Personality Psychologists Quiz 4

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Personality psychology and clinical psychology overlap most when apporaching

    • A.

      Personality processes

    • B.

      Personality disorders

    • C.

      Personality development

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Personality disorders
    Explanation
    Personality psychology and clinical psychology overlap most when approaching personality disorders. This is because both fields focus on understanding and diagnosing abnormal patterns of behavior, cognition, and emotions that are characteristic of personality disorders. Personality psychology examines the underlying traits and characteristics that contribute to the development of these disorders, while clinical psychology focuses on assessing, diagnosing, and treating individuals with personality disorders. The collaboration between these two fields helps in identifying and understanding the causes, symptoms, and effective treatment approaches for personality disorders.

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  • 2. 

    The taks of an employer who attempts to identify dependable, cosceintious, and hard working job applicants is similar to the task of the ______ psychologist, who attempts to ientify and assess individual differences.

    • A.

      Psychoanalytic

    • B.

      Trait

    • C.

      Cognitive

    • D.

      Behavioral

    Correct Answer
    B. Trait
    Explanation
    The task of an employer who attempts to identify dependable, conscientious, and hardworking job applicants is similar to the task of the trait psychologist, who attempts to identify and assess individual differences. Trait psychologists study and analyze personality traits, such as dependability and conscientiousness, to understand how they affect behavior and performance. Similarly, employers assess job applicants' traits to determine their suitability for a particular role, as these traits are often indicative of future job performance. Therefore, the correct answer is trait.

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  • 3. 

    Intrapersonal processes include

    • A.

      Communication between people

    • B.

      The emotions that we experience

    • C.

      Conflicts between the family members

    • D.

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    B. The emotions that we experience
    Explanation
    Intrapersonal processes refer to the internal processes that occur within an individual. These processes include self-reflection, self-awareness, and self-regulation. One aspect of intrapersonal processes is the emotions that we experience. Emotions are subjective feelings that arise in response to certain situations or stimuli and play a crucial role in our decision-making, behavior, and overall well-being. Therefore, the given answer, "the emotions that we experience," accurately represents an element of intrapersonal processes.

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  • 4. 

    Psychologists following the phenomenological apporach 

    • A.

      Focus on the workings of the unconscious mind and the resolution of internal mental conflict

    • B.

      Study how overt behavior is affected by rewards and punishments

    • C.

      Build theoretical models of how people process information

    • D.

      Are concerned with out conscious experience of the world and the consequences of having free will

    Correct Answer
    D. Are concerned with out conscious experience of the world and the consequences of having free will
    Explanation
    Psychologists following the phenomenological approach are concerned with our conscious experience of the world and the consequences of having free will. This means that they focus on understanding how individuals perceive and interpret their experiences, and how these subjective experiences shape their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. They believe that our conscious experiences play a central role in shaping our understanding of ourselves and the world around us, and that our ability to make choices and exercise free will has important implications for our psychological well-being.

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  • 5. 

    The personality pradigm that focuses on rewards and punishments is known as the _____ paradigm

    • A.

      Trait

    • B.

      Behaviorist

    • C.

      Phenomenological

    • D.

      Psychoanlytic

    Correct Answer
    B. Behaviorist
    Explanation
    The correct answer is behaviorist because the behaviorist paradigm focuses on rewards and punishments as the main factors that shape an individual's personality. This paradigm believes that behavior is learned through conditioning and that external factors, such as rewards and punishments, play a significant role in shaping behavior and personality.

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  • 6. 

    Personality psychologists ahering to the _____ apporach focus on psychic energy, the workings of the unconscious mind, and the nature and resolution of internal mental conflict

    • A.

      Psychoanalytic

    • B.

      Trait

    • C.

      Cognitive

    • D.

      Phenomenological

    Correct Answer
    A. Psychoanalytic
    Explanation
    Personality psychologists who adhere to the psychoanalytic approach focus on the concept of psychic energy, which refers to the forces that drive human behavior. They also study the workings of the unconscious mind, which holds thoughts, memories, and desires that are not consciously accessible. Additionally, they explore the nature and resolution of internal mental conflict, which can arise from conflicting desires or impulses within an individual. The psychoanalytic approach emphasizes the importance of these unconscious processes in shaping personality and behavior.

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  • 7. 

    The purpose of a basic apporach (or paradigm) is 

    • A.

      To expand the range of data you consider

    • B.

      To integrate diverse perspectives

    • C.

      To limit inquiry to certain kinds of observations and patterns

    • D.

      To resolve contradictions in data

    Correct Answer
    C. To limit inquiry to certain kinds of observations and patterns
    Explanation
    The purpose of a basic approach or paradigm is to limit inquiry to certain kinds of observations and patterns. This means that when using a basic approach, you are focusing on specific types of data and patterns, and not considering a wide range of data or integrating diverse perspectives. This approach helps in narrowing down the scope of inquiry and simplifying the analysis by focusing on specific aspects or patterns that are relevant to the research or problem at hand.

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  • 8. 

    That trait apporach, the behaviorist approach, and the psychoanalytic approach

    • A.

      Are irreconcilable and contradictory views of human psychology

    • B.

      Are all part of the One Big Theory

    • C.

      All address the biological basis of human psychology

    • D.

      Address different sets of questions about human psychology

    Correct Answer
    D. Address different sets of questions about human psychology
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the trait approach, the behaviorist approach, and the psychoanalytic approach address different sets of questions about human psychology. This means that each approach focuses on different aspects of human behavior and psychological processes. The trait approach looks at individual differences in personality traits, the behaviorist approach focuses on observable behavior and its relationship to environmental stimuli, and the psychoanalytic approach examines unconscious motivations and conflicts. These approaches do not necessarily contradict each other, but rather provide different perspectives and explanations for understanding human psychology.

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  • 9. 

    Personality psychology has a variety of theoretical persepectives that are sometimes seen as competing with each other. Regarding this diversity, a major theme of this text book is:

    • A.

      The personality puzzle will never be solved

    • B.

      The One Big Theory (OBT) can account for everything in personality

    • C.

      Great strengths are usually great weaknesses

    • D.

      A single basic approach must be chosen as best on the basis of rigorous data analysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Great strengths are usually great weaknesses
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "great strengths are usually great weaknesses". This suggests that the strengths that individuals possess in their personality can also become weaknesses in certain situations. It implies that each personality trait has its own advantages and disadvantages, and that individuals should be aware of how their strengths can potentially become weaknesses. This understanding can help individuals navigate their personal and professional lives more effectively.

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  • 10. 

    Personality psychologists who adhere to the ________ approach focus on identifying, conceptualizing, and measuring the ways in which people differ psychologically from one another.

    • A.

      Psychoanlytic

    • B.

      Trait

    • C.

      Cognitive

    • D.

      Phenomenological

    Correct Answer
    B. Trait
    Explanation
    Trait psychologists focus on identifying, conceptualizing, and measuring the ways in which people differ psychologically from one another. This approach emphasizes the study of stable and enduring characteristics or traits that individuals possess, such as extraversion, conscientiousness, or neuroticism. By studying these traits, psychologists can better understand and predict human behavior and personality. The trait approach is widely used in personality psychology to assess and categorize individuals based on their unique set of traits.

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  • 11. 

    The unique mandate of personality psychologists is to attempt

    • A.

      To identify and measure individual differences in ability and behavior

    • B.

      To determine the effect of the social environment on behavior

    • C.

      To explain, whole, functioning persons in their social context

    • D.

      To prevent or treat psychological personality disorders

    Correct Answer
    C. To explain, whole, functioning persons in their social context
    Explanation
    Personality psychologists have the unique mandate to explain whole, functioning persons in their social context. This means that their focus is on understanding and describing individuals as a whole, taking into account their personality traits, behaviors, and the social environment in which they operate. They aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of individuals by considering how their personalities and behaviors are influenced by the social context in which they exist. This involves studying the interactions between individuals and their social environment, and how these interactions shape their thoughts, feelings, and actions.

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  • 12. 

    The unique mandate of personality psychologists is to attempt

    • A.

      To identify and measure individual differences in ability and behavior

    • B.

      To determine the effect of the social environment on behavior

    • C.

      To explain, whole, functioning persons in their social context

    • D.

      To prevent or treat psychological personality disorders

    Correct Answer
    C. To explain, whole, functioning persons in their social context
    Explanation
    Personality psychologists have the unique mandate to explain whole, functioning persons in their social context. This means that their goal is to understand and describe individuals as complete beings, taking into account their thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and social interactions. They seek to provide a comprehensive understanding of how individuals function within their social environment, including the influence of cultural, societal, and interpersonal factors. By studying and explaining these aspects, personality psychologists can contribute to a better understanding of human behavior and the development of effective interventions and treatments for psychological personality disorders.

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  • 13. 

    Which formula in psychometrics quantifies the principle of aggregation? 

    • A.

      Alpha

    • B.

      Spearman-Brown

    • C.

      Kappa

    • D.

      Kaiser-Guttma

    Correct Answer
    B. Spearman-Brown
    Explanation
    The Spearman-Brown formula in psychometrics quantifies the principle of aggregation. This formula is used to estimate the reliability of a test or measure when it is modified by changing the number of items or the length of the test. It allows researchers to determine how the reliability of a test would change if it were lengthened or shortened. By quantifying the principle of aggregation, the Spearman-Brown formula helps researchers understand the consistency and stability of a test's scores.

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  • 14. 

    In order to examine the relationship between early life experiences and adult criminality, Dr. Robbins asks his research participants to fill out questionnaires describing their early life. He then obtains copies of their arrest records from the county courthouse. The questionnaires used in Dr. Robbins’s study would be ________ data, whereas the arrest records would be ________ data.

    • A.

      L;B

    • B.

      S;I

    • C.

      S;L

    • D.

      B;L

    Correct Answer
    C. S;L
    Explanation
    The questionnaires used in Dr. Robbins's study would be self-reported (S) data, as they rely on participants' own descriptions of their early life experiences. On the other hand, the arrest records obtained from the county courthouse would be official (L) data, as they are objective records of participants' criminal history.

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  • 15. 

    The fact that life outcomes are mulit-determined is the biggest disadvantage of L data

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because L data, which refers to life outcomes, is influenced by multiple factors. Life outcomes are determined by a combination of genetic, environmental, social, and individual factors, making it difficult to attribute them to a single cause. This lack of a clear cause-effect relationship makes L data less reliable and less useful for making accurate predictions or drawing definitive conclusions about individuals' lives.

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  • 16. 

    Reliability and validity are both aspects of a broder concept called

    • A.

      Factorial invariance

    • B.

      Psychometric integrity

    • C.

      Measurement equivalence

    • D.

      Generalizability

    Correct Answer
    D. Generalizability
    Explanation
    Generalizability refers to the extent to which research findings can be applied to a larger population or context beyond the specific sample or situation studied. Reliability and validity are two important criteria for assessing the quality and accuracy of research measures. While reliability refers to the consistency and stability of measurement, validity refers to the extent to which a measure actually measures what it claims to measure. Both reliability and validity are important for establishing the generalizability of research findings, as they ensure that the measures used are consistent and accurate across different populations or contexts. Therefore, generalizability is the broader concept that encompasses reliability and validity in terms of their impact on the applicability of research findings.

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  • 17. 

    A reseacher asks parents to report on the persoanlity characteristics of their children. This is an example of ____ data.

    • A.

      B

    • B.

      I

    • C.

      L

    • D.

      S

    Correct Answer
    B. I
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "I". In this scenario, the researcher is collecting data by asking parents to report on the personality characteristics of their children. This type of data is known as "I" or "Interview" data, as it involves gathering information through direct communication with individuals. The researcher is relying on the parents' subjective observations and perceptions of their children's personality traits.

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  • 18. 

    Which kind of data would probably appeal most to an applied psychogist who is keenly interested in predicting workplace deviance?

    • A.

      S

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      I

    • D.

      L

    Correct Answer
    D. L
    Explanation
    An applied psychologist who is keenly interested in predicting workplace deviance would most likely be interested in data that pertains to individual personality traits, attitudes, and behaviors. This type of data, represented by the letter "L" in the options, would provide valuable insights into the factors that contribute to workplace deviance and allow the psychologist to develop effective strategies for prediction and prevention.

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  • 19. 

    Observing how fast someone walks after an experimental prime is an example of L data

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Observing how fast someone walks after an experimental prime is an example of L data. L data refers to behavioral observations made in a laboratory or controlled setting. In this case, the speed at which someone walks is being measured as a response to the experimental prime. This type of data is typically collected in a controlled environment to study specific behaviors and their effects. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 20. 

    According to the text, it is reasonable to first assume that almost all psychological findings lack generalizibility 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided in the text, it is reasonable to assume that almost all psychological findings lack generalizability. This suggests that the findings of psychological studies may not be applicable or representative of the broader population or different contexts.

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  • 21. 

    The techinical meaning of reliability concerns

    • A.

      How much measurement error is present in your assessment intrument

    • B.

      Whether or not an instrument accurately assesses the construct it is intended to measure

    • C.

      Whether or not an instrument correlates with a similar measure of the same construct

    • D.

      Whether or not a sample participants resonably represents the population of interest

    Correct Answer
    B. Whether or not an instrument accurately assesses the construct it is intended to measure
    Explanation
    The technical meaning of reliability concerns whether or not an instrument accurately assesses the construct it is intended to measure. This means that the instrument should provide consistent and dependable results when measuring the intended construct. Reliability is important because it ensures that the instrument is trustworthy and can be used to make valid conclusions or decisions based on the measurements obtained.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is the best definition of validity?

    • A.

      The degree to which an instrument yields consistent scores

    • B.

      The degree to which measurement error affects scores on an instrument

    • C.

      The degree to which an instrument actually reflects the construct of interest

    • D.

      The degree to which an instrument yields dependable scores

    Correct Answer
    C. The degree to which an instrument actually reflects the construct of interest
    Explanation
    Validity refers to the extent to which an instrument accurately measures what it is intended to measure. It assesses whether the instrument is capturing the construct of interest and providing meaningful results. In other words, validity determines if the instrument is measuring what it claims to measure. Therefore, the best definition of validity is "the degree to which an instrument actually reflects the construct of interest."

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  • 23. 

    Answers to projective tests such as the Rorschach ink blots are considered B data

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Projective tests like the Rorschach ink blots are considered B data because they involve subjective interpretations and responses from the individual being tested. B data refers to behavioral observations or information that is gathered through indirect means, such as self-reports or projective tests, rather than directly observable behaviors. In the case of the Rorschach ink blots, the individual's responses to the ambiguous images are analyzed to gain insights into their thoughts, feelings, and personality traits. Therefore, the statement "Answers to projective tests such as the Rorschach ink blots are considered B data" is true.

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  • 24. 

    The MMPI was designed

    • A.

      To assess individuals with psychological disorders

    • B.

      To assess normal individuals

    • C.

      To identify the Big Five personality factors

    • D.

      To assess Jung's psychological types

    Correct Answer
    A. To assess individuals with psychological disorders
    Explanation
    The MMPI, or Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, is a psychological test that was specifically designed to assess individuals with psychological disorders. It consists of a series of questions that measure various aspects of a person's personality and psychopathology. The test is widely used in clinical settings to aid in the diagnosis and treatment planning for individuals with mental health issues. It is not intended for assessing normal individuals, identifying personality factors such as the Big Five, or assessing Jung's psychological types.

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  • 25. 

    What is the ultimate criterion for judging a measure of personality? 

    • A.

      Whether its reliable

    • B.

      Whether it is internally consistent

    • C.

      Whether it predicts behavior

    • D.

      Whether it has content validity

    Correct Answer
    B. Whether it is internally consistent
    Explanation
    The ultimate criterion for judging a measure of personality is whether it is internally consistent. This means that the items or questions within the measure consistently measure the same construct or trait. If a measure is internally consistent, it suggests that the items are reliable and provide consistent results. It indicates that the measure is measuring what it intends to measure and is a valid tool for assessing personality traits.

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  • 26. 

    According to the text, which projective test appears to have produced evidence that comes close to establishing its validity? 

    • A.

      Draw-a-Person Test

    • B.

      TAT

    • C.

      Buss-Perry Aggression Q-sort

    • D.

      Draw-a-Face test

    Correct Answer
    B. TAT
    Explanation
    The given text does not provide any information about the validity of the Draw-a-Person Test, Buss-Perry Aggression Q-sort, or Draw-a-Face test. However, it suggests that the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) has produced evidence that comes close to establishing its validity.

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  • 27. 

    According to the book personality and assessment, a correlation of .30 is impressive

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the answer being "False" is that a correlation of .30 is not considered impressive according to the book "Personality and Assessment". In general, a correlation of .30 is considered to be a moderate or weak correlation, rather than an impressive one.

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  • 28. 

    If there is a positive correlation between extraversion and risk taking, then the

    • A.

      Researcher can be certain that extraversion causes risk taking

    • B.

      Higher a person's extraversion score, the more risks he or she is likely to take

    • C.

      Lower a person's extraversion score, the more risks he or she is likely to take

    • D.

      Researcher can be certain that extraversion does not cause risk taking

    Correct Answer
    B. Higher a person's extraversion score, the more risks he or she is likely to take
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "higher a person's extraversion score, the more risks he or she is likely to take." This answer suggests that there is a positive correlation between extraversion and risk taking, meaning that as a person's extraversion score increases, their likelihood of taking risks also increases. However, it does not imply that extraversion causes risk taking, as there could be other factors at play.

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  • 29. 

    The improvement is reliabilty gained by adding additoinal "good" test items can be precisely calculated using what formula?

    • A.

      The perason product moment

    • B.

      The alpha

    • C.

      The tucker-lewis

    • D.

      Spearman-brown

    Correct Answer
    C. The tucker-lewis
    Explanation
    The Tucker-Lewis formula is used to calculate the improvement in reliability gained by adding additional "good" test items. This formula takes into account the correlation between the new items and the existing items in the test. By using the Tucker-Lewis formula, one can accurately determine the extent to which reliability is enhanced by including more test items, thus ensuring a more reliable assessment.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following approaches to test construction is the most atheoretical? 

    • A.

      Rational

    • B.

      Factor analytic

    • C.

      Content validation

    • D.

      Empirical

    Correct Answer
    D. Empirical
    Explanation
    The most atheoretical approach to test construction is the empirical approach. This approach focuses on gathering data and evidence through observation and experimentation, without relying on any specific theoretical framework or assumptions. It involves collecting and analyzing data to determine the effectiveness and validity of the test items, without considering any underlying theories or concepts. This approach is often used in fields where there is limited theoretical knowledge or when the goal is to develop a test that is purely based on observed evidence.

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  • 31. 

    In order to improve personality research, researchers can

    • A.

      Check for moderator variables

    • B.

      Predict behavioral trends rather than single acts

    • C.

      Measure behavior in real life

    • D.

      All of the above. Each of these behaviors would be equally easy to predict

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above. Each of these behaviors would be equally easy to predict
    Explanation
    Researchers can improve personality research by checking for moderator variables, predicting behavioral trends rather than single acts, and measuring behavior in real life. Each of these behaviors would be equally easy to predict.

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  • 32. 

    Personality assessment refers to

    • A.

      A treatment for personality disorders

    • B.

      The analysis and interpretatoin of genetic markers of personality

    • C.

      The measurement of any characteristic pattern of behavior, thought, or emotion

    • D.

      The selection of a group of individuals with the most unique temperments

    Correct Answer
    C. The measurement of any characteristic pattern of behavior, thought, or emotion
    Explanation
    Personality assessment refers to the measurement of any characteristic pattern of behavior, thought, or emotion. This means that it involves evaluating and analyzing an individual's traits, attitudes, and behaviors to understand their personality. It is a process of gathering information and using various methods, such as questionnaires, interviews, and observations, to assess and describe a person's unique personality traits and patterns. This assessment helps in understanding individuals better, predicting their behavior, and making informed decisions in various contexts, such as education, employment, and mental health.

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  • 33. 

    Eliminating the use of personality tests in employment screening will

    • A.

      Prevent biases from affecting hiring decisions

    • B.

      Decrease the likelihod that women and minorities will be discrimnated against in hiring

    • C.

      Increase the use of lie detector tests and drug tests in employment screening

    • D.

      Not prevent traits from being judged but will change the way they are judged

    Correct Answer
    D. Not prevent traits from being judged but will change the way they are judged
    Explanation
    Eliminating the use of personality tests in employment screening will not prevent traits from being judged but will change the way they are judged. This means that while personality tests may no longer be used, other methods of evaluating traits and characteristics of job applicants will still be employed. This could include alternative assessments or interviews that focus on different aspects of a candidate's qualifications and suitability for the role. The decision to eliminate personality tests aims to address biases and discrimination, but it does not mean that traits and characteristics will no longer be considered in the hiring process.

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  • 34. 

    It is possible to evaluate personality judgments by acquaintances in basically the same ways that all personality tests are evaluated.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Personality judgments made by acquaintances can be evaluated using the same criteria and methods as other personality tests. This means that the reliability, validity, and accuracy of the judgments can be assessed. Factors such as inter-rater reliability, consistency over time, and the ability to predict behavior can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of both acquaintances' judgments and formal personality tests. Therefore, it is true that personality judgments by acquaintances can be evaluated in the same ways as other personality tests.

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  • 35. 

    What term refers to a limit on the generalizability of a particular research conclusion? 

    • A.

      A threshold condition

    • B.

      A boundary condition

    • C.

      An exclusionary condition

    • D.

      A caveat condition

    Correct Answer
    B. A boundary condition
    Explanation
    A boundary condition refers to a limit on the generalizability of a particular research conclusion. It sets the scope or extent to which the conclusion can be applied or generalized to other contexts or populations. It defines the boundaries within which the conclusion holds true and beyond which it may not be valid.

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  • 36. 

    Sam argues that all inerpretations of reality are equally accurate. What philosophical poistion is Sam advocating? 

    • A.

      The realist

    • B.

      The positivist

    • C.

      The empiricist

    • D.

      The constructivist

    Correct Answer
    D. The constructivist
    Explanation
    Sam is advocating the philosophical position of constructivism. Constructivism holds that interpretations of reality are not objective or fixed, but rather they are constructed by individuals based on their own experiences, perceptions, and social contexts. This perspective emphasizes the subjective nature of reality and the role of human agency in shaping our understanding of the world.

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  • 37. 

    The philosophy of construcitvism is widespread in modern intellectual life.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the philosophy of constructivism is widely accepted and influential in contemporary intellectual circles. This implies that many scholars and thinkers adhere to the principles of constructivism, which emphasizes the active role of individuals in constructing their own knowledge and understanding of the world. The widespread adoption of constructivism in modern intellectual life indicates its significance and relevance in various fields of study.

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  • 38. 

    It is only possible to improve personality accuracy at the utilization stage. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Personality accuracy can be improved at various stages, not just at the utilization stage. Other stages where improvement is possible include the data collection stage, where more accurate and reliable data can be collected, and the analysis stage, where more sophisticated algorithms and techniques can be used to analyze the data and make more accurate personality predictions. Therefore, the statement that it is only possible to improve personality accuracy at the utilization stage is false.

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  • 39. 

    According to Lee Jussim (1991), the source of real-life expectanices is likely

    • A.

      Erroneous stereotypes about groups

    • B.

      Previous observations of behavioral tendencies

    • C.

      Authoritarian personality traits

    • D.

      A cognitive bias to seek in congruent information

    Correct Answer
    B. Previous observations of behavioral tendencies
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that previous observations of behavioral tendencies are likely the source of real-life expectations. This means that individuals form expectations about others based on their past experiences and observations of how people from certain groups tend to behave. These expectations may be influenced by stereotypes, cognitive biases, or authoritarian personality traits, but the primary source is the individual's own past observations.

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  • 40. 

    What are the steps in the Realistic Accuarcy Model (RAM) or personality judgement?

    • A.

      Recall/adjustment/manipulation

    • B.

      Realism/accuracy/manipulation

    • C.

      Recall/activation/matching/detection

    • D.

      Relevance/availability/detection/utilization

    Correct Answer
    D. Relevance/availability/detection/utilization
    Explanation
    The Realistic Accuracy Model (RAM) is a framework used to understand how people form accurate judgments about others' personalities. The steps in this model include relevance, availability, detection, and utilization. Relevance refers to identifying the relevant cues or information about a person's personality. Availability involves accessing and retrieving this information from memory. Detection is the process of accurately perceiving and recognizing these cues. Lastly, utilization involves using the detected cues to form accurate judgments about the person's personality.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following was NOT mentioned as a potential moderator of accuracy?

    • A.

      Qualities of personality judges

    • B.

      Qualities of the target of the judgment

    • C.

      The amount of information available to judges

    • D.

      The age of the target of the judgment

    Correct Answer
    D. The age of the target of the judgment
    Explanation
    The question asks for a potential moderator of accuracy that was NOT mentioned. The options provided include qualities of personality judges, qualities of the target of the judgment, the amount of information available to judges, and the age of the target of the judgment. The correct answer is "the age of the target of the judgment" as it was not mentioned as a potential moderator of accuracy.

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  • 42. 

    Which correlates of delay of gratification were common in both girls and boys?

    • A.

      Being playful, reflective, and reasonable

    • B.

      Being intelligent, competent, and attentive

    • C.

      Being shy, quiet, and complain

    • D.

      Being anxious, resourceful, and emotionally labile

    Correct Answer
    A. Being playful, reflective, and reasonable
    Explanation
    The common correlates of delay of gratification in both girls and boys are being playful, reflective, and reasonable. These traits suggest that individuals who are able to delay gratification are likely to engage in playful activities, think critically about their choices, and make rational decisions based on long-term goals rather than immediate desires. This indicates a level of self-control and the ability to resist immediate rewards for greater future benefits.

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  • 43. 

    Studies using the Q-set suggest that overcontrol might be a risk factor for depression in males but not females.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Q-set studies indicate that overcontrol may increase the likelihood of depression in males, but not in females. This suggests that there may be a gender difference in how overcontrol affects mental health. It is important to note that this finding is based on the Q-set studies, and further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between overcontrol and depression in different genders.

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  • 44. 

    Ego control was related to increased delay of gratification in boys but not girls.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that ego control is related to increased delay of gratification in boys but not in girls. However, the correct answer is False. This means that ego control is not only related to increased delay of gratification in boys, but it is also related to increased delay of gratification in girls.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the Big Five traits appears to be most difficult to understand?

    • A.

      Neuroticism

    • B.

      Extraversion

    • C.

      Psychoticism

    • D.

      Openness

    Correct Answer
    D. Openness
    Explanation
    Openness is the correct answer because it is the trait that is often considered the most complex and difficult to understand. Openness refers to a person's willingness to experience new things, their imagination, and their appreciation for art and beauty. It involves being open-minded, creative, and intellectually curious. This trait can be challenging to comprehend because it encompasses a wide range of characteristics and behaviors that may vary from person to person. Additionally, it is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and cultural factors, making it even more intricate to fully grasp.

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  • 46. 

    The plasticity factor covers both extraversion and openness

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The plasticity factor refers to a personality trait that encompasses both extraversion and openness. Extraversion is characterized by being outgoing and sociable, while openness refers to being open-minded and receptive to new experiences. The plasticity factor combines these two traits, suggesting that individuals who score high on this factor are likely to exhibit both extraverted and open behaviors. Therefore, the statement that the plasticity factor covers both extraversion and openness is true.

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  • 47. 

    What is the best summary of the current state of knowlesge about personality types?

    • A.

      Knowing a person's personality type adds to our ability to predict his or her behavior, beyond what can be predicted by knowing how the person stands on the stands on the traits that define typology

    • B.

      Although types add little for psychometric purposes of measurement and prediction, they still may have value as aids in education and theorizing

    • C.

      There are five basic personality types, each corresponding to one of the Big Five personality

    • D.

      Compared to the trait approach, the typological approach is completely useless for explaining or describing people or behavior.

    Correct Answer
    B. Although types add little for psychometric purposes of measurement and prediction, they still may have value as aids in education and theorizing
    Explanation
    The answer suggests that while personality types may not be very useful for measuring and predicting behavior, they can still be valuable in the context of education and theorizing. This implies that understanding someone's personality type can provide insights and assistance in educational settings and theoretical frameworks, even if it may not be as effective for quantitative measurement and prediction purposes.

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  • 48. 

    If a researcher is using factor analysis to identify traits, then what approach is he likely to favor?

    • A.

      A single-trait approach

    • B.

      A many-trait approach

    • C.

      An essential trait approach

    • D.

      A typological approach

    Correct Answer
    C. An essential trait approach
    Explanation
    In factor analysis, the researcher aims to identify underlying traits or dimensions that explain the observed patterns of correlations among variables. An essential trait approach focuses on identifying the fundamental traits that are necessary to explain the variation in the observed variables. This approach assumes that there are a few key traits that are essential in understanding human behavior or personality. Therefore, a researcher using factor analysis to identify traits would likely favor an essential trait approach as it aligns with their goal of identifying the fundamental traits that explain the observed patterns.

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  • 49. 

    Which Big Five domain captures a tendency toward general psychopathology? 

    • A.

      Psychoticism

    • B.

      Extraversion

    • C.

      Neuroticism

    • D.

      Openness

    Correct Answer
    C. Neuroticism
    Explanation
    Neuroticism captures a tendency toward general psychopathology because it refers to the degree of emotional instability and negative affectivity in an individual. People high in neuroticism are more likely to experience negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, and stress. These individuals are prone to psychological distress and are more vulnerable to developing various mental health disorders. Therefore, neuroticism is the Big Five domain that best captures a tendency toward general psychopathology.

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  • 50. 

    Whicih of the Big Five traits appears to have the most inconsistency in terms of cross-culture replication?

    • A.

      Agreeableness

    • B.

      Extraversion

    • C.

      Psychoticism

    • D.

      Openness

    Correct Answer
    D. Openness
    Explanation
    Openness appears to have the most inconsistency in terms of cross-culture replication. This means that when studying different cultures, researchers have found it difficult to consistently observe and measure the trait of openness. It may vary greatly across cultures, making it challenging to replicate findings consistently.

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