Psychology Of Learning And Memory

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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 312
Questions: 20 | Attempts: 317

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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Psychology of Learning vocab words


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A tendency for individuals to become more confident of an errant decision following positive feedback

    Explanation
    Confirmation bias refers to the tendency of individuals to seek out and interpret information in a way that confirms their preexisting beliefs or biases. In this context, the given correct answer suggests that individuals are more likely to become more confident in their incorrect decision when they receive positive feedback. This bias occurs because people tend to selectively focus on information that supports their initial decision and ignore or downplay contradictory evidence. This can lead to a reinforcement of their erroneous beliefs and a lack of willingness to consider alternative perspectives or correct their mistakes.

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  • 2. 

    A form of memory that reflects events from the individual's past that includes specific contextual details

    Explanation
    Autobiographical memory refers to a type of memory that involves recalling events and experiences from one's own life, including specific contextual details. It allows individuals to remember personal experiences, such as birthdays, vacations, or significant life events, and is often associated with emotions and self-awareness. This type of memory is unique to each individual and plays a crucial role in shaping one's identity and sense of self.

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  • 3. 

    A form of memory that reflects events from the individual's past but lacks specific contextual details

    Explanation
    Personal semantic memory refers to a type of memory that contains general knowledge and facts about oneself, such as personal experiences and autobiographical information. It is a form of memory that reflects events from the individual's past but lacks specific contextual details. This means that while the memory may include information about past events, it may not include specific details about when or where the events occurred. Personal semantic memory is distinct from episodic memory, which includes specific details and contextual information about past events.

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  • 4. 

    A paradigm where individuals are given a word and asked to recall a related autobiographical memory

    Explanation
    The Galton cueing method refers to a paradigm where individuals are given a word and asked to recall a related autobiographical memory. This method involves using a cue, such as a word, to trigger the retrieval of specific memories from one's own life experiences. By providing a prompt, individuals are encouraged to recall and share personal memories that are associated with the given word. This technique can be useful in studying autobiographical memory and understanding how individuals retrieve and recall specific events from their past.

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  • 5. 

    The finding that recall of autobiographical memories tends to be centered around the late teens and early 20's

    Explanation
    The term "reminiscence bump" refers to the finding that people tend to have a better recall of autobiographical memories from their late teens and early 20s. This period is often associated with significant life transitions, such as leaving home, starting college, or beginning a career, which may lead to more vivid and memorable experiences. The reminiscence bump suggests that memories formed during this time period are more easily accessible and can be recalled with greater detail compared to memories from other stages of life.

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  • 6. 

    The finding that individuals often cannot report specific events that occurred before age 2

    Explanation
    Infantile amnesia refers to the phenomenon where individuals are unable to recall specific events that occurred before the age of 2. This finding suggests that early memories are not stored or retrieved in the same way as later memories. It is believed that the brain structures and processes responsible for memory formation and retrieval are not fully developed during infancy. Therefore, memories formed during this period may not be retained or accessible in adulthood, leading to the inability to report specific events from early childhood.

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  • 7. 

    A task used to study illusory memory that involves encoding semtanically related lists of words

    Explanation
    The DRM paradigm is a task used to study illusory memory that involves encoding semantically related lists of words. In this task, participants are presented with a list of words that are all related to a non-presented critical word. Later, participants are asked to recall or recognize the words they were shown. The DRM paradigm is used to investigate how semantic associations can lead to false memories, as participants often incorrectly recall or recognize the critical word that was not actually presented.

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  • 8. 

    A task used to study the malleability of eyewitness memory that involves presenting a video or series of slides followed by a written description of the event

    Explanation
    The misinformation paradigm is a task used to study the malleability of eyewitness memory. It involves presenting a video or series of slides followed by a written description of the event. This paradigm explores how the introduction of misleading information can alter an individual's memory and perception of the original event. It demonstrates the potential for memory distortion and the influence of external factors on memory recall.

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  • 9. 

    A task used to study the confirmation bias effect in eyewitness identification

    Explanation
    The post identification feedback paradigm is a task used to study the confirmation bias effect in eyewitness identification. This paradigm involves providing feedback to the eyewitness after they have made their identification, which can influence their confidence in their choice and potentially lead to memory distortion. The feedback can be either confirming (positive) or disconfirming (negative) and is used to examine how this feedback affects the eyewitness's memory and subsequent confidence in their identification. This paradigm helps researchers understand the impact of post-identification feedback on eyewitness accuracy and the potential for bias in identification processes.

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  • 10. 

    A task that is used to study memory for remote events that asks individuals to recall episodes from specific periods of life

    Explanation
    An autobiographical memory schedule is a task that is used to study memory for remote events. It asks individuals to recall episodes from specific periods of life. This schedule helps in examining and understanding the autobiographical memory of individuals by prompting them to recall specific events and details from their past. It aids in studying how memory for remote events is encoded, stored, and retrieved, providing insights into the functioning of autobiographical memory.

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  • 11. 

    A method of testing eyewitness identification that involves the presentation of a single individual in a forced choice format

    Explanation
    A "showup" is a method of testing eyewitness identification that involves presenting a single individual to the witness in a forced choice format. In this method, the witness is shown only one person, typically the suspect, and asked to determine if they are the perpetrator or not. This is different from a lineup or photo array where multiple individuals are shown simultaneously. The purpose of a showup is to quickly assess the witness's ability to identify the suspect, but it may also carry a higher risk of bias and false identification due to the lack of alternative choices.

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  • 12. 

    A method of testing eyewitness identification that involves the presentation of several individuals (5+) in a recognition format

    Explanation
    A lineup is a method of testing eyewitness identification that involves presenting several individuals in a recognition format. This means that the eyewitness is shown a group of people, typically five or more, and is asked to identify the person they believe they saw during the crime or incident. The lineup is used to determine the accuracy of the eyewitness's identification and is often conducted by law enforcement agencies during criminal investigations.

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  • 13. 

    The finding that memory accuracy and confidence are often weakly correlated in studies of eyewitness memory

    Explanation
    The accuracy/confidence paradox refers to the phenomenon where there is a weak correlation between memory accuracy and confidence in studies of eyewitness memory. This means that individuals may be highly confident in their memories, but their accuracy in recalling details may be low. This paradox challenges the assumption that confidence is a reliable indicator of memory accuracy. It suggests that individuals may be influenced by factors such as post-event misinformation or their own biases, leading to overconfidence in their memories.

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  • 14. 

    Amnesia that causes greater loss of memories for events that occurred recently before a trauma than for events that occurred more remotely in the past

    Explanation
    Temporally graded retrograde amnesia refers to a type of amnesia where there is a greater loss of memories for events that occurred recently before a trauma compared to events that occurred further back in the past. This means that the individual may have difficulty recalling recent memories, but memories from the more distant past may still be intact. This phenomenon suggests that the brain's ability to consolidate and retrieve memories may be affected differently depending on the timing of the events.

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  • 15. 

    Hypothesis proposed by Ribot that the likelihood that a particular memory will be lost due to injury is inversely related to the time elapsed between the event to be remembered and the injury

    Explanation
    The law of regression, proposed by Ribot, suggests that the probability of losing a specific memory due to injury decreases as the time between the event and the injury increases. In other words, memories that are more recent are more likely to be lost compared to memories that occurred further in the past. This concept implies that older memories are more resistant to injury-induced forgetting.

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  • 16. 

    The negative influence of materials learned after a target item on subsequent memory for the target event

    Explanation
    Retroactive interference refers to the phenomenon where newly learned information interferes with the recall or retention of previously learned information. In this context, the negative influence of materials learned after a target item on subsequent memory for the target event suggests that the newly learned materials are causing interference with the recall or retention of the target item. This interference can lead to forgetting or reduced memory performance for the target event.

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  • 17. 

    Sudden and severe disruption of the representation of relationships between items in an existing memory network

    Explanation
    Catastrophic interference refers to the sudden and severe disruption of the representation of relationships between items in an existing memory network. This phenomenon occurs when new information is learned and interferes with the retrieval of previously stored information, leading to a loss or degradation of the original memory. It can be seen as a limitation of the human memory system, where the capacity to retain and recall information is limited, and interference from new learning can cause significant disruptions in the existing memory network.

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  • 18. 

    To undergo an active process through which a new and initially changeable or labile memory becomes permanent

    Explanation
    Consolidation refers to the process in which a new and initially changeable memory becomes permanent. It involves the strengthening and stabilizing of memories, making them more resistant to forgetting. During consolidation, the memory traces are reorganized and integrated into the existing knowledge network of the brain. This process typically occurs during sleep and is crucial for long-term memory formation.

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  • 19. 

    A form of consolidation that involves alterations of our knowledge networks through complex interactions between brain structures lasting for weeks to years after learning experiences

    Explanation
    The correct answer is reorganization. This term refers to a process of consolidation where our knowledge networks are altered through complex interactions between brain structures. This reorganization can occur over a period of weeks to years after learning experiences. In other words, it is a form of restructuring or rearranging our existing knowledge to incorporate new information and make it more accessible in our minds.

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  • 20. 

    Loss of memories formed prior to the onset of amnesia

    Explanation
    Retrograde amnesia refers to the loss of memories that were formed before the onset of amnesia. This means that individuals with retrograde amnesia have difficulty recalling events, information, or experiences that occurred prior to the development of their amnesia. It is important to note that retrograde amnesia can vary in severity and duration, with some individuals experiencing a complete loss of memories while others may only have partial or temporary impairments in memory recall.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 05, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Kelseyeve
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