Protein Structure And Function

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| By Hbcook86
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Hbcook86
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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 3,271
Questions: 31 | Attempts: 3,096

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Protein Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _____ ______: Building blocks for creating proteins

    Explanation
    Amino acids are the building blocks for creating proteins. They are organic compounds that contain both an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH). Amino acids are essential for the synthesis of proteins, which are vital for various biological processes in the body. They are linked together through peptide bonds to form polypeptide chains, which then fold into specific three-dimensional structures to create functional proteins. Amino acids play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of cells, tissues, and organs in living organisms.

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  • 2. 

    ______ different amino acids, but common structure.

    Explanation
    This question is asking for the number of different amino acids that have a common structure. The answer is 20, which can also be expressed as "twenty".

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  • 3. 

    Amino functional group: _____

    Explanation
    The correct answer is NH2. The amino functional group is represented by NH2, which consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms. This functional group is commonly found in amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. The amino group is responsible for the basic properties of amino acids and plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

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  • 4. 

    _____ functional group – NH2

    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Amino." This is because the functional group NH2 is known as the amino group. It is commonly found in amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. The amino group consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms, and it is responsible for the basic properties of amino acids.

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  • 5. 

    Carboxyl functional group:______

    Explanation
    The carboxyl functional group is represented by the chemical formula COOH. This functional group consists of a carbonyl group (C=O) and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the same carbon atom. The presence of the carboxyl group in a molecule imparts acidic properties and is commonly found in organic acids such as acetic acid and citric acid.

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  • 6. 

    ______ functional group – COOH

    Explanation
    The functional group COOH is known as the carboxyl group. This group consists of a carbon atom bonded to both an oxygen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH). It is commonly found in organic compounds such as carboxylic acids. The carboxyl group is important in various biological processes and is responsible for the acidity of carboxylic acids.

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  • 7. 

    _________: How small organic molecules link together to form larger units

    Explanation
    Polymerization is the process by which small organic molecules join together to form larger units called polymers. During polymerization, monomers, which are the small organic molecules, undergo a chemical reaction that leads to the formation of a polymer chain. This reaction typically involves the breaking of certain bonds in the monomers and the formation of new bonds between them. The resulting polymer chain can be composed of hundreds or even thousands of monomer units, creating a larger and more complex molecule. Polymerization is a fundamental process in the production of various materials, such as plastics, rubber, and fibers.

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  • 8. 

    Small subunits, or ________, link to form polymers.

    Explanation
    Small subunits, known as monomers, join together to form larger molecules called polymers. This process is called polymerization. Monomers are the building blocks of polymers and when they link together through chemical bonds, they create long chains or networks that make up various types of polymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.

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  • 9. 

    Small subunits, or monomers, link to form ________.

    Explanation
    Small subunits, known as monomers, have the ability to chemically bond together to form larger molecules called polymers. Polymers are made up of repeating units of monomers that are linked together through covalent bonds. This process of linking monomers to form polymers is known as polymerization. Polymers can be found in various natural and synthetic materials, such as plastics, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.

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  • 10. 

    Polymerization is the process of linking _______ together

    Explanation
    Polymerization is the process of linking monomers together. Monomers are small molecules that can join together to form a larger molecule called a polymer. During polymerization, the monomers undergo a chemical reaction that results in the formation of covalent bonds between them, creating a chain-like structure. This process is essential in the production of various polymers, such as plastics, rubber, and synthetic fibers. By linking monomers together, polymerization allows for the creation of materials with unique properties and characteristics.

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  • 11. 

    Bond forms between _____ group of one amino acid and amino group of another.

    Explanation
    A bond forms between the carboxyl group (-COOH) of one amino acid and the amino group (-NH2) of another amino acid. This bond is known as a peptide bond and is formed through a dehydration reaction, where a water molecule is removed. The carboxyl group of one amino acid donates a hydrogen atom to the amino group of another amino acid, resulting in the formation of a peptide bond and the linkage of the two amino acids.

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  • 12. 

    Bond forms between carboxyl group of one _____ _____ and amino group of another.

    Explanation
    A bond forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid. The carboxyl group consists of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl group. The amino group consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms. When two amino acids come together, the carboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of the other amino acid, forming a peptide bond. This bond is essential for the formation of proteins, as it links the amino acids together in a chain-like structure.

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  • 13. 

    _____ bond are the C-N bonds between amino acids.

    Explanation
    Peptide bonds are the C-N bonds between amino acids. They are formed through a condensation reaction between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid. This bond is crucial in the formation of proteins, as it creates a linear chain of amino acids, known as a polypeptide chain. The peptide bond provides stability to the protein structure and determines its primary structure, which is the specific order of amino acids in the chain.

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  • 14. 

    Electron sharing creates unusually______ bond.

    Explanation
    Electron sharing between atoms in a covalent bond creates a stable bond. This is because when atoms share electrons, they are able to achieve a more complete outer electron shell, which is a more stable configuration. The shared electrons help to hold the atoms together, creating a strong bond. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is "stable".

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  • 15. 

    Peptide bonds stiff and unable to _____.

    Explanation
    Peptide bonds are formed between amino acids in a protein chain. These bonds have a rigid and planar structure, which restricts their ability to rotate. This lack of rotation in peptide bonds is due to the partial double bond character of the bond, which limits the movement around the bond axis. As a result, peptide bonds contribute to the overall stability and structure of proteins by keeping the amino acid residues in a fixed position relative to each other.

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  • 16. 

    Linked amino acids create _____.

    Explanation
    Linked amino acids create polypeptide. A polypeptide is a chain of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. These peptide bonds form between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid. This chain of amino acids can fold and coil to form a functional protein. Therefore, the correct answer is polypeptide.

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  • 17. 

    ______: Required for many cell functions.

    Explanation
    Proteins are necessary for many cell functions. They play a crucial role in various cellular processes such as enzymatic reactions, cell signaling, transport of molecules, and structural support. Proteins are composed of amino acids and their specific sequence determines their structure and function. They can act as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural components of cells. Without proteins, cells would not be able to carry out essential functions, leading to impaired cellular processes and ultimately affecting the overall functioning of the organism.

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  • 18. 

    Specialized proteins _______, or speed up, chemical reactions.

    Explanation
    Specialized proteins catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. This means that they increase the rate of the reaction without being consumed or permanently altered in the process. By binding to specific molecules, they can facilitate the breaking and formation of chemical bonds, allowing reactions to proceed more efficiently. This ability to catalyze reactions is crucial for many biological processes, such as metabolism and DNA replication.

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  • 19. 

    ______: protein that functions as catalyst

    Explanation
    Enzyme is the correct answer because it is a protein that functions as a catalyst. Enzymes are biological molecules that speed up chemical reactions in living organisms by lowering the activation energy required for the reactions to occur. They play a crucial role in various physiological processes, such as digestion, metabolism, and DNA replication. Enzymes are highly specific and can catalyze a wide range of reactions, making them essential for maintaining the biochemical balance within cells.

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  • 20. 

    _____  antibodies attack and destroy viruses and bacteria

    Explanation
    The term "defense" refers to the immune system's ability to protect the body from harmful pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. Antibodies are a crucial component of the immune system's defense mechanism. They are produced by specialized white blood cells called B cells and are designed to recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of viruses and bacteria. Once bound, antibodies can neutralize the pathogens directly or mark them for destruction by other immune cells. Therefore, the statement "Defense antibodies attack and destroy viruses and bacteria" accurately describes the role of antibodies in the body's defense against pathogens.

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  • 21. 

    _____ proteins responsible for cellular movement.

    Explanation
    Motor proteins are responsible for cellular movement. They are specialized proteins that use energy from ATP to generate force and movement. Motor proteins play a crucial role in various cellular processes, such as muscle contraction, cell division, and intracellular transport. They are involved in moving organelles, vesicles, and other components within the cell, as well as generating the movement of cilia and flagella. Without motor proteins, cellular movement would be impaired, and essential functions within the cell would not be able to occur efficiently.

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  • 22. 

    _____ carry and receive chemical messages from cell to cell

    Explanation
    Neurons, specialized cells of the nervous system, transmit and receive chemical messages throughout the body. Through electrochemical signaling, neurons communicate with each other and with other cells, facilitating sensory perception, motor control, and cognitive functions, essential for coordinating body activities and maintaining homeostasis.

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  • 23. 

    Protein function is based upon _____.

    Explanation
    Protein function is based upon shape because the three-dimensional structure of a protein determines its ability to interact with other molecules and perform specific biochemical functions. The shape of a protein is determined by the sequence of amino acids in its primary structure, which then folds into a unique three-dimensional conformation. This shape allows proteins to bind to specific substrates, catalyze chemical reactions, transport molecules, and carry out various other biological processes essential for cellular function.

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  • 24. 

    Four basic levels of organization: ______, ______, _____, and ______.

    Explanation
    Primary structure: Refers to the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein.
    Secondary structure: Involves folding and twisting of the linear chain into specific patterns, such as alpha helices and beta sheets.
    Tertiary structure: Describes the overall three-dimensional arrangement of a protein, including the folding of secondary structures and additional interactions.
    Quaternary structure: Relates to the arrangement of multiple protein subunits (if applicable) and their interactions to form a functional protein complex.

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  • 25. 

    Primary structure: Unique sequence of ____ ____.

    Explanation
    The primary structure of a protein refers to the unique sequence of amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, and their specific arrangement determines the protein's structure and function. Therefore, the correct answer is "amino acids." The other options, "amino" and "acids," are incomplete and do not accurately describe the primary structure of proteins.

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  • 26. 

    Change of one amino acid in ______ can change shape of protein

    Explanation
    A protein's sequence refers to the specific arrangement of amino acids that make up the protein. Each amino acid has unique properties that can affect the overall structure and function of the protein. Therefore, changing just one amino acid in the sequence can alter the interactions between amino acids and ultimately change the shape of the protein. This change in shape can have significant effects on the protein's ability to carry out its biological functions.

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  • 27. 

    Change in shape = change in ______

    Explanation
    The question is asking for the term that represents the change in shape. In mathematics, the term "function" is commonly used to describe a relation between two sets, where each input value (or variable) is associated with a unique output value. A function can be used to represent the change in shape of a mathematical object, as it describes how the object's attributes vary with different input values. Therefore, the correct answer is "function".

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  • 28. 

    ______ is spontaneous in most proteins

    Explanation
    The process of folding is spontaneous in most proteins. Folding refers to the process by which a protein molecule acquires its functional three-dimensional structure. It occurs spontaneously as the protein chain folds into a specific shape determined by its amino acid sequence. This folding process is driven by various forces, including hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interactions. The spontaneous nature of folding allows proteins to achieve their native structure, which is essential for their proper function.

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  • 29. 

    Improperly folded proteins, called _______, can be disease-causing agents

    Explanation
    Prions are improperly folded proteins that can cause diseases. Unlike other infectious agents, such as viruses or bacteria, prions do not contain any genetic material. They are able to convert normal proteins into abnormal forms, leading to the accumulation of these misfolded proteins in the brain. This accumulation disrupts normal cellular functions and can result in various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease or mad cow disease. Due to their ability to induce misfolding in other proteins, prions can act as disease-causing agents.

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  • Current Version
  • Apr 15, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 15, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Hbcook86
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