Quiz 1 - Respiratory Disorder

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Quiz 1 - Respiratory Disorder - Quiz

Read each question carefully and consider all possible answer. Thenselect the most appropriate and best answer.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the cells is called

    • A.

      Osmosis

    • B.

      Cellular respiration

    • C.

      External respiration

    • D.

      Breathing

    Correct Answer
    B. Cellular respiration
    Explanation
    Cellular respiration is the correct answer because it refers to the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose and release carbon dioxide as a waste product. During cellular respiration, oxygen is taken in by the cells and carbon dioxide is released. This exchange of gases occurs within the cells, making cellular respiration the appropriate term for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within cells.

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  • 2. 

    The cover of cartilage that automatically closes when you swallow to act as a protector of the larynx is the

    • A.

      Epiglottis

    • B.

      Glottis

    • C.

      Trachea

    • D.

      Pharynx

    Correct Answer
    A. Epiglottis
    Explanation
    The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage located at the base of the tongue that automatically closes when you swallow. Its main function is to cover the opening of the larynx, or voice box, to prevent food and liquid from entering the airway. This helps to protect the larynx and prevent choking. The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords within the larynx, the trachea is the windpipe that connects the larynx to the lungs, and the pharynx is the throat that connects the nasal and oral cavities to the esophagus and larynx.

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  • 3. 

    Protective mechanisms of the upper airway include all of the following except

    • A.

      Cough reflex

    • B.

      Cilia

    • C.

      Swallow reflex

    • D.

      Mucus

    Correct Answer
    C. Swallow reflex
    Explanation
    The swallow reflex is not a protective mechanism of the upper airway. Instead, it is a reflex that helps in the process of swallowing food and liquids, ensuring they pass safely from the mouth to the esophagus and into the stomach. The other options listed, such as the cough reflex, cilia, and mucus, are all protective mechanisms of the upper airway. The cough reflex helps to expel foreign objects or irritants from the airway, while cilia and mucus work together to trap and remove particles, bacteria, and viruses from the respiratory tract.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following structures has the responsibility ofwarming air as it enters the body?

    • A.

      Cilia

    • B.

      Turbinates

    • C.

      Mucus

    • D.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    B. Turbinates
    Explanation
    Turbinates are structures in the nasal cavity that have the responsibility of warming air as it enters the body. The turbinates are lined with a rich blood supply and have a large surface area, which allows them to warm the air through heat exchange before it reaches the lungs. This helps to prevent damage to the delicate lung tissue by ensuring that the air is at the appropriate temperature before it is inhaled.

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  • 5. 

    The surfactant's function is to

    • A.

      Prevent alveolar walls from collapsing during inspiration and expiration

    • B.

      Prevent the trachea's cartilaginous rings from closing during expiration

    • C.

      Provide increased blood flow to the alveolar walls to enhance oxygenation of the body

    • D.

      Provide more mucus to the lungs to allow bacteria to be trapped in this mucus and to be eliminated from the lower respiratory tract

    Correct Answer
    A. Prevent alveolar walls from collapsing during inspiration and expiration
    Explanation
    Surfactant is a substance produced by the alveolar cells in the lungs. Its main function is to reduce surface tension in the alveoli, which helps to prevent the collapse of the alveolar walls during both inspiration and expiration. This allows for efficient gas exchange in the lungs and helps to maintain the structure and function of the alveoli.

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  • 6. 

    Which portion of the respiratory tract is a more common site for aspiration of foreign objects?

    • A.

      Trachea

    • B.

      Left bronchus

    • C.

      Right bronchus

    • D.

      Bronchioles

    Correct Answer
    C. Right bronchus
    Explanation
    The right bronchus is a more common site for the aspiration of foreign objects because it is wider and more vertical compared to the left bronchus. This anatomy makes it easier for objects to enter and become lodged in the right bronchus, leading to potential blockage and respiratory complications.

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  • 7. 

    How many lobes does the right lung have?

    • A.

      One

    • B.

      Two

    • C.

      Three

    • D.

      Four

    Correct Answer
    C. Three
    Explanation
    The right lung has three lobes. The lungs are divided into lobes, with the right lung being larger and having three lobes (upper, middle, and lower lobes) compared to the left lung, which has two lobes (upper and lower lobes). This division allows for efficient oxygen exchange and helps with the functioning of the respiratory system.

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  • 8. 

    The layer of serous membrane that covers the lung tissue is the

    • A.

      Pleural cavity

    • B.

      Visceral pleura

    • C.

      Parietal pleura

    • D.

      Respiratory pleura

    Correct Answer
    B. Visceral pleura
    Explanation
    The visceral pleura is the correct answer because it is the layer of serous membrane that covers the lung tissue. The visceral pleura is the inner layer of the pleura, which is a membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the chest cavity. It is closely attached to the lung tissue and provides protection and lubrication for the lungs during respiration.

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  • 9. 

    The portion of the brain that controls respiration is the

    • A.

      Cerebrum

    • B.

      Hypothalamus

    • C.

      Pons

    • D.

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    D. Medulla
    Explanation
    The medulla is the portion of the brain that controls respiration. It is located in the brainstem and is responsible for regulating and controlling essential bodily functions, including breathing. The medulla contains specialized nerve cells that send signals to the muscles involved in respiration, allowing us to inhale and exhale. Damage to the medulla can result in respiratory problems and difficulties in breathing.

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  • 10. 

    What term is defined as the amount of air inhaled or expired during normal respiration?

    • A.

      Tidal volume

    • B.

      Residual volume

    • C.

      Total lung volume

    • D.

      Minute ventilation

    Correct Answer
    A. Tidal volume
    Explanation
    Tidal volume is the correct answer because it refers to the amount of air that is inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing. It represents the normal amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs with each breath, without any extra effort or force. Tidal volume is an important measurement in assessing lung function and is typically around 500 mL in adults.

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  • 11. 

    The elderly are more prone to respiratory infection because

    • A.

      They have decreased elasticity ofthe lungs and bronchioles

    • B.

      They have decreased elasticity ofthe lungs and bronchioles

    • C.

      They have decreased ciliary action

    • D.

      They have decreased secretions of mucus in the respiratory tract lining

    • E.

      AU of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. AU of the above
    Explanation
    The elderly are more prone to respiratory infections because they experience a combination of factors that increase their susceptibility. Firstly, they have decreased elasticity of the lungs and bronchioles, which can lead to decreased lung function and difficulty in clearing out pathogens. Additionally, they have decreased ciliary action, which impairs the ability of the respiratory tract to remove mucus and trapped particles. Lastly, there is a decrease in the secretion of mucus in the respiratory tract lining, which further compromises the defense mechanisms against infections. All these factors combined make the elderly more vulnerable to respiratory infections.

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  • 12. 

    Interventions to assist the elderly person with decreased respiratory system function would include all ofthe following except

    • A.

      Increased contact with children to enhance the elderly person's immunity against illness

    • B.

      Changing the elderly person's position slowly to avoid orthostatic hypotension

    • C.

      Encouraging the elderly person to perform daily exercises to promote good ventilation

    • D.

      Teaching the elderly person the signs and symptoms for which to watch that are indicative of a respiratory infection

    Correct Answer
    A. Increased contact with children to enhance the elderly person's immunity against illness
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because increased contact with children does not directly address the issue of decreased respiratory system function. While it may enhance the elderly person's immunity against illness, it does not specifically target the respiratory system or address the symptoms or complications associated with decreased respiratory function. The other options, on the other hand, are all interventions that can help improve respiratory function or prevent complications.

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  • 13. 

    In an adult client, which of the following would be considered eupneic?

    • A.

      A respiratory rate of 8 and labored

    • B.

      A respiratory rate of 12 and shallow

    • C.

      A respiratory rate of 16 and normal

    • D.

      A respiratory rate of22 and normal

    Correct Answer
    C. A respiratory rate of 16 and normal
    Explanation
    A respiratory rate of 16 and normal would be considered eupneic in an adult client. Eupnea refers to normal, unlabored breathing. A respiratory rate of 16 falls within the normal range for adults, which is typically between 12 and 20 breaths per minute. Additionally, if the breathing is normal and not labored, it indicates that the client is able to breathe comfortably and efficiently.

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  • 14. 

    The major breathing stimulus in a healthy adult is

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Carbon dioxide

    • C.

      Bicarbonate

    • D.

      PH

    Correct Answer
    B. Carbon dioxide
    Explanation
    The major breathing stimulus in a healthy adult is carbon dioxide. When carbon dioxide levels in the blood increase, the body responds by increasing the rate and depth of breathing in order to remove the excess carbon dioxide and restore a balance. This is known as the respiratory drive. Oxygen levels in the blood also play a role in regulating breathing, but carbon dioxide is the primary stimulus. Bicarbonate and pH levels are important for maintaining the acid-base balance in the body, but they do not directly stimulate breathing.

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  • 15. 

    In the elderly, there is a decline in the respiratory system. These functional changes would include all of the following except

    • A.

      A decrease in the number of alveoli

    • B.

      Decreased chest wall size

    • C.

      Increased rigidity of the thorax

    • D.

      Increased cough

    Correct Answer
    D. Increased cough
    Explanation
    As people age, their respiratory system undergoes various changes. These changes can include a decrease in the number of alveoli, decreased chest wall size, and increased rigidity of the thorax. However, it is not typical for aging to cause an increased cough. Therefore, the correct answer is "Increased cough."

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  • 16. 

    Which is not a protective reflex of the respiratory system?

    • A.

      Yawn

    • B.

      Cough

    • C.

      Sneeze

    • D.

      Mucuz

    Correct Answer
    D. Mucuz
    Explanation
    Mucuz is not a protective reflex of the respiratory system. Yawning helps to increase oxygen intake and regulate carbon dioxide levels. Coughing helps to clear the airways of irritants or foreign particles. Sneezing is a reflex to expel irritants from the nasal passages. However, there is no such reflex called "mucuz" in the respiratory system.

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  • 17. 

    A condition that can cause an increased total lung capacity, a decreased vital capacity, and an increased functional residual capacity is

    • A.

      Pregnancy

    • B.

      Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    • C.

      ESRD

    • D.

      Pneumonia

    Correct Answer
    B. Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    Explanation
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a condition characterized by the obstruction of airflow in the lungs, leading to difficulty in breathing. This obstruction can cause an increased total lung capacity, as the lungs may become hyperinflated due to trapped air. However, the vital capacity, which is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a deep inhalation, is decreased in COPD due to the reduced ability of the lungs to expand and contract effectively. Additionally, COPD can also lead to an increased functional residual capacity, which is the amount of air that remains in the lungs after a normal exhalation.

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  • 18. 

    Most of the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the alveoli occurs via

    • A.

      Filtration

    • B.

      Diffusion

    • C.

      Carbonic acid formation

    • D.

      Osmosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Diffusion
    Explanation
    In the alveoli, the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs through diffusion. Diffusion is the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. In this case, oxygen moves from the alveoli, where its concentration is higher, to the bloodstream, where its concentration is lower. Similarly, carbon dioxide moves from the bloodstream, where its concentration is higher, to the alveoli, where its concentration is lower. Diffusion is the most efficient and effective mechanism for this gas exchange to occur.

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  • 19. 

    All of the following can cause decreased gas exchange in the lungs except

    • A.

      Immobility

    • B.

      Pneumonia

    • C.

      Cough and deep breathing

    • D.

      Smoking

    Correct Answer
    C. Cough and deep breathing
    Explanation
    Coughing and deep breathing actually promote gas exchange in the lungs by helping to clear mucus and increase the flow of air in and out of the lungs. Immobility can cause decreased gas exchange by reducing the movement of the chest wall and limiting the expansion of the lungs. Pneumonia can cause inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs, impairing gas exchange. Smoking damages the airways and can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which can greatly decrease gas exchange.

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  • 20. 

    After a bronchoscopy, the client can have liquids when

    • A.

      He has regular eupneic respirations.

    • B.

      He is oriented to time, place, and person.

    • C.

      His gag reflex has returned.

    • D.

      He can hold a glass.

    Correct Answer
    C. His gag reflex has returned.
    Explanation
    After a bronchoscopy, the client is usually advised to avoid eating or drinking until their gag reflex has returned. This is because the procedure can temporarily impair the gag reflex, which is important for preventing choking or aspiration. Once the gag reflex has returned, it indicates that the client's airway is protected and they are able to safely swallow liquids without the risk of aspiration. Therefore, the client can have liquids when his gag reflex has returned.

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  • 21. 

    You, the nurse, tests positive for a PPD tuberculin test. This result means that you most likely

    • A.

      Have active TB

    • B.

      Have been exposed to the bacillus

    • C.

      Are allergic to the purified protein used in the test

    • D.

      Have a suppressed immunte system

    Correct Answer
    B. Have been exposed to the bacillus
    Explanation
    A positive PPD tuberculin test indicates that the individual has been exposed to the bacillus that causes tuberculosis (TB). It does not necessarily mean that the person has active TB or is allergic to the purified protein used in the test. It also does not indicate whether the person has a suppressed immune system. Therefore, the most likely explanation for a positive PPD test is that the person has been exposed to the TB bacillus.

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  • 22. 

    Puncture of the abdominal cavity to aspirate fluid is called

    • A.

      Thoracentesis

    • B.

      Paracentesis

    • C.

      Thoracotomy

    • D.

      Abdominoplasty

    Correct Answer
    B. Paracentesis
    Explanation
    Paracentesis is the correct answer because it refers to the puncture of the abdominal cavity to aspirate fluid. This procedure is commonly performed to remove excess fluid that has accumulated in the peritoneal cavity, which can be caused by conditions such as ascites or infection. Thoracentesis, on the other hand, involves puncturing the pleural cavity to remove fluid or air from around the lungs. Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure to open the chest cavity, and abdominoplasty is a cosmetic surgery procedure to reshape and firm the abdomen.

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  • 23. 

    Mr. Henry is a 85-year-old man who comes in for a routine medical visit. He is at high risk for contracting influenza. Which of the following should the nurse encourage Mr. Henry to do to best prevent an occurrence of influenza?

    • A.

      Wash his hands frequently when in public places.

    • B.

      Visit healthcare facilities only during the morning hours.

    • C.

      Obtain a flu vaccine every fall.

    • D.

      Wear gloves when caring for sick children.

    Correct Answer
    C. Obtain a flu vaccine every fall.
    Explanation
    The nurse should encourage Mr. Henry to obtain a flu vaccine every fall because it is the most effective way to prevent influenza. Washing hands frequently in public places can help reduce the spread of germs, but it is not specific to preventing influenza. Visiting healthcare facilities only during the morning hours may reduce exposure to sick individuals, but it does not directly prevent influenza. Wearing gloves when caring for sick children can help prevent the spread of germs, but it is not a comprehensive preventive measure for influenza. Therefore, obtaining a flu vaccine every fall is the best option for Mr. Henry to prevent influenza.

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  • 24. 

    In a patient who is high risk for aspiration pneumonia, which of the following statement is most likely correct?

    • A.

      The right trachea is shorter than the left.

    • B.

      The left trachea is shorter than the right.

    • C.

      The bronchial tree does not expand.

    • D.

      Epiglottis is open when the patient is swallowing to facilitate breathing.

    Correct Answer
    A. The right trachea is shorter than the left.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the right trachea is shorter than the left. This is because the right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left main bronchus. This anatomical difference makes the right lung more susceptible to aspiration pneumonia because it is easier for foreign substances to enter the right lung.

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  • 25. 

    Biots respiration which is irregular with sudden periods of apnea is commonly seen in?

    • A.

      Severe Brain Pathology

    • B.

      Metabolic Acidosis

    • C.

      Neurologic Disorders

    • D.

      Empysema

    Correct Answer
    C. Neurologic Disorders
    Explanation
    Biots respiration, also known as ataxic respiration, is characterized by irregular breathing with sudden periods of apnea. It is commonly seen in neurologic disorders such as brainstem lesions or damage, as well as conditions affecting the respiratory centers in the brain. Severe brain pathology can also cause neurologic disorders, so it is not the specific answer in this case. Metabolic acidosis and emphysema are not typically associated with Biots respiration.

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  • 26. 

    It is a diagnostic test and procedure where pleural fluid is aspirated and examined for pathogens and other abnormal components as well as malignancy.

    • A.

      Thoracentesis

    • B.

      Paracentesis

    • C.

      Bronchoscopy

    • D.

      Fluoroscopy

    Correct Answer
    A. Thoracentesis
    Explanation
    Thoracentesis is a diagnostic procedure that involves the aspiration of pleural fluid from the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This fluid is then examined for the presence of pathogens, abnormal components, and malignancy. It is commonly performed to diagnose and treat conditions such as pleural effusion, pneumonia, and lung cancer. By analyzing the pleural fluid, healthcare professionals can determine the underlying cause of the patient's symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

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  • 27. 

    For the above procedure, what would be your priority in teaching the patient for him to observe during the procedure?

    • A.

      Importance of not moving or coughing during the procedure.

    • B.

      Monitoring of skin color

    • C.

      Importance of following -up on the result after 48-72 hoors.

    • D.

      Check dressing for bleeding.

    Correct Answer
    A. Importance of not moving or coughing during the procedure.
    Explanation
    During the procedure, it is important for the patient to not move or cough. Moving or coughing can disrupt the procedure and may lead to complications or inaccurate results. By emphasizing the importance of not moving or coughing, the patient will understand the need for stillness and cooperate accordingly, ensuring a successful and accurate procedure.

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  • 28. 

    It is an instrument that measures the ventilatory function of the lung. It measures the volume of air that the lung can hold, the rate of flow of air in and out of the lung, and the compliance of the lung tissue.

    • A.

      Spirometry

    • B.

      Spirometer

    • C.

      Oxygen flowmeter

    • D.

      Pulmonary Function Tests

    Correct Answer
    B. Spirometer
    Explanation
    A spirometer is an instrument used to measure the ventilatory function of the lungs. It measures various aspects of lung function, including the volume of air that the lungs can hold, the rate of airflow in and out of the lungs, and the compliance of the lung tissue. This information is important in diagnosing and monitoring respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary fibrosis. A spirometer is commonly used in pulmonary function tests to assess lung health and to evaluate the effectiveness of respiratory treatments.

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  • 29. 

    Complications ofthoracentesis includes except: 

    • A.

      Air Embolism

    • B.

      Hemothorax

    • C.

      Pneumothorax

    • D.

      Peripheral edema

    Correct Answer
    D. Peripheral edema
    Explanation
    Thoracentesis is a procedure in which a needle is inserted into the pleural space to remove fluid or air. Complications of thoracentesis can include air embolism, hemothorax, and pneumothorax. However, peripheral edema is not a complication of thoracentesis. Peripheral edema refers to swelling in the extremities and is not directly related to the procedure.

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  • 30. 

    A test that determine past or present exposure to tuberculosis. A patient who has been vaccinated with BCG will test positive on this regardless of actual exposure.

    • A.

      Lung Scan

    • B.

      Bronchoscopy

    • C.

      Tuberculin Skin test (PPD)

    • D.

      Chest Radiography

    Correct Answer
    C. Tuberculin Skin test (PPD)
    Explanation
    The Tuberculin Skin test (PPD) is the correct answer because it is a test that can determine past or present exposure to tuberculosis. It works by injecting a small amount of purified protein derivative (PPD) into the skin and then observing the reaction. If the patient has been vaccinated with BCG, they will test positive on this regardless of actual exposure to tuberculosis. This is because BCG vaccination can cause a false positive result on the test.

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  • Oct 10, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Aug 21, 2012
    Quiz Created by
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