Psych Study Guide: Chapter 11

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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Who developed the first comprehensive theory of personality?

    • A. 

      Hippocrates

    • B. 

      Immanuel Kant

    • C. 

      Sigmund Freud

    • D. 

      Wilhelm Wundt

    Correct Answer
    C. Sigmund Freud
    Explanation
    Sigmund Freud is considered to be the developer of the first comprehensive theory of personality. Freud's psychoanalytic theory proposed that personality is influenced by unconscious desires, conflicts, and experiences from childhood. He introduced concepts such as the id, ego, and superego, and emphasized the importance of early childhood experiences and the role of the unconscious mind in shaping personality. Freud's theories had a significant impact on the field of psychology and laid the foundation for many subsequent theories and approaches to understanding personality.

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  • 2. 

    The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective test ________.

    • A. 

      In which people are presented with ambiguous images

    • B. 

      That employs a series of symmetrical inkblot cards

    • C. 

      That is designed to be culturally relevant to minority groups

    • D. 

      That is similar to a word association test

    Correct Answer
    A. In which people are presented with ambiguous images
    Explanation
    The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective test in which people are presented with ambiguous images. This means that the test involves showing individuals pictures or scenes that do not have a clear or obvious meaning. The purpose of this is to allow the person taking the test to project their own thoughts, feelings, and interpretations onto the images. By analyzing the individual's responses to the images, psychologists can gain insight into their unconscious thoughts, desires, and motivations.

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  • 3. 

    The concept of ________ suggests that people choose to move to places that are compatible with their personalities and needs.

    • A. 

      Discrimination emigration

    • B. 

      Elective immigration

    • C. 

      Personality location

    • D. 

      Selective migration

    Correct Answer
    D. Selective migration
    Explanation
    Selective migration suggests that people choose to move to places that are compatible with their personalities and needs. This means that individuals actively select a location that aligns with their preferences, such as climate, culture, job opportunities, or social environment. It implies that people migrate not only for economic reasons but also for personal satisfaction and well-being. This concept acknowledges the role of individual choice and agency in the decision-making process of migration.

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  • 4. 

    To Freud, the part of the mind that organizes efforts to satisfy basic impulses in ways that avoid social condemnation is the _______.

    • A. 

      Id

    • B. 

      Superego

    • C. 

      Ego

    • D. 

      Preconscious

    Correct Answer
    C. Ego
    Explanation
    The ego, according to Freud, is the part of the mind that balances the desires of the id with the constraints of society. It mediates between the impulsive and unconscious desires of the id and the moral and ethical standards of the superego. The ego aims to satisfy basic impulses in socially acceptable ways, finding compromises that avoid social condemnation. Therefore, the ego is the correct answer in this context.

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  • 5. 

    The ________ approach to the study of personality came about in reaction to the dominance of Western approaches to the study of personality in non-Western settings.

    • A. 

      Culture 

    • B. 

      Feminist

    • C. 

      Indigenous

    • D. 

      TEMAS

    Correct Answer
    C. Indigenous
    Explanation
    The indigenous approach to the study of personality came about in reaction to the dominance of Western approaches to the study of personality in non-Western settings. This approach recognizes the importance of cultural context and seeks to understand personality in a way that is specific to the indigenous cultures being studied. It aims to give voice to indigenous perspectives and challenge the ethnocentric biases present in Western approaches.

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  • 6. 

    ________ theorists attempt to explain our personality by identifying our stable characteristics and ways of behaving.

    • A. 

      Character

    • B. 

      Jungian

    • C. 

      Rorschach

    • D. 

      Trait

    Correct Answer
    D. Trait
    Explanation
    Trait theorists attempt to explain our personality by identifying our stable characteristics and ways of behaving. This approach focuses on the belief that individuals possess certain enduring traits or qualities that influence their behavior across different situations. Trait theory emphasizes the measurement and categorization of these traits to understand and predict human behavior. It suggests that our personality can be described and understood through a set of consistent and stable traits that define our unique characteristics and behaviors.

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  • 7. 

    Who believed that our personality traits are influenced by our genetic inheritance?

    • A. 

      Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud

    • B. 

      Carl Rogers and Karen Horney

    • C. 

      Erik Erikson and Abraham Maslow

    • D. 

      Hans and Sybil Eysenck

    Correct Answer
    D. Hans and Sybil Eysenck
    Explanation
    Hans and Sybil Eysenck believed that our personality traits are influenced by our genetic inheritance.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following psychodynamic theorists supported the view that humans share a collective unconscious?

    • A. 

      Carl Jung

    • B. 

      Karen Horney

    • C. 

      Erik Erikson

    • D. 

      Alfred Adler

    Correct Answer
    A. Carl Jung
    Explanation
    Carl Jung supported the view that humans share a collective unconscious. He believed that there is a deep layer of the unconscious mind that is shared by all individuals, which he called the collective unconscious. According to Jung, this collective unconscious contains universal symbols and archetypes that are inherited and shape our thoughts, behaviors, and experiences. Jung's concept of the collective unconscious is an important aspect of his analytical psychology and distinguishes his theories from other psychodynamic theorists.

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  • 9. 

    ________ describes a proportion of difference among people that is attributed to genetics

    • A. 

      Heritability

    • B. 

      Personality

    • C. 

      Temperament

    • D. 

      Trait

    Correct Answer
    A. Heritability
    Explanation
    Heritability refers to the extent to which genetic factors contribute to individual differences in a trait or characteristic. It measures the proportion of variation in a trait that can be attributed to genetic factors rather than environmental factors. Therefore, heritability describes the proportion of difference among people that is due to genetics. Personality, temperament, and trait are related concepts but do not specifically capture the genetic component of individual differences.

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  • 10. 

    The ________ personality is anxious, self-conscious, artistic, thoughtful, quiet, and private.

    • A. 

      Ectomorph

    • B. 

      Endomorph

    • C. 

      Mesomorph

    • D. 

      Somatomorph

    Correct Answer
    A. Ectomorph
    Explanation
    Ectomorph is the correct answer because this personality type is typically associated with being anxious, self-conscious, artistic, thoughtful, quiet, and private. Ectomorphs are often described as having a lean and delicate body type, which may contribute to their reserved and introspective nature.

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  • 11. 

    Who designed the first comprehensive system of constitutional psychology?

    • A. 

      Abraham Maslow

    • B. 

      Carl Rogers

    • C. 

      Gordon Allport

    • D. 

      William H Sheldon

    Correct Answer
    D. William H Sheldon
    Explanation
    William H Sheldon is the correct answer because he is known for designing the first comprehensive system of constitutional psychology. Sheldon developed a theory called somatotype theory, which classified individuals into three body types: endomorphs, mesomorphs, and ectomorphs. He believed that these body types were associated with different personality traits and psychological characteristics. Sheldon's work was influential in the field of psychology and laid the foundation for further research on the relationship between physical attributes and personality.

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  • 12. 

    ________ is a state of being in which our thoughts about our real and ideal selves are very similar

    • A. 

      Congruence

    • B. 

      Egotism

    • C. 

      Incongruence

    • D. 

      Self-concept

    Correct Answer
    A. Congruence
    Explanation
    Congruence is the state of being in which our thoughts about our real and ideal selves are very similar. This means that there is a harmony between how we perceive ourselves and how we aspire to be. Congruence reflects a positive self-concept and a sense of authenticity, where individuals feel genuine and true to themselves. It is the opposite of incongruence, which refers to a mismatch between our real and ideal selves. Egotism, on the other hand, refers to an excessive focus on oneself and self-importance.

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  • 13. 

    The personality dimensions of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness together constitute the ___.

    • A. 

      Eyssnck Personality Inventory

    • B. 

      IGPF

    • C. 

      Big Five Model of Personality

    • D. 

      MMPI

    Correct Answer
    C. Big Five Model of Personality
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Big Five Model of Personality. The Big Five Model of Personality is a widely accepted framework that categorizes personality traits into five dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. These dimensions are considered to be the fundamental aspects of personality and provide a comprehensive understanding of an individual's personality traits and characteristics. The Big Five Model is extensively used in research, psychology, and personality assessment to study and analyze various aspects of human personality.

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  • 14. 

    Who developed social-cognitive theory?

    • A. 

      Abraham Maslow

    • B. 

      Albert Bandura

    • C. 

      Carl Rogers

    • D. 

      Erik Erikson

    Correct Answer
    B. Albert Bandura
    Explanation
    Albert Bandura is the correct answer because he is the psychologist who developed the social-cognitive theory. This theory suggests that individuals learn through observing others and imitating their behaviors. Bandura's research on observational learning and self-efficacy has had a significant impact on the field of psychology. He proposed that individuals' thoughts, beliefs, and expectations play a crucial role in their behavior and that they can actively shape their own actions and experiences.

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  • 15. 

    Self-efficacy is ________.

    • A. 

      A state of being in which our thoughts about our real and ideal selves are very similar

    • B. 

      Our level of confidence in our own abilities

    • C. 

      A belief that one's environment can determine behavior

    • D. 

      The belief that we have power over our lives

    Correct Answer
    B. Our level of confidence in our own abilities
    Explanation
    Self-efficacy refers to our level of confidence in our own abilities. It is the belief in our capability to successfully execute and accomplish tasks, goals, or challenges. It involves having trust in our skills, knowledge, and capacity to overcome obstacles and achieve desired outcomes. Self-efficacy plays a crucial role in motivation, goal-setting, and perseverance in the face of difficulties. It influences our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, shaping our responses to various situations and determining our overall performance and success in different domains of life.

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  • 16. 

    Allport distinguished between _______, traits (pervasive characteristics that govern behavior), _______ traits (more commonly found general characteristics around which behavior is organized), and _______ traits. (interests or dispositions that influence behavior in specific situations).

    • A. 

      Cardinal, central, secondary

    • B. 

      Secondary, cardinal, central

    • C. 

      Central, secondary, cardinal

    • D. 

      Cardinal, secondary, central

    Correct Answer
    A. Cardinal, central, secondary
    Explanation
    Allport distinguished between cardinal traits, which are pervasive characteristics that govern behavior, central traits, which are more commonly found general characteristics around which behavior is organized, and secondary traits, which are interests or dispositions that influence behavior in specific situations.

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  • 17. 

    Because we have developed certain response tendencies, ________ believed that we demonstrate consistent behavior patterns.

    • A. 

      B. F. Skinner

    • B. 

      Hans Eysenck

    • C. 

      Ivan Pavlov

    • D. 

      Sigmund Freud

    Correct Answer
    A. B. F. Skinner
    Explanation
    B. F. Skinner believed that we demonstrate consistent behavior patterns because of the response tendencies that we have developed. Skinner was a psychologist known for his work on behaviorism, which focused on how external stimuli and reinforcement shape behavior. He believed that our behaviors are influenced by the consequences they produce, and that through conditioning and reinforcement, we develop response tendencies that lead to consistent patterns of behavior. Skinner's theories emphasize the importance of environmental factors in shaping behavior and suggest that our actions are predictable based on the reinforcement we receive.

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  • 18. 

    The ________ refers to the common psychological tendencies that have been passed down from one generation to the next

    • A. 

      Collective unconscious

    • B. 

      Gestalt

    • C. 

      Id

    • D. 

      Ideal self

    Correct Answer
    A. Collective unconscious
    Explanation
    The collective unconscious refers to the common psychological tendencies that have been passed down from one generation to the next. This concept, proposed by Carl Jung, suggests that there are inherited archetypes and symbols that are shared among all individuals, regardless of culture or upbringing. These unconscious elements influence our thoughts, behaviors, and experiences, and can be seen in myths, dreams, and cultural practices. The collective unconscious is seen as a reservoir of shared human experiences and knowledge that shapes our understanding of the world.

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  • 19. 

    Who proposed the locus of control concept?

    • A. 

      Albert Bandura

    • B. 

      Carl Jung

    • C. 

      Julian Rotter

    • D. 

      Walter Mischel

    Correct Answer
    C. Julian Rotter
    Explanation
    Julian Rotter proposed the locus of control concept. The concept refers to an individual's belief about the extent to which they have control over their own lives and the outcomes they experience. People with an internal locus of control believe that they have control over their actions and the consequences, while those with an external locus of control believe that external factors or luck determine their outcomes. Rotter's theory emphasizes the importance of individual beliefs and expectations in shaping behavior and outcomes.

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  • 20. 

    An archetype is a ________.

    • A. 

      Balance of opposing forces within one's personality

    • B. 

      Collective consciousness

    • C. 

      Feeling that one lacks worth and doesn't measure up to the standards of others or of society

    • D. 

      Pattern that exists in our collective unconscious across cultures and societies

    Correct Answer
    D. Pattern that exists in our collective unconscious across cultures and societies
    Explanation
    An archetype is a pattern that exists in our collective unconscious across cultures and societies. Archetypes are universal symbols or themes that are present in the myths, stories, and beliefs of different cultures throughout history. They represent fundamental aspects of the human experience and are often associated with specific roles or characters, such as the hero, the mother, or the trickster. These archetypal patterns help us understand and interpret the world around us, as they tap into deep-seated, shared human experiences and emotions.

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  • 21. 

    Who suggested that men have womb envy because they cannot give birth?

    • A. 

      Abraham Maslow

    • B. 

      Carl Jung

    • C. 

      Karen Horney

    • D. 

      Sigmund Freud

    Correct Answer
    C. Karen Horney
    Explanation
    Karen Horney suggested that men have womb envy because they cannot give birth. She was a prominent psychoanalyst who focused on the psychological development of women and challenged Freud's theories on female psychology. Horney believed that men, feeling inferior due to their inability to bear children, developed envy towards women's reproductive capabilities. This concept of womb envy was Horney's way of challenging Freud's theory of penis envy, which suggested that women were envious of men's reproductive organs.

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  • 22. 

    Carl Jung’s view of extroverted and introverted types serves as a basis of the ________.

    • A. 

      Collective unconscious

    • B. 

      Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    • C. 

      Rorschach Inkblot Test

    • D. 

      Tell-me-a-story Thematic Apperception Test (TEMAS) 

    Correct Answer
    B. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    Explanation
    Carl Jung's view of extroverted and introverted types serves as a basis for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a psychological tool that assesses personality based on various dimensions, including extraversion and introversion. Jung's concepts of extroversion and introversion provided the foundation for the development of this indicator, which categorizes individuals into different personality types based on their preferences for perceiving and judging the world.

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  • 23. 

    Bandura proposed the principle of _______ determinism, which is the belief that cognitions, behaviors, and environmental factors mutually influence each other

    • A. 

      Social

    • B. 

      Modeling

    • C. 

      Reciprocal

    • D. 

      Behavioral

    Correct Answer
    C. Reciprocal
    Explanation
    Bandura proposed the principle of reciprocal determinism, which suggests that cognitions, behaviors, and environmental factors all have a mutual influence on each other. This means that our thoughts, actions, and the environment we are in all interact and impact one another, creating a dynamic and reciprocal relationship. This principle emphasizes the bidirectional nature of influence, highlighting that our behavior can shape our environment and vice versa, and that our thoughts and beliefs can also influence our behavior and the environment we choose to be in.

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  • 24. 

    Carl Jung referred to the ________ as the mask we adopt

    • A. 

      Id

    • B. 

      Ideal self

    • C. 

      Persona

    • D. 

      Superego

    Correct Answer
    C. Persona
    Explanation
    Carl Jung referred to the persona as the mask we adopt. The persona represents the social mask or the role that an individual presents to the outside world. It is the public image or identity that we create to fit into society and to meet the expectations and demands of others. The persona helps us navigate social interactions and maintain a certain image or reputation. It is not the true self but rather a constructed identity that may differ from our inner thoughts, feelings, and desires.

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  • 25. 

    A(an) ________ complex refers to the feeling that one lacks worth and doesn’t measure up to the standards of others or of society

    • A. 

      Freudian

    • B. 

      Inferiority

    • C. 

      Neurotic

    • D. 

      Psychosocial

    Correct Answer
    B. Inferiority
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "inferiority." This refers to a complex in which an individual feels inadequate and believes that they do not meet the expectations or standards set by others or society. This feeling of lacking worth can lead to low self-esteem and a constant comparison to others, resulting in a sense of inferiority.

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  • 26. 

    An early science that tried to correlate personality with measurements of parts of a person’s skull is known as ________.

    • A. 

      Phrenology

    • B. 

      Psychology

    • C. 

      Physiology

    • D. 

      Personality psychology

    Correct Answer
    A. Phrenology
    Explanation
    Phrenology is the correct answer because it refers to the early science that attempted to establish a relationship between a person's personality and the measurements of different parts of their skull. This pseudoscience believed that the shape and size of specific areas of the skull were indicative of a person's character traits and mental abilities. While phrenology has been discredited and is no longer considered a valid scientific approach, it played a significant role in the development of modern psychology.

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  • 27. 

    A(an) ________ locus of control is the belief that our outcomes are outside of our control; an ________ locus of control is the belief that we control our own outcomes

    • A. 

      Congruent; incongruent

    • B. 

      External; internal 

    • C. 

      Internal; external

    • D. 

      Real; ideal

    Correct Answer
    B. External; internal 
    Explanation
    An external locus of control is the belief that our outcomes are outside of our control, while an internal locus of control is the belief that we control our own outcomes.

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  • 28. 

    In Hippocrates theory of personality, what bodily humor was most associated with choleric temperament?

    • A. 

      Black bile from the kidneys

    • B. 

      Red blood from the heart

    • C. 

      White mucous from the lungs

    • D. 

      Yellow bile from the liver

    Correct Answer
    D. Yellow bile from the liver
    Explanation
    According to Hippocrates theory of personality, the bodily humor most associated with choleric temperament is yellow bile from the liver. The theory suggests that an excess of yellow bile in the body leads to a choleric temperament, which is characterized by aggression, irritability, and a tendency towards anger.

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  • 29. 

    Asa is buying a gift for his mother, an overbearing woman who is difficult to please. When a clerk asks him who he is shopping for he replies, “my smother” instead of “my mother.” What does this best exemplify?

    • A. 

      Archetype

    • B. 

      Collective unconscious

    • C. 

      Freudian slip

    • D. 

      Repressed memory

    Correct Answer
    C. Freudian slip
    Explanation
    This best exemplifies a Freudian slip. A Freudian slip is when a person unintentionally says something that reveals their subconscious thoughts or desires. In this case, Asa's slip of the tongue by saying "my smother" instead of "my mother" could suggest that he has feelings of being overwhelmed or suffocated by his mother's overbearing nature.

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  • 30. 

    The traits openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism are key components of the ________.

    • A. 

      Five Factor Model

    • B. 

      Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

    • C. 

      TEMAS Multicultural Thematic Apperception Test

    • D. 

      Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 

    Correct Answer
    A. Five Factor Model
    Explanation
    The traits openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism are key components of the Five Factor Model. This model is a widely accepted framework used to describe and measure personality traits. It suggests that these five dimensions capture the majority of individual differences in personality. Openness refers to being open to new experiences and ideas, conscientiousness refers to being organized and responsible, extroversion refers to being outgoing and sociable, agreeableness refers to being cooperative and empathetic, and neuroticism refers to being prone to negative emotions. The Five Factor Model provides a comprehensive understanding of personality and is widely used in research and assessment.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is the best definition of archetype?

    • A. 

      The self-aware part of the personality that organizes goal-seeking efforts

    • B. 

      A constellation of personality traits characteristic of a particular stage of psychosexual development

    • C. 

      A relatively enduring personal characteristic

    • D. 

      A primitive image that reflects ancestral or universal human experience

    Correct Answer
    D. A primitive image that reflects ancestral or universal human experience
    Explanation
    An archetype is a primitive image that reflects ancestral or universal human experience. It represents a universal pattern or symbol that is deeply ingrained in the collective unconscious of humanity. Archetypes are often found in myths, fairy tales, and religious texts, and they serve as a common foundation for understanding and interpreting human experiences and behaviors across different cultures and time periods. They tap into deep-seated emotions and instincts that are shared by all humans, making them powerful and relatable symbols.

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  • 32. 

    Sigmund Freud suggested that people who are dominated by their ________ might be narcissistic and impulsive

    • A. 

      Ego

    • B. 

      Id

    • C. 

      Superego

    • D. 

      Unconscious

    Correct Answer
    B. Id
    Explanation
    Sigmund Freud proposed that individuals who are dominated by their id might display narcissistic and impulsive tendencies. The id represents the primitive and instinctual part of the mind, seeking immediate gratification and pleasure without considering the consequences or societal norms. Therefore, individuals who are primarily driven by their id may prioritize their own desires and act impulsively, potentially exhibiting narcissistic behaviors as they focus on their own needs and disregard others.

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  • 33. 

    The ________ uses images and storytelling that relate to Hispanic culture

    • A. 

      Five Factor Model

    • B. 

      Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 

    • C. 

      TEMAS Multicultural Thematic Apperception Test

    • D. 

      Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 

    Correct Answer
    C. TEMAS Multicultural Thematic Apperception Test
    Explanation
    The TEMAS Multicultural Thematic Apperception Test is a psychological assessment tool that specifically focuses on multicultural themes, including Hispanic culture. It uses images and storytelling to explore an individual's thoughts, feelings, and attitudes towards various cultural aspects. This makes it an appropriate choice for assessing individuals from Hispanic backgrounds or those who have a strong connection to Hispanic culture.

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  • 34. 

    Ina can no longer read the street signs, but she refuses to admit she needs glasses to drive. Which defense mechanism does this exemplify?

    • A. 

      Denial

    • B. 

      Displacement

    • C. 

      Rationalization

    • D. 

      Rejection

    Correct Answer
    A. Denial
    Explanation
    Ina's refusal to admit that she needs glasses to drive despite not being able to read street signs exemplifies the defense mechanism of denial. Denial is a psychological defense mechanism in which a person refuses to acknowledge or accept a reality or truth that causes discomfort or anxiety. In this case, Ina is likely experiencing anxiety or discomfort about needing glasses, so she denies the problem altogether.

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  • 35. 

    Using an iceberg analogy, the tip of the iceberg is most like which level of consciousness in Freud’s theory?

    • A. 

      Preconscious

    • B. 

      Unconscious

    • C. 

      Ego

    • D. 

      Conscious

    Correct Answer
    D. Conscious
    Explanation
    In Freud's theory, the tip of the iceberg is often used to represent the conscious level of consciousness. This is because the conscious mind contains thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that we are aware of in our everyday lives. Just like the tip of the iceberg is visible above the water, the conscious mind is accessible and within our awareness. It is the level of consciousness where we process information, make decisions, and engage in rational thinking.

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  • 36. 

    According to Galen, the ________ person is passionate, ambitious, and bold

    • A. 

      Choleric

    • B. 

      Melancholic

    • C. 

      Phlegmatic

    • D. 

      Sanguine

    Correct Answer
    A. Choleric
    Explanation
    According to Galen, the choleric person is passionate, ambitious, and bold. This temperament is characterized by a fiery and dominant nature, with a tendency to be assertive and driven. Cholerics are often seen as strong-willed individuals who are motivated to achieve their goals and take charge of situations. They are known for their enthusiasm and determination, making them passionate and ambitious in their pursuits. Additionally, their boldness allows them to take risks and make decisions with confidence.

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  • 37. 

    After Allen does not get the job he interviewed for, he moves back in with his parents and spends his days playing video games. Which defense mechanism does this exemplify?

    • A. 

      Reaction formation

    • B. 

      Regression 

    • C. 

      Repression

    • D. 

      Sublimation

    Correct Answer
    B. Regression 
    Explanation
    Regression is a defense mechanism that involves reverting back to an earlier stage of development in order to cope with stress or anxiety. In this scenario, Allen moves back in with his parents and spends his days playing video games, which can be seen as a regressive behavior. This behavior allows him to retreat to a more comfortable and familiar environment (living with parents) and engage in an activity (playing video games) that provides him with a sense of escape and enjoyment.

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  • 38. 

    Dr. Grimes conducts a ________ by requesting that his patient respond to ambiguous stimuli, thus revealing hidden feelings, impulses, and desires.

    • A. 

      Projective test

    • B. 

      Psychoanalysis

    • C. 

      Self-report inventory

    • D. 

      Trait analysis

    Correct Answer
    A. Projective test
    Explanation
    A projective test is a psychological assessment tool used by Dr. Grimes to uncover hidden feelings, impulses, and desires in his patient. This type of test involves presenting ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or pictures, and analyzing the patient's responses to gain insight into their unconscious thoughts and emotions. Unlike other options like psychoanalysis, self-report inventory, or trait analysis, projective tests allow for a more indirect and subjective exploration of the patient's inner world.

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  • 39. 

    According to Sigmund Freud, an adult who smokes, drinks, overeats, or bites her nails is fixated in the ________ stage of her psychosexual development.

    • A. 

      Anal

    • B. 

      Genital

    • C. 

      Oral

    • D. 

      Phallic

    Correct Answer
    C. Oral
    Explanation
    According to Sigmund Freud's psychosexual development theory, the oral stage occurs from birth to around 18 months. During this stage, pleasure is derived from activities related to the mouth, such as sucking, biting, and chewing. If an adult engages in behaviors like smoking, drinking, overeating, or nail-biting, it suggests fixation at the oral stage. This means that they may have unresolved conflicts or unresolved oral needs from their early childhood, leading to the continuation of oral-focused behaviors in adulthood.

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  • 40. 

    Stable and enduring personal characteristics are called ___.

    • A. 

      Habits

    • B. 

      Tendencies

    • C. 

      Traits

    • D. 

      Types

    Correct Answer
    C. Traits
    Explanation
    Traits are stable and enduring personal characteristics that define an individual's behavior and personality. They are consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that remain relatively stable over time and across different situations. Unlike habits, which are specific actions or behaviors that are repeated regularly, traits encompass a broader range of characteristics that shape an individual's overall personality. Tendencies and types are not as accurate as traits in describing stable and enduring personal characteristics.

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  • 41. 

    The ________ is composed of a series of true and false questions in order to establish an individual’s clinical profile.

    • A. 

      Contemporized-Themes Concerning Blacks Test (C-TCB) 

    • B. 

      Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 

    • C. 

      Rorschach Inkblot Test

    • D. 

      TEMAS Multicultural Thematic Apperception Test

    Correct Answer
    B. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 
    Explanation
    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a psychological assessment tool that consists of a series of true and false questions. It is used to evaluate an individual's clinical profile and assess their personality traits, psychopathology, and mental health. The MMPI is widely used in clinical settings and research studies to provide valuable information about an individual's psychological functioning.

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  • 42. 

    According to Freud, if parents are too lenient in the ________ stage, the child might become messy, careless, disorganized, and prone to emotional outbursts

    • A. 

      Anal

    • B. 

      Genital

    • C. 

      Oral

    • D. 

      Phallic

    Correct Answer
    A. Anal
    Explanation
    Freud believed that during the anal stage of psychosexual development, which occurs between the ages of 1 to 3 years, parents play a crucial role in shaping a child's personality. If parents are too lenient during this stage, the child may not develop proper toilet training and self-control. This can lead to the child becoming messy, careless, disorganized, and prone to emotional outbursts.

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  • 43. 

    College students who throw temper tantrums often display ___.

    • A. 

      Repression

    • B. 

      Regression

    • C. 

      Projection

    • D. 

      Displacement

    Correct Answer
    B. Regression
    Explanation
    When college students throw temper tantrums, they often display regression. Regression refers to a defense mechanism where individuals revert to behaving in a more immature or childlike manner when faced with stress or frustration. In this context, throwing temper tantrums can be seen as a form of regressing to a more childish behavior as a way to cope with their emotions.

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  • 44. 

    The ________ Inkblot Test employs a series of symmetrical inkblot cards that are presented to a client by a psychologist in an effort to reveal the person’s unconscious desires, fears, and struggles

    • A. 

      Julian Rotter

    • B. 

      Rorschach

    • C. 

      TAT

    • D. 

      TEMAS

    Correct Answer
    B. Rorschach
    Explanation
    The Rorschach Inkblot Test is a psychological assessment tool that uses symmetrical inkblot cards to uncover a person's unconscious desires, fears, and struggles. It is administered by a psychologist to gain insight into a client's thought processes, emotions, and personality traits. The test relies on the client's interpretation of the inkblots, which can provide valuable information about their psychological state and underlying issues.

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  • 45. 

    During which period are sexual feelings dormant as children focus on other pursuits, such as school, friendships, hobbies, and sports?

    • A. 

      Anal

    • B. 

      Genital

    • C. 

      Latency

    • D. 

      Phallic

    Correct Answer
    C. Latency
    Explanation
    The correct answer is latency. During the latency period, sexual feelings are dormant as children focus on other pursuits such as school, friendships, hobbies, and sports. This is a stage in psychosexual development described by Sigmund Freud, where sexual energy is sublimated into other activities and children are not actively exploring their sexuality.

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  • 46. 

    The ________ Concerning Blacks Test is a projective test designed to be culturally relevant to African-Americans, using images that relate to African-American culture.

    • A. 

      Contemporary Sterotypes

    • B. 

      Contemporized-Themes

    • C. 

      Cultural Themes

    • D. 

      Thematic Subjects

    Correct Answer
    B. Contemporized-Themes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Contemporized-Themes." This is because the question states that the test is designed to be culturally relevant to African-Americans, using images that relate to African-American culture. "Contemporized-Themes" suggests that the test incorporates modern or updated themes that are relevant to the current time period, while still being culturally specific to African-Americans. This implies that the test utilizes images and concepts that are familiar and relatable to African-Americans in contemporary society.

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  • 47. 

    Your textbook defines personality as___________.

    • A. 

      The long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways.

    • B. 

      The complex of characteristics that distinguishes an individual or a nation or group.

    • C. 

      The complex of all the attributes—behavioral, temperament, emotional and mental—that characterize a unique individual.

    • D. 

      An assumed role or manner of behavior that makes a person or thing distinct from another.

    Correct Answer
    A. The long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways.
    Explanation
    Personality is defined in the textbook as the long-standing traits and patterns that drive individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways. This definition emphasizes the enduring nature of personality, suggesting that it is not easily changed and remains consistent over time. It also highlights the idea that personality influences various aspects of an individual's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, providing a comprehensive understanding of what personality entails.

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  • 48. 

    In Freud’s ________ stage, there is a sexual reawakening as the incestuous urges resurface. The young person redirects these urges to other, more socially acceptable partners (who often resemble the other-sex parent).

    • A. 

      Anal

    • B. 

      Gential

    • C. 

      Oral 

    • D. 

      Phallic

    Correct Answer
    B. Gential
    Explanation
    In Freud's genital stage, there is a sexual reawakening as the incestuous urges resurface. The young person redirects these urges to other, more socially acceptable partners (who often resemble the other-sex parent). This stage is characterized by the development of sexual attraction towards others and the formation of mature, adult relationships. It is considered the final stage of psychosexual development according to Freud's theory.

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  • 49. 

    Karen Horney suggested ways in which people typically cope with day-to-day problems. According to Horney, these strategies could ________ if used rigidly and compulsively.

    • A. 

      Become neurotic strategies

    • B. 

      Lose their effectiveness

    • C. 

      Result in a complete mental breakdown

    • D. 

      Result in obsessive-complusive behavior

    Correct Answer
    A. Become neurotic strategies
    Explanation
    Karen Horney proposed that when people rigidly and compulsively employ certain coping mechanisms to deal with everyday problems, these strategies can become neurotic. This means that instead of effectively addressing the issues at hand, these strategies can become excessive, unhealthy, and counterproductive, leading to increased psychological distress and dysfunction.

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  • 50. 

    Ingrid is energized by being alone, speaks slowly and softly, and avoids attention. Carl Jung would call her a(an) ________.

    • A. 

      Extrovert

    • B. 

      Humanist

    • C. 

      Introvert

    • D. 

      Neo-Freudian

    Correct Answer
    C. Introvert
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, Ingrid is energized by being alone, speaks slowly and softly, and avoids attention. These traits align with the characteristics of an introvert. Introverts tend to gain energy from spending time alone, prefer quieter and more thoughtful communication styles, and often avoid being the center of attention. Therefore, Carl Jung would classify Ingrid as an introvert.

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