Psyc 248, Learning And Memory

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Psyc 248, Learning And Memory - Quiz


Psyc 248 Review for Exam 1. Learning and memory early lectures.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    An organism is born with

    Explanation
    Innate knowledge refers to the knowledge or abilities that an organism possesses from birth, without the need for learning or experience. This knowledge is believed to be instinctual and is often related to survival and basic behaviors. It is present in an organism from the moment of its birth, indicating that it is not acquired or learned over time. This concept suggests that certain behaviors or abilities are genetically programmed into an organism's DNA, allowing them to be exhibited without prior exposure or training.

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  • 2. 

    Learning is...

    • A.

      What an organism is born with

    • B.

      The permanent records that underlie this adaptation

    • C.

      The process of adaptation of behavior to experience

    Correct Answer
    C. The process of adaptation of behavior to experience
  • 3. 

    Memory is...

    • A.

      Refers to the permanent records that underlie this adaptation (begins when the brain can change)

    • B.

      What an organism is born with

    • C.

      The process of adaptation of behavior to experience

    Correct Answer
    A. Refers to the permanent records that underlie this adaptation (begins when the brain can change)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Refers to the permanent records that underlie this adaptation (begins when the brain can change)". This answer suggests that memory is related to the permanent records that are formed in the brain as a result of adaptation and learning. It implies that memory begins when the brain is capable of change, indicating that it is a process that involves the storage and retrieval of information in the brain.

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  • 4. 

    In the _______ perspective, event leads to a change in behavior

    Correct Answer
    Learning
    Explanation
    In the learning perspective, events are believed to lead to a change in behavior. This perspective focuses on how individuals acquire new knowledge, skills, or behaviors through experiences and interactions with their environment. It suggests that behavior is influenced by the consequences that follow it, such as rewards or punishments. Therefore, learning is seen as a process of acquiring and modifying behaviors based on the outcomes of previous experiences.

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  • 5. 

    What does the learning perspective focus on?

    Correct Answer
    Simple tasks...pavlovian conditioning has built in reflexes, operant conditioning does as well
    Explanation
    The learning perspective focuses on simple tasks and how they can be learned through different forms of conditioning. Pavlovian conditioning, also known as classical conditioning, involves the learning of reflexive behaviors through association. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, involves learning through consequences and rewards. Both forms of conditioning play a role in learning simple tasks.

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  • 6. 

    What is memory perspective and what does it use?

  • 7. 

    The learning perspective uses____. Why?

    Correct Answer
    animals...because environment is in control and there is the belief that laws of learning apply to ALL animals
    Explanation
    The learning perspective uses animals because it believes that the environment plays a significant role in shaping behavior, and it assumes that the laws of learning apply universally to all animals. This perspective emphasizes the importance of studying animal behavior in order to understand the principles of learning and apply them to human behavior as well. By studying animals, researchers can gain valuable insights into the processes of learning and behavior, and apply those findings to a wider range of species, including humans.

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  • 8. 

    Memory perspective uses____. Why?

    Correct Answer
    Humans...we care more about humans, language stimuli
    Explanation
    The memory perspective uses humans and language stimuli because humans are the primary focus of study in psychology and understanding how language affects memory is crucial in comprehending human cognitive processes. By studying how humans process and retain information, researchers can gain insights into memory formation, retrieval, and overall cognitive functioning. Language stimuli are particularly important as they provide a means of encoding information into memory and can significantly influence how we remember and recall events, experiences, and knowledge.

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  • 9. 

    Explain Associationistic Approach and when it is used

  • 10. 

    Circle the supporting item(s) of inhibition hypothesis (NOTE: there can be more than 1)

    • A.

      Forgetting conditioning

    • B.

      Stimulus-Compounding

    • C.

      Spontaneous Recovery

    • D.

      Acquisition

    • E.

      Disinhibition

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Stimulus-Compounding
    C. Spontaneous Recovery
    E. Disinhibition
    Explanation
    The inhibition hypothesis suggests that forgetting conditioning can occur due to several factors, including stimulus-compounding, spontaneous recovery, and disinhibition. Stimulus-compounding refers to the process of combining multiple conditioned stimuli, which can lead to a decrease in the strength of the original conditioned response. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest. Disinhibition occurs when the inhibitory effect of one stimulus is weakened by the introduction of another stimulus. These supporting items provide evidence for the inhibition hypothesis and explain how forgetting conditioning can occur.

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  • 11. 

    Disinhibition effect is closely identified as...

    • A.

      Phase 1. tone --> shock+fear, Phase 2. Tone + light - shock, Phase 3. Light + buzzer - shock...light=conditioned inhibitor of fear

    • B.

      S-R view, stimulus-response, S-S view, stimulus-stimulus

    • C.

      A distraction, it's a general tendency to stop what you're doing with strong and unexpected stimuli (light+food-->saliviation....light-->salivation...BAM!!! salivation stops! unexpected stimulus!)

    • D.

      Phase 1. buzzer...light Phase 2. light ... food --> salivation (leads to light-->salivation) Phase 3. Buzzer... ? (salivation or no salivation?)

    Correct Answer
    C. A distraction, it's a general tendency to stop what you're doing with strong and unexpected stimuli (light+food-->saliviation....light-->salivation...BAM!!! salivation stops! unexpected stimulus!)
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that the disinhibition effect is a general tendency to stop what you're doing when strong and unexpected stimuli occur. It provides an example of how salivation stops when a strong and unexpected stimulus, such as a light, is presented after a conditioned stimulus, like food. This unexpected stimulus disrupts the conditioned response, leading to the inhibition of salivation.

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  • 12. 

    Stimulus-compounding experiments

  • 13. 

    S-R view is when __ (N, UCS, CS, UCR, CR) --> __

    Correct Answer
    CS --> CR Example, tone (CS) --> salivation (CR) Learns tone means to salivate Konorski
    Explanation
    The given answer correctly states that in the S-R view, the conditioned stimulus (CS) leads to the conditioned response (CR). This is exemplified by the example of tone (CS) leading to salivation (CR). According to Konorski, in this view, the organism learns that the CS (tone) is associated with the CR (salivation) and therefore, the tone becomes a signal for the salivation response.

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  • 14. 

    S-S view is when __ (N, UCS, CS, UCR, CR) --> __

    Correct Answer
    CS (tone) --> US (food) Learns tone means to get food -Sensory Pre-Cond. (salivate to buzzer)
    Explanation
    This answer correctly identifies the process of classical conditioning. In this scenario, the CS (tone) becomes associated with the US (food) through repeated pairing, resulting in the learner associating the tone with the expectation of getting food. This is an example of sensory preconditioning, where a neutral stimulus (buzzer) is first paired with an unconditioned stimulus (food), and then the neutral stimulus (now CS) is paired with another unconditioned stimulus (tone) to create the association.

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  • 15. 

    Steps to Sensory Pre-Conditioning Experiment

  • 16. 

    Explain Konorski's (1948) second-order conditioning experiment

  • 17. 

    In Konorski's Second-Order conditioning experiments which type of learning is typically performed?

    • A.

      Stimulus-stimulus

    • B.

      Stimulus-response

    Correct Answer
    B. Stimulus-response
    Explanation
    In Konorski's Second-Order conditioning experiments, the type of learning typically performed is stimulus-response. This means that a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit a conditioned response (CR). In second-order conditioning, a new stimulus (CS2) is paired with the previously conditioned stimulus (CS1) to elicit the conditioned response (CR) without the presence of the original unconditioned stimulus (US). This demonstrates that the conditioned response can be transferred or generalized to a new stimulus through association.

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  • 18. 

    In Pre-conditioning experiments, which type learning association is generally correct?

    • A.

      Stimulus-stimulus

    • B.

      Stimulus-response

    Correct Answer
    A. Stimulus-stimulus
    Explanation
    In pre-conditioning experiments, the correct type of learning association is generally stimulus-stimulus. This means that the learning occurs through the association between two stimuli, such as a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. This type of learning is often used in classical conditioning experiments, where a neutral stimulus is paired with a meaningful stimulus to elicit a response. In contrast, stimulus-response learning involves the association between a stimulus and a specific response, which is more commonly seen in operant conditioning experiments.

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  • 19. 

    Contiguity is best associated with which word?

    Correct Answer
    Explanation
    Contiguity is best associated with the word "proximity". Contiguity refers to the state of being adjacent or touching, and proximity refers to the closeness or nearness of something. Both terms emphasize the idea of things being physically close or connected to each other.

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  • 20. 

    Pavlov believed that in order to get conditioning you have to have the ___ and ___ occur at around the ____ time.

    Correct Answer
    cs, us, same
    Explanation
    Pavlov believed that in order to achieve conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (cs) and the unconditioned stimulus (us) should occur at approximately the same time. This means that the cs, which is a neutral stimulus that eventually becomes associated with a specific response, should be presented simultaneously or very close in time to the us, which naturally triggers the desired response. By repeatedly pairing the cs and the us together, the cs eventually elicits the same response as the us, leading to conditioning.

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  • 21. 

    The modern view (Rescorla) believes that conditioning occurs, "If the __ predicts whether the __ will happen" and the ___ won't happen if not predicted by the ___. What is this called?

    Correct Answer
    if the CS predicts whether the US will happen. US won't happen if not predicted by the CS. tone predicts whether food will appear...food won't appear or won't be conditioned if not predicted by the tone It's called the CONTINGENCY view
    Explanation
    The modern view of conditioning, known as the contingency view, states that conditioning occurs when the conditioned stimulus (CS) predicts whether the unconditioned stimulus (US) will happen. If the CS does not predict the US, the US won't happen or won't be conditioned. In the given example, the tone predicts whether food will appear, and if the tone does not predict the food, the food won't appear or won't be conditioned. Therefore, this view is referred to as the contingency view.

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  • 22. 

    _____ proves that you need both contingency AND contiguity to obtain conditioning?

    Correct Answer
    Blocking effect
    Explanation
    The blocking effect in conditioning experiments demonstrates the importance of both contingency and contiguity in obtaining conditioning. In a blocking experiment, a previously conditioned stimulus (CS1) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US), resulting in conditioning. When CS1 is then presented together with a novel stimulus (CS2) followed by the US, conditioning to CS2 is blocked. This suggests that the presence of CS1 blocks the ability of CS2 to become a conditioned stimulus, indicating that both contingency (the predictive relationship between the CS and US) and contiguity (the temporal proximity of the CS and US) are necessary for conditioning to occur.

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  • 23. 

    Explain the phases of blocking effect and the conclusion

  • 24. 

    You get conditioning when ______ AND when _______.

    Correct Answer
  • 25. 

    What is the general conclusion about the blocking effect?

  • 26. 

    Operant conditioning is learning by _____ and ______.

    Correct Answer
    Rewards and Punishments
    Explanation
    Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is shaped through the use of rewards and punishments. In this process, rewards are given to reinforce desired behaviors, while punishments are used to decrease or eliminate unwanted behaviors. By associating certain behaviors with either positive or negative consequences, individuals learn to repeat actions that lead to rewards and avoid actions that result in punishments. This form of conditioning is based on the principle that behavior is influenced by its consequences, and it is widely used in various settings, such as schools, workplaces, and parenting.

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  • 27. 

    Responses followed by good things in Operant Conditioning are ____

    Correct Answer
    Explanation
    Good things in Operant Conditioning are positive reinforcements, which are rewards or incentives that increase the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. These can be tangible rewards like food or money, or intangible rewards like praise or recognition. Positive reinforcements strengthen the association between a behavior and its consequences, making it more likely for the behavior to occur again in the future.

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  • 28. 

    Responses followed by bad things are _____

    Correct Answer
    Weakened
    Explanation
    Responses followed by bad things are weakened because when negative events or outcomes occur, it is natural for people to feel discouraged or demotivated. This can lead to a decrease in the quality or effectiveness of their responses. The negative experiences may affect their confidence, decision-making abilities, and overall performance, resulting in weakened responses. It is important to address and overcome these negative influences in order to maintain strong and effective responses.

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  • 29. 

    Omission and punishment ____ probability of a response.

    Correct Answer
    Decrease. Don't want punishment!
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Decrease." Omission refers to the act of not responding or not taking a particular action. When there is a possibility of punishment, individuals are more likely to avoid responding or taking action to decrease their chances of facing negative consequences. The statement "Don't want punishment!" further emphasizes the idea that the probability of a response decreases when there is a potential for punishment.

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  • 30. 

    The box that has 4 parts (a, b, c, d) is called a ______ ____.

    Correct Answer
    Contingency box
    Explanation
    A box that has 4 parts (a, b, c, d) is called a contingency box.

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  • 31. 

    When a*d > b*c you have ____ contingency and ____ happens. When you have a*d=b*c you have ____ contingency and _____ happens. Lastly, when you have a*d

    • A.

      Negative, learning. positive, no learning. zero, negative learning occurs.

    • B.

      Zero contingency, no learning. positive, learning. negative, learning occurs.

    • C.

      Positive, learning. zero, no learning. negative, learning occurs.

    • D.

      Positive, learning. zero, no learning. negative, an uncertain outcome is expected.

    Correct Answer
    D. Positive, learning. zero, no learning. negative, an uncertain outcome is expected.
    Explanation
    When a*d > b*c, it indicates a positive contingency, meaning that there is a higher chance of a desired outcome. In this case, learning is expected to occur. When a*d = b*c, there is no contingency, implying that there is no influence on the outcome. Therefore, no learning is expected. Lastly, when a*d < 0, it represents a negative contingency, suggesting a lower chance of a desired outcome. In this scenario, an uncertain outcome is expected, which means that the result is unpredictable.

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  • 32. 

    _____ reinforcer is learned, ____ reinforcer is something we already know or is often a "basic human need"

    Correct Answer
    CONDITIONED ("click"), PRIMARY (food, money, praise)
    Explanation
    In this question, the explanation is asking for a comparison between two types of reinforcers: conditioned and primary. The correct answer states that a conditioned reinforcer is learned, while a primary reinforcer is something we already know or is often a "basic human need". This means that a conditioned reinforcer is one that has been associated with a primary reinforcer through learning or conditioning. The example given is that a "click" can be a conditioned reinforcer because it has been paired with a primary reinforcer such as food, money, or praise.

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  • 33. 

    ____ reinforcers only work if organism is aware they can be traded in/exchanged for _____ reinforcers such as food.

    Correct Answer
    Token, Primary
    Explanation
    Token reinforcers only work if the organism is aware they can be traded in/exchanged for primary reinforcers such as food. This means that the organism understands that by obtaining a token, they can later exchange it for a desired primary reinforcer. Token reinforcers are essentially secondary reinforcers that acquire their value through association with primary reinforcers.

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  • 34. 

    In Seligman's experiment on learned helplessness ____ dogs can turn shock off by pushing a panel while ____ dogs can do nothing to escape.

    • A.

      Yoked, control

    • B.

      Control, yoked

    Correct Answer
    B. Control, yoked
    Explanation
    In Seligman's experiment on learned helplessness, the term "yoked" refers to the dogs that are unable to control or stop the shocks they receive. These dogs are paired with the "control" dogs, who have the ability to turn off the shocks by pushing a panel. The term "control" refers to the dogs that have the power to escape or avoid the shocks, while the term "yoked" describes the dogs that have no control over the shocks and are essentially helpless.

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  • 35. 

    What happens if a control dog now cannot escape the shock, what happens?

  • 36. 

    ____ _____ is when you can produce a list of words in ANY order

    Correct Answer
    Free Recall
    Explanation
    Free recall is the ability to produce a list of words in any order. This means that there are no specific cues or prompts given, and the individual is able to retrieve information from memory without any constraints on the order in which the words are presented. In free recall, the individual has the freedom to recall the words in any sequence that comes to mind, demonstrating their ability to retrieve information from memory without external guidance.

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  • 37. 

    ______ is when you demonstrate you have a memory by producing it

    Correct Answer
    recall
    Explanation
    Recall refers to the ability to bring back or reproduce information from memory. It involves retrieving stored information and demonstrating that it can be remembered. This can be done by recalling facts, events, or experiences that have been previously learned or experienced. Recall is an essential cognitive process that allows individuals to access and use stored knowledge, making it a key component of memory and learning.

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  • 38. 

    ____ _____ is the term for producing a list of words in order

    Correct Answer
    serial recall
    Explanation
    Serial recall is the term used to describe the process of producing a list of words in a specific order. It refers to the ability to remember and reproduce a sequence of items in the exact order they were presented. This cognitive process involves the retrieval and retrieval order of information from memory. It is commonly studied in psychology and memory research to understand the mechanisms and limitations of human memory.

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  • 39. 

    ____ _____ is when you are given a hint that reminds you of the word or memory

    Correct Answer
    Cued recall
    Explanation
    Cued recall is a type of memory retrieval where a hint or cue is provided to help remember a specific word or memory. This hint acts as a trigger, prompting the recall of the information that was previously encoded in memory. In this context, the given correct answer suggests that cued recall is the term used to describe the situation when a hint is given to remind someone of a word or memory.

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  • 40. 

    What is the difference between autobiographical memory and semantic memory?

  • 41. 

    Savings in relearning equation

  • 42. 

    Standard theory of memory has ____ of encoding.

    Correct Answer
    Selectivity
    Explanation
    The standard theory of memory includes the concept of selectivity in the process of encoding. This means that not all information is encoded equally, and the brain selectively chooses what to encode based on its relevance or importance. Selectivity helps filter out irrelevant or less important information, allowing the brain to focus on encoding and storing the most relevant and meaningful information for later retrieval.

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  • 43. 

    Any symbol in STS will be lost in around ___ seconds if it is not reactivated by ____. This is called the ____ hypothesis.

    Correct Answer
    2, rehearsal, time
    Explanation
    The answer suggests that any symbol in STS (short-term storage) will be lost in around a certain number of seconds if it is not reactivated by rehearsal. This is referred to as the time hypothesis, which implies that without rehearsal, information in STS will fade away over time.

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  • 44. 

    _____ is a way to improve STS capacity by chunking symbols into one

    Correct Answer
    Grouping
    Explanation
    Grouping is a method that enhances Short Term Storage (STS) capacity by combining symbols into a single unit. By grouping symbols together, the capacity of STS is increased as multiple symbols can be represented and processed as a single chunk. This technique allows individuals to remember and manipulate larger amounts of information in their short-term memory.

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