# 3.3 Induction And Scientific Reasoning

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Quiz yourself on the terms and concepts you learned in this section!

• 1.

### In standard scientific usage, an inductive argument is an argument that infers a generalization from a finite sample of data.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
An inductive argument is a type of argument that uses specific observations or evidence to make generalizations or conclusions. It is based on the idea that if a certain pattern or trend is observed in a limited sample of data, it is likely to hold true for the entire population or a larger set of data. Therefore, the statement that an inductive argument infers a generalization from a finite sample of data is true.

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• 2.

### In standard logical usage, an inductive argument is an argument that is intended to be strong.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
An inductive argument is a type of argument that is based on observations or evidence and is intended to provide support for a conclusion. It is considered strong when the premises provide good reasons to believe that the conclusion is true. In standard logical usage, an inductive argument is indeed considered strong, hence the statement "an inductive argument is intended to be strong" is true.

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• 3.

### Arguments that qualify as inductive under the standard scientific usage, also qualify as inductive under the standard logical usage.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
True. Arguments that move from particular cases to general conclusions (scientific usage) are a SUBSET of the class of arguments that are intended to be strong (logical usage).

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• 4.

### “Almost all Asians have dark hair. John is Asian. Therefore John has dark hair.” This argument qualifies as “inductive” under the standard scientific usage.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
False. This is clearly a strong inductive argument, in the logical sense. But notice that it's an inference from the general case to the particular case. The standard scientific usage involves inferences from the particular to the general.

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• 5.

### Inductive reasoning is rarely found in science.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Yikes. This couldn't be more false. Any bit of scientific reasoning that involves drawing conclusions about theoretical hypotheses based on observable data is an inductive inference. Induction is EVERYWHERE in science.

This is not to say that deductive reasoning plays no role in science. Deductive reasoning is very important in deriving predictions from theoretical hypotheses. But the testing of such hypotheses is an inductive move.

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• Current Version
• Mar 20, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Aug 25, 2012
Quiz Created by
Kdelapla

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