The rRNAs and tRNAs of all organisms are modified by addition of new chemical groups, these groups being added to specific nucleotides within each RNA.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    The statement is true because rRNAs and tRNAs in all organisms undergo modifications through the addition of new chemical groups to specific nucleotides within each RNA. This modification process helps in the proper functioning and stability of these RNA molecules, allowing them to carry out their roles in protein synthesis effectively.

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  • 27. 

    Chemical modification of mRNA, called RNA editing

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    RNA editing is a process in which the genetic information carried by mRNA molecules is altered, resulting in changes to the proteins that are produced. This modification can involve the insertion, deletion, or substitution of nucleotides in the mRNA sequence. Therefore, the statement that chemical modification of mRNA is called RNA editing is true.

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  • 28. 

    In cells, proteins called _________ aid the folding of other proteins, probably by reducing the likelihood that the protein being folded adopts the wrong intermediate structure.

    Correct Answer
    molecular chaperones
    chaperones
    chaperone
    Explanation
    Molecular chaperones are proteins that assist in the folding of other proteins. They help to prevent the protein being folded from adopting the wrong intermediate structure. Chaperones play a crucial role in maintaining protein integrity and function within cells. They ensure that proteins are correctly folded, which is essential for their proper functioning. Therefore, the presence of molecular chaperones reduces the likelihood of misfolded proteins and helps to maintain cellular homeostasis.

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  • 29. 

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerases are involved in replication and expression of some virus genomes.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    B. FALSE
    Explanation
    DNA-dependent RNA polymerases are enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template. They are responsible for transcribing genes and are essential for gene expression in all organisms, including viruses. However, it is important to note that not all viruses use DNA-dependent RNA polymerases for replication and expression of their genomes. Some viruses, such as retroviruses, use reverse transcriptase to convert their RNA genomes into DNA before replication and gene expression. Therefore, the statement that DNA-dependent RNA polymerases are involved in replication and expression of some virus genomes is false.

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  • 30. 

    A collection of RNA molecules derived from those protein-coding genes whose biological information is required by the cell at a particular time.

    • A.

      Transcriptome

    • B.

      Proteiome

    • C.

      Genome

    • D.

      Chromosome

    Correct Answer
    A. Transcriptome
    Explanation
    The term "transcriptome" refers to a collection of RNA molecules. These RNA molecules are derived from the protein-coding genes that are needed by the cell at a specific time. The transcriptome represents the active genes in a cell and provides insight into the gene expression patterns and regulation occurring within the cell. It is a dynamic and changing collection of RNA molecules that reflects the specific needs and activities of the cell at any given time.

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