1.
When playing billiards, the collisions between the balls are best described as __________________.
Correct Answer
A. Elastic
Explanation
The collisions between the balls in billiards are best described as elastic. In an elastic collision, the kinetic energy and momentum of the balls are conserved. This means that when the balls collide, they bounce off each other without losing any energy, resulting in a predictable and efficient transfer of momentum. This is in contrast to an inelastic collision, where some of the kinetic energy is lost and the balls may stick together or deform upon impact.
2.
If two objects collide with each other, _______________.
Correct Answer
A. The sum of their momentums after the collision is equal to the sum of their momentums before the collision
Explanation
When two objects collide with each other, the law of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision. This means that the sum of their momentums after the collision is equal to the sum of their momentums before the collision. This principle holds true regardless of the masses of the objects or the direction of their velocities.
3.
Momentum is the product of ___________.
Correct Answer
A. Mass times velocity
Explanation
Momentum is a concept in physics that describes the quantity of motion an object possesses. It is calculated by multiplying the mass of an object by its velocity. Mass refers to the amount of matter an object contains, while velocity refers to the speed and direction of its motion. Therefore, the correct answer is "mass times velocity".
4.
The kinetic energy of an object will increase the most if you __________________.
Correct Answer
A. Double the velocity of the object
Explanation
The kinetic energy of an object is directly proportional to its velocity squared. Therefore, if you double the velocity of the object, the kinetic energy will increase the most. This is because the kinetic energy formula, KE = 1/2mv^2, shows that the velocity has a greater impact on the kinetic energy than the mass of the object. Doubling the mass of the object would only result in a linear increase in kinetic energy, while doubling the velocity would result in a quadruple increase in kinetic energy.
5.
A person jumps to the ground from a platform 10 feet high. Which of the following is true?
Correct Answer
C. The person's potential energy at the instant they jump is approximately equal to their kinetic energy the instant they land.
Explanation
When the person is at the top of the platform, they have maximum potential energy due to their height. As they jump, this potential energy is converted into kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion. At the instant they jump, their potential energy is equal to their kinetic energy because energy is conserved. When they land on the ground, their kinetic energy is at its maximum while their potential energy is zero. Therefore, the person's potential energy at the instant they jump is approximately equal to their kinetic energy the instant they land.
6.
You have 3 round objects of equal mass and equal radius, but different shapes. Which of the following shapes will have the largest moment of inertia?
Correct Answer
A. A hollow ring
Explanation
A hollow ring will have the largest moment of inertia compared to a solid disk and a solid sphere. Moment of inertia depends on the distribution of mass around an axis of rotation. In a hollow ring, the mass is distributed farthest from the axis, resulting in a larger moment of inertia. In a solid disk, the mass is distributed closer to the axis, making the moment of inertia smaller. Similarly, in a solid sphere, the mass is distributed evenly around the axis, resulting in the smallest moment of inertia. Therefore, the hollow ring will have the largest moment of inertia.
7.
A round object is at the top of a hill. Assuming that friction does not slow it down at all, will it go down the hill faster if it just slides down without rotating, or if it rolls down?
Correct Answer
A. Sliding
Explanation
If friction does not slow it down at all, the round object will go down the hill faster if it just slides down without rotating. Rolling involves both sliding and rotation, which requires additional energy and slows down the object compared to just sliding. Therefore, if friction is not a factor, sliding will result in a faster descent down the hill.
8.
You take an object of irregular shape and draw a big, red dot right on its center of mass. What path will the red dot trace out if you throw the object spinning through the air?
Correct Answer
A. A parabola
Explanation
When the object is thrown spinning through the air, the red dot will trace out a parabolic path. This is because the object's center of mass is the point around which it rotates, and any point on the object will move in a parabolic trajectory when it is thrown. The irregular shape of the object does not affect the path traced by the red dot, as long as the dot is placed at the center of mass. The speed at which the object is spinning does not alter the fact that the path will be a parabola.
9.
A ball rolls down a hill. The potential energy of the ball at the top of the hill is equal to...
Correct Answer
A. The translational kinetic energy plus the rotational kinetic energy at the bottom of the hill
Explanation
The potential energy of the ball at the top of the hill is converted into both translational kinetic energy and rotational kinetic energy as it rolls down the hill. Therefore, the total energy at the bottom of the hill is the sum of these two types of kinetic energy, which is represented by the answer choice "The translational kinetic energy plus the rotational kinetic energy at the bottom of the hill."
10.
Is the formula for:
Correct Answer
B. Rotational kinetic energy
Explanation
The formula for rotational kinetic energy is the correct answer. Rotational kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its rotation. It is calculated using the formula 1/2 * I * ω^2, where I is the moment of inertia and ω is the angular velocity. This formula relates the mass distribution of the object (moment of inertia) and the rate at which it rotates (angular velocity) to its rotational kinetic energy.