Psychology - Life Span - Chapter 4

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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Psychology 237 Life Span


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The embryo has all the basic organs and body parts (except sex organs) at approximately how many weeks after conception?

    • A.

      1 week

    • B.

      4 weeks

    • C.

      6 weeks

    • D.

      8 weeks

    • E.

      10 weeks

    Correct Answer
    D. 8 weeks
    Explanation
    By approximately 8 weeks after conception, the embryo has developed all its basic organs and body parts, excluding the sex organs. This period marks a significant milestone in embryonic development, as the major structures and systems have formed, although they may not be fully functional yet. At this stage, the embryo is about the size of a grape and continues to grow and develop throughout the pregnancy.

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  • 2. 

    All of the following occur during the germinal period, except:

    • A.

      Cell differentiation

    • B.

      Organ formation

    • C.

      Implantation

    • D.

      Formation of inner and outer cell masses

    Correct Answer
    B. Organ formation
    Explanation
    During the germinal period, which is the first two weeks of pregnancy, the fertilized egg undergoes rapid cell division and forms a blastocyst. This period is characterized by the formation of inner and outer cell masses, which will later develop into the embryo and the placenta. Implantation, the process by which the blastocyst attaches to the uterine lining, also occurs during this period. However, organ formation does not occur during the germinal period. It takes place during the embryonic period, which follows the germinal period and lasts from week 3 to week 8 of pregnancy.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following happens during the germinal period?

    • A.

      Formation of the neural tube

    • B.

      The blastocyst becomes an embryo

    • C.

      Implantation

    • D.

      The indifferent gonad differentiates

    Correct Answer
    C. Implantation
    Explanation
    During the germinal period, implantation occurs. This is the process in which the blastocyst, a structure formed by the division of the fertilized egg, attaches itself to the uterine lining. Implantation is a crucial step for the development of the embryo as it allows for the exchange of nutrients and waste between the mother and the developing fetus. The other options mentioned, such as the formation of the neural tube, the blastocyst becoming an embryo, and the differentiation of the indifferent gonad, occur during later stages of embryonic development.

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  • 4. 

    Of the following factors, which is the most crucial in determining whether a preterm newborn will survive?

    • A.

      Race

    • B.

      Gestational maturity

    • C.

      Method of delivery

    • D.

      Race

    Correct Answer
    B. Gestational maturity
    Explanation
    Gestational maturity is the most crucial factor in determining whether a preterm newborn will survive. This is because the level of development and readiness of the baby's organs and systems to function outside of the womb greatly affects their chances of survival. Babies born before 37 weeks of gestation are considered preterm and may require medical interventions and specialized care to support their underdeveloped bodies. Therefore, gestational maturity plays a significant role in the survival of preterm newborns.

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  • 5. 

    The critical difference between a preterm baby and a full-term newborn is:

    • A.

      The maturation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems

    • B.

      The amount of weight gain

    • C.

      The maturation of the skeletal system

    • D.

      The possibility of life outside the uterus

    Correct Answer
    A. The maturation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems
    Explanation
    The critical difference between a preterm baby and a full-term newborn is the maturation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Preterm babies are born before these systems have fully developed, making them more susceptible to respiratory and cardiovascular complications. Full-term newborns, on the other hand, have matured respiratory and cardiovascular systems, allowing them to breathe and circulate blood effectively. This is why preterm babies often require specialized medical care and monitoring to support their respiratory and cardiovascular functions.

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  • 6. 

    The development of new connections between brain cells is called:

    • A.

      Carcinogenesis

    • B.

      Neurogenesis

    • C.

      Synaptogenesis

    • D.

      Myelination

    Correct Answer
    C. Synaptogenesis
    Explanation
    Synaptogenesis refers to the process of forming new connections between brain cells, also known as synapses. During this process, neurons extend their axons and dendrites to establish connections with other neurons, allowing for communication and information transfer in the brain. Carcinogenesis, on the other hand, refers to the development of cancer cells, neurogenesis is the formation of new neurons, and myelination is the process of forming a protective covering around nerve fibers.

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  • 7. 

    How many newborns have major structural anomalies?

    • A.

      1 %

    • B.

      3 %

    • C.

      5 %

    • D.

      10 %

    Correct Answer
    B. 3 %
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 3%. This means that out of all newborns, 3% of them have major structural anomalies. This percentage indicates a relatively small proportion of newborns being affected by such anomalies.

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  • 8. 

    Certain teratogens are relatively harmless in small doses but become harmful once exposure reaches a certain level. This is called:

    • A.

      The critical period

    • B.

      Postpartum depression

    • C.

      Kangaroo care

    • D.

      The threshold effect

    Correct Answer
    D. The threshold effect
    Explanation
    The threshold effect refers to the phenomenon where certain teratogens, substances or factors that can cause birth defects, are harmless in small doses but become harmful once exposure reaches a certain level. In other words, there is a threshold or limit beyond which the teratogen starts to have negative effects on the developing fetus. This concept highlights the importance of understanding the dosage and timing of exposure to teratogens in order to minimize potential harm during pregnancy.

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  • 9. 

    The risk of malformed limbs is greatest if a pregnant woman takes thalidomide:

    • A.

      Before she conceives

    • B.

      During the sixth and seventh weeks of pregnancy

    • C.

      During the pregnancy's second trimester

    • D.

      At the end of the fetal period

    Correct Answer
    B. During the sixth and seventh weeks of pregnancy
    Explanation
    During the sixth and seventh weeks of pregnancy, the fetus undergoes critical development of its limbs. Thalidomide is known to interfere with the normal formation of limbs, leading to malformations such as missing or shortened limbs. Therefore, if a pregnant woman takes thalidomide during this specific time period, the risk of malformed limbs is highest. Taking thalidomide before conceiving or during the second trimester may still pose risks, but the risk is greatest during the sixth and seventh weeks when limb development is occurring.

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  • 10. 

    The occurrence of neural tube defects has decreased in all countries that:

    • A.

      Fund prenatal care

    • B.

      Encourage women to take prenatal vitamins

    • C.

      Fortify various foods with folic acid

    • D.

      Require warning labels on medications that may be teratogenic

    Correct Answer
    C. Fortify various foods with folic acid
    Explanation
    Fortifying various foods with folic acid has led to a decrease in the occurrence of neural tube defects in all countries. Folic acid is essential for the development of the neural tube in the fetus, and its deficiency can lead to defects such as spina bifida. By fortifying foods with folic acid, the population's overall intake of this nutrient increases, reducing the risk of neural tube defects. This measure is effective in preventing these birth defects and has been implemented in many countries as a public health strategy.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following statements regarding genetic vulnerability and sex is true?

    • A.

      More females than males are spontaneously aborted

    • B.

      More females than males will have birth defects

    • C.

      More females than males will have birth defects

    • D.

      More males than females will have learning disabilities

    Correct Answer
    D. More males than females will have learning disabilities
    Explanation
    The statement "More males than females will have learning disabilities" is true. Research has shown that males are more likely to be diagnosed with learning disabilities such as dyslexia, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorders. This difference in prevalence between males and females suggests a genetic vulnerability that may contribute to the development of these conditions. However, it is important to note that this does not mean that all males will have learning disabilities or that no females will have them. The statement simply highlights a higher likelihood of learning disabilities in males.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following postconception testing has greatly contributed to the survival rate of twins?

    • A.

      Alpha-fetoprotein assay

    • B.

      Chorionic villi sampling

    • C.

      Amniocentesis

    • D.

      Sonogram

    Correct Answer
    D. Sonogram
    Explanation
    Sonogram is the correct answer because it is a prenatal imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of the fetus in the womb. It is commonly used to monitor the development and health of twins during pregnancy. Sonograms can help identify any complications or abnormalities early on, allowing for appropriate medical intervention and increasing the chances of survival for both twins.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following postconception testing methods is associated with the greatest risk of spontaneous abortion?

    • A.

      Alpha-fetoprotein assay

    • B.

      Chorionic villi sampling

    • C.

      Amniocentesis

    • D.

      Sonogram

    Correct Answer
    B. Chorionic villi sampling
    Explanation
    Chorionic villi sampling is associated with the greatest risk of spontaneous abortion. This procedure involves the removal of a small sample of placental tissue for genetic testing. It carries a slightly higher risk of miscarriage compared to other postconception testing methods such as alpha-fetoprotein assay, amniocentesis, and sonogram.

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  • 14. 

    The results of prenatal tests:

    • A.

      Rarely lead to the termination of a pregnancy

    • B.

      Are inaccurate 50% of the time

    • C.

      Performed early in pregnancy suggest that more tests are needed about 20% of the time

    • D.

      Show in false positives so frequently that testing prior to the third trimester is becomingly increasingly rare

    Correct Answer
    C. Performed early in pregnancy suggest that more tests are needed about 20% of the time
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that prenatal tests performed early in pregnancy indicate that additional tests are necessary approximately 20% of the time. This implies that the initial tests may not provide a conclusive result, and further testing is required to obtain more accurate information about the pregnancy.

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  • 15. 

    A doula is a woman who:

    • A.

      Is pregnant for the first time

    • B.

      Helps with the birthing process

    • C.

      Helps couples with infertility problems

    • D.

      Counsels women with postpartum depression

    Correct Answer
    B. Helps with the birthing process
    Explanation
    A doula is a woman who assists and supports women during the birthing process. Doulas provide emotional, physical, and informational support to expectant mothers before, during, and after childbirth. They help with pain management techniques, provide comfort and reassurance, and advocate for the mother's birth preferences. Doulas do not necessarily need to be pregnant themselves or have experienced childbirth, but they are trained professionals who specialize in supporting women during labor and delivery.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following Apgar scores indicates that a newborn is in critical condition?

    • A.

      7

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    D. 4
    Explanation
    An Apgar score is used to assess the health of a newborn immediately after birth. It evaluates the baby's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color. A score of 4 on the Apgar scale indicates that the newborn is in critical condition. This score suggests that the baby has a weak heart rate, minimal respiratory effort, floppy muscle tone, and a pale or blue color. Immediate medical intervention is required to stabilize the newborn's condition.

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  • 17. 

    The Apgar scale measures all of the following, except:

    • A.

      Heart rate

    • B.

      Color

    • C.

      Respiratory effect

    • D.

      Size

    Correct Answer
    D. Size
    Explanation
    The Apgar scale is a scoring system used to assess the physical condition of a newborn immediately after birth. It evaluates five vital signs: heart rate, color, respiratory effect, muscle tone, and reflex irritability. However, the size of the newborn is not included in the Apgar scale. This is because the size of the baby is not considered a direct indicator of their physical condition or immediate health after birth.

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  • 18. 

    How many hours of active labor occurs, on average, before first births?

    • A.

      2 hours

    • B.

      4 hours

    • C.

      16 hours

    • D.

      12 hours

    Correct Answer
    D. 12 hours
    Explanation
    On average, 12 hours of active labor occurs before first births. This means that most women experience around 12 hours of active contractions and cervical dilation before delivering their first baby. It is important to note that this is an average, and individual experiences may vary. Some women may have shorter labor durations, while others may have longer ones.

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  • 19. 

    Every psychoactive drug:

    • A.

      Is a teratogen

    • B.

      Increases the risk of complications during pregnancy such as preeclampsia

    • C.

      Crosses the placenta

    • D.

      interferences with organ development

    Correct Answer
    C. Crosses the placenta
    Explanation
    Every psychoactive drug crosses the placenta. This means that when a pregnant woman takes a psychoactive drug, it can pass through the placenta and reach the developing fetus. This is significant because the drug can potentially affect the fetus's development and health. It is important for pregnant women to be cautious about taking any psychoactive drugs, as they can have harmful effects on the unborn child.

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  • 20. 

    Assisted reproductive technology has increased the rate of:

    • A.

      SGA (small for gestational age)

    • B.

      LBW (low birthweight)

    • C.

      Anoxia

    • D.

      Toxoplasmosis

    Correct Answer
    B. LBW (low birthweight)
    Explanation
    Assisted reproductive technology refers to medical procedures used to help couples conceive a child. These procedures, such as in vitro fertilization, can result in an increased rate of low birthweight (LBW) babies. LBW refers to babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). This can be attributed to various factors associated with assisted reproductive technology, such as multiple pregnancies, premature birth, and other complications. Therefore, the correct answer is LBW (low birthweight).

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  • 21. 

    The rate of low birthweight among Mexican Americans:

    • A.

      Is higher than that of other groups in that United States

    • B.

      Is lower than the lower overall rate in the United States

    • C.

      Is comparable to that of African Americans

    • D.

      Demonstrates the importance of proper prenatal care

    Correct Answer
    B. Is lower than the lower overall rate in the United States
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the rate of low birthweight among Mexican Americans is lower than the lower overall rate in the United States. This suggests that Mexican Americans have a relatively lower rate of low birthweight compared to the general population in the United States.

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  • 22. 

    What percentage of women experience postpartum depression?

    • A.

      Under 5 %

    • B.

      8 - 10 %

    • C.

      15 - 20 %

    • D.

      25 %

    Correct Answer
    B. 8 - 10 %
    Explanation
    Approximately 8-10% of women experience postpartum depression. This means that out of every 100 women who give birth, around 8 to 10 will develop postpartum depression. This condition can occur after childbirth and is characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion. It is important to recognize and address postpartum depression to ensure the well-being of both the mother and the baby.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 05, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Nursing_student
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