Professional And Ethical Issues Quiz!

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Quizzes Created: 11 | Total Attempts: 6,941
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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not a necessary component of assessment according to the IDEA provisions?

    • A.

      Acquiring consent

    • B.

      Using multiple assessments

    • C.

      Administering the assessment in the examinee's native language (or best feasible possibility)

    • D.

      Using instruments that are racially and culturally unbiased

    • E.

      All of the above are necessary provisions

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are necessary provisions
    Explanation
    According to the IDEA provisions, all of the options listed are necessary components of assessment. Acquiring consent is necessary to ensure that the assessment is conducted with the permission of the examinee or their legal guardian. Using multiple assessments is important to gather comprehensive and reliable information about the examinee's abilities and needs. Administering the assessment in the examinee's native language or the best feasible possibility is crucial to ensure fair and accurate results. Finally, using instruments that are racially and culturally unbiased is necessary to prevent any form of discrimination or bias in the assessment process. Therefore, all of the options are necessary provisions according to IDEA.

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  • 2. 

    According to the IDEA, when testing children with disabilities, you must ______________.

    • A.

      Produce a general intelligence quotient

    • B.

      Have results reflect achievement, not just deficit, for children with impaired senses

    • C.

      Test the child in areas of similar disabilities, not just the diagnosed disability

    • D.

      Test the children in at least two languages to make sure they're not just lacking in English fluency

    Correct Answer
    B. Have results reflect achievement, not just deficit, for children with impaired senses
    Explanation
    According to the IDEA, when testing children with disabilities, it is important to have results that reflect their achievements, rather than solely focusing on their deficits, especially for children with impaired senses. This means that the testing process should not only highlight the areas where the child may be struggling due to their disability, but also recognize and acknowledge their accomplishments and strengths. This approach ensures a fair and comprehensive assessment of the child's abilities and helps in developing appropriate educational plans and support for their individual needs.

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  • 3. 

    Whether a test shows different content validity for different groups would be a matter of _____________.

    • A.

      Test bias

    • B.

      Atmosphere bias

    • C.

      Examinee bias

    • D.

      Examiner bias

    Correct Answer
    A. Test bias
    Explanation
    The correct answer is test bias. Test bias refers to the extent to which a test systematically favors or disadvantages certain groups of people. If a test shows different content validity for different groups, it suggests that the test may be biased and not accurately measuring the intended construct for all individuals.

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  • 4. 

    Whether the race of the examiner results in different performance for different groups would be a matter of _______________.

    • A.

      Test bias

    • B.

      Atmosphere bias

    • C.

      Examinee bias

    • D.

      Examiner bias

    Correct Answer
    B. Atmosphere bias
    Explanation
    The question is asking about whether the race of the examiner affects the performance of different groups. The correct answer is "atmosphere bias". This suggests that the environment or atmosphere in which the examination takes place may have an influence on the performance of different groups. It implies that factors such as the examiner's behavior, attitudes, or the overall atmosphere of the testing environment could potentially create bias and impact the performance of different groups based on their race.

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  • 5. 

    Testing for internal characteristics of bias, such as whether the test behaves differently for different groups, is done using all of the following procedures except _____________.

    • A.

      Internal consistency reliability examination

    • B.

      Loadings on "g"

    • C.

      Repeated measures regression analysis

    • D.

      Factor analysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Repeated measures regression analysis
    Explanation
    Repeated measures regression analysis is not used to test for internal characteristics of bias. This type of analysis is typically used to examine the effects of repeated measurements on a dependent variable. In contrast, internal consistency reliability examination, loadings on "g", and factor analysis are all procedures that can be used to assess bias by examining how the test behaves differently for different groups.

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  • 6. 

    Testing for external characteristics of bias, such as whether the test predicts the future performance of different groups with the same accuracy, is done using ______________.

    • A.

      Internal consistency reliability examination

    • B.

      Loadings on "g"

    • C.

      Regression analysis

    • D.

      Factor analysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Regression analysis
    Explanation
    Regression analysis is used to test for external characteristics of bias in testing. It examines whether the test predicts the future performance of different groups with the same accuracy. This statistical technique allows researchers to analyze the relationship between variables and can help determine if there is any bias present in the test results. By comparing the predicted performance of different groups, regression analysis can provide insights into potential biases and help ensure fairness and accuracy in testing.

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  • 7. 

    The Education for the Handicapped Act, passed in 1975 by Ford, included all of the following except:

    • A.

      Free and appropriate education to handicapped children

    • B.

      Evaluation by a multi-disciplinary team

    • C.

      Services in accordance with IEP

    • D.

      Child placed in least restrictive environment

    • E.

      All of the above were part of the Education for the Handicapped Act of 1975

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above were part of the Education for the Handicapped Act of 1975
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above were part of the Education for the Handicapped Act of 1975." This means that all the options listed in the question were included in the Education for the Handicapped Act of 1975. The Act provided free and appropriate education to handicapped children, required evaluation by a multi-disciplinary team, mandated services in accordance with an Individualized Education Program (IEP), and emphasized placing the child in the least restrictive environment possible.

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  • 8. 

    The Education for the Handicapped Amendments (1986-1990) did all of the following except:

    • A.

      Provided the same benefits that school-age children had to 3-5 year olds

    • B.

      Addressed "at risk" 0-3 year olds

    • C.

      Provided funding to states to create early intervention programs

    • D.

      Created transition services for 16-21 year olds

    • E.

      All of the above were part of the Education for the Handicapped Amendments of 1986-1990

    Correct Answer
    D. Created transition services for 16-21 year olds
    Explanation
    The Education for the Handicapped Amendments (1986-1990) included provisions that provided the same benefits to 3-5 year olds as school-age children, addressed "at risk" 0-3 year olds, and provided funding to states to create early intervention programs. However, it did not specifically create transition services for 16-21 year olds.

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  • 9. 

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 did all of the following except:

    • A.

      Established the services for 3 to 21 year olds

    • B.

      Created transition services for 16-21 year olds

    • C.

      Changed the term disability to "handicapped"

    • D.

      Created continuing education support for 21+ year olds

    • E.

      All of the above were part of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990

    Correct Answer
    D. Created continuing education support for 21+ year olds
    Explanation
    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1990 established services for 3 to 21 year olds and created transition services for 16-21 year olds. It also changed the term disability to "handicapped". However, it did not create continuing education support for 21+ year olds.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following would not make a toddler eligible for services?

    • A.

      Developmental delays in cognition and speech

    • B.

      Being born with a condition associated with a high probability of developing developmental disabilities later (like fetal alcohol syndrome)

    • C.

      Being "at risk" for developmental delays due to factors like poverty, being born premature, or family mental illness

    • D.

      All of the above make one eligible for services

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above make one eligible for services
    Explanation
    The given correct answer states that all of the options listed in the question make a toddler eligible for services. This means that if a toddler has developmental delays in cognition and speech, or if they were born with a condition associated with a high probability of developing developmental disabilities later, or if they are "at risk" for developmental delays due to factors like poverty, being born premature, or family mental illness, they would be eligible for services.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is true?

    • A.

      From ages 0-3, children are labeled as 'child with a disability', but don't need a specific title

    • B.

      From ages 3+, children require a specific disability label

    • C.

      From ages 3-9, children are labeled as 'student with a disability' but don't need a specific disability label

    • D.

      For all ages, children require a specific disability label

    Correct Answer
    C. From ages 3-9, children are labeled as 'student with a disability' but don't need a specific disability label
    Explanation
    From ages 3-9, children are labeled as 'student with a disability' but don't need a specific disability label. This means that during this age range, children are recognized as having a disability, but they do not require a specific label or diagnosis for their disability. The focus is on supporting their educational needs rather than categorizing their disability.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is false:

    • A.

      IDEA definition of mental retardation is focused around intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors

    • B.

      AAMR definition of mental retardation is focused around the amount of support and supervision individuals need

    • C.

      DSM-IV definition of mental retardation is most used in the school setting

    • D.

      IDEA definition of mental retardation involves 4 categories

    Correct Answer
    C. DSM-IV definition of mental retardation is most used in the school setting
    Explanation
    The given statement is false because the DSM-IV definition of mental retardation is not the most used in the school setting. The DSM-IV is a diagnostic manual used by mental health professionals to classify and diagnose mental disorders. In the school setting, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) definition of mental retardation is more commonly used. IDEA focuses on intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors, while also involving the assessment of individual needs and providing appropriate support and services in educational settings.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not true of Emotional Disturbances?

    • A.

      Schizophrenia qualifies as an emotional disturbance

    • B.

      Conduct disorder does not qualify as an emotional disturbance

    • C.

      Some children are placed in the "socially maladjusted" category instead of Emotionally Disturbed, thereby having them lose service eligibility, because "socially maladjusted" children are less efficient uses of federal money

    • D.

      You can be diagnosed with an emotional disorder even if it's explainable by health factors

    Correct Answer
    D. You can be diagnosed with an emotional disorder even if it's explainable by health factors
  • 14. 

    Which of the following is NOT a downside to the discrepancy approach to diagnosing learning disabilities?

    • A.

      Over identifies non-disabled students who are under-achieving due to other factors such as lack of motivation

    • B.

      Establishes a "waiting to fail" system in which young children are not identified until they are old enough and have fallen back far enough.

    • C.

      School psychologists are worried that a discrepancy based approach threatens their job security

    • D.

      Discrepancy approach has low utility because sometimes there is no discrepancy among children with LDs

    Correct Answer
    C. School psychologists are worried that a discrepancy based approach threatens their job security
    Explanation
    The discrepancy approach to diagnosing learning disabilities has several downsides, but one of them is not that school psychologists are worried about their job security. This answer choice is incorrect because it does not accurately reflect a downside to the discrepancy approach. The other options correctly identify downsides such as over-identifying non-disabled students, establishing a "waiting to fail" system, and the low utility of the approach in certain cases.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following has NOT led to an over-identification of Learning Disabilities?

    • A.

      Poor guidelines and ambiguous definitions of learning disability diagnosis

    • B.

      Professionals feel pressured to diagnose with something so that children can receive services

    • C.

      Research showing diagnosis with LD leads to small-group instruction that boosts IQ scores of those children significantly above the average

    • D.

      Low stigma associated with LD diagnosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Research showing diagnosis with LD leads to small-group instruction that boosts IQ scores of those children significantly above the average
    Explanation
    The research showing diagnosis with LD leads to small-group instruction that boosts IQ scores of those children significantly above the average has NOT led to an over-identification of Learning Disabilities. This is because the research suggests that the diagnosis and subsequent intervention actually have a positive impact on the children's intellectual abilities, rather than leading to an over-identification.

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  • 16. 

    According to the cascade of services, which of these is a mismatch?

    • A.

      Bottom row - most professionals per student

    • B.

      Top row - most severely disabled

    • C.

      Top row - smallest population

    • D.

      Bottom row - general education

    Correct Answer
    A. Bottom row - most professionals per student
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that the bottom row, which represents general education, is a mismatch in terms of having the most professionals per student. This means that general education typically does not require as many professionals per student compared to the other rows, which represent more specialized services for students with disabilities or specific needs.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is not part of the IEP?

    • A.

      Current performance

    • B.

      Cognitive functioning and/or diagnoses for family members

    • C.

      Progress measurement

    • D.

      Accommodations for testing

    Correct Answer
    B. Cognitive functioning and/or diagnoses for family members
    Explanation
    The IEP (Individualized Education Program) is a legal document that outlines the educational plan for a student with special needs. It includes information about the student's current performance, progress measurement, and accommodations for testing. However, cognitive functioning and diagnoses for family members are not relevant to the student's educational plan and therefore not part of the IEP.

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  • 18. 

    As of July 1, 2012...

    • A.

      NY schools must be using discrepancy models

    • B.

      NY schools must allow parents to choose between discrepancy models and Response to Intervention models

    • C.

      NY schools must meet criteria for LD using both discrepancy models and Response to Intervention models

    • D.

      NY schools must be using Response to Intervention models

    Correct Answer
    D. NY schools must be using Response to Intervention models
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that NY schools must be using Response to Intervention models. This means that as of July 1, 2012, NY schools are required to implement the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach in their educational practices. RTI is a multi-tiered system of support that aims to identify and provide targeted interventions to students who are struggling academically or behaviorally. It is a data-driven approach that allows schools to monitor student progress and provide appropriate interventions based on their individual needs.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is not a downside to the Response to Intervention model?

    • A.

      Regular education teachers will have to be trained to handle special education students

    • B.

      School psychologists expressed fear for job security and preparedness

    • C.

      There is little data supporting RTI effectiveness

    • D.

      Non-responsive children may be incorrectly placed into special education classrooms

    Correct Answer
    A. Regular education teachers will have to be trained to handle special education students
  • 20. 

    In a Response to Intervention model, when would a school psychologist engage in testing?

    • A.

      Tier 1 - as soon as children start to show discrepancies, it's important to test them and catch them early

    • B.

      Tier 2 - all children receiving partial support should undergo full intelligence test batteries to screen for more severe disabilities

    • C.

      Tier 3 - when children aren't responding to partial support, it's appropriate to undergo testing and behavior assessment to provide more involved services

    • D.

      Rarely, if ever. The whole point of the RtI model was to move away from testing in schools.

    Correct Answer
    C. Tier 3 - when children aren't responding to partial support, it's appropriate to undergo testing and behavior assessment to provide more involved services
    Explanation
    In a Response to Intervention (RtI) model, school psychologists would engage in testing during Tier 3. This is when children are not responding to partial support and require more involved services. Testing and behavior assessment are conducted to identify the specific needs and challenges of these students, in order to develop appropriate interventions and support strategies. The RtI model aims to provide targeted and individualized support to students, and testing in Tier 3 helps in identifying the necessary interventions for students who require more intensive assistance.

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  • 21. 

    ____________ was a civil rights case in which a California judge said intelligence tests were biased against Black students, leading to over-representation of Black students in programs for people with mental retardation.

    • A.

      Larry P vs. Riles (1979)

    • B.

      Diana V. Board of Education (1970)

    • C.

      Pase V. Hannon (1980)

    • D.

      Brown V. Board of Education (1954)

    Correct Answer
    A. Larry P vs. Riles (1979)
  • 22. 

    ____________ led to a moratorium on IQ tests for minority students that would directly lead to special education requirements.

    • A.

      Larry P vs. Riles (1979)

    • B.

      Diana V. Board of Education (1970)

    • C.

      Pase V. Hannon (1980)

    • D.

      Brown V. Board of Education (1954)

    Correct Answer
    A. Larry P vs. Riles (1979)
    Explanation
    Larry P vs. Riles (1979) led to a moratorium on IQ tests for minority students that would directly lead to special education requirements. This case involved a class-action lawsuit filed on behalf of African-American students in California who were disproportionately placed in special education classes based on IQ tests. The court ruled that the use of IQ tests to determine educational placement was discriminatory and violated the students' rights. The decision resulted in a ban on the use of IQ tests for placement purposes, leading to the implementation of special education requirements for minority students.

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  • 23. 

    ____________ involved a Spanish-speaking student being tested using the WISC in English and thereby getting classified as mentally retarded and being placed in a special education classroom.

    • A.

      Larry P vs. Riles (1979)

    • B.

      Diana V. Board of Education (1970)

    • C.

      Pase V. Hannon (1980)

    • D.

      Brown V. Board of Education (1954)

    Correct Answer
    B. Diana V. Board of Education (1970)
    Explanation
    Diana V. Board of Education (1970) is the correct answer because it involved a Spanish-speaking student who was tested in English using the WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and as a result, was classified as mentally retarded and placed in a special education classroom. This case highlighted the issue of cultural bias in testing and the importance of considering the language and cultural background of students when assessing their abilities.

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  • 24. 

    _____________ was a case in which Judge John Grady concluded that intelligence tests were not biased against Black people, using two different definitions of bias.

    • A.

      Larry P vs. Riles (1979)

    • B.

      Diana V. Board of Education (1970)

    • C.

      Pase V. Hannon (1980)

    • D.

      Brown V. Board of Education (1954)

    Correct Answer
    C. Pase V. Hannon (1980)
  • 25. 

    Which of the following is not true about therapy?

    • A.

      You must let your client know if you are sharing information with a supervisor

    • B.

      You must acquire informed consent on the first session

    • C.

      You can make a referral to a neutral clinic like Planned Parenthood without parental consent

    • D.

      The therapist is obligated to tell the parents if the child is suspected of substance abuse

    Correct Answer
    B. You must acquire informed consent on the first session
    Explanation
    In therapy, it is important to obtain informed consent from the client before beginning any treatment. This ensures that the client is aware of the nature and purpose of therapy, as well as any potential risks or benefits. However, it is not necessary to acquire informed consent specifically on the first session. Informed consent can be obtained at any point during the therapeutic process, as long as the client has been adequately informed and has given their voluntary consent.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following is not true of school responses to suicide threats?

    • A.

      If a student is suspected of being suicidal, the situation has to be reported to a designated staff member trained in suicide prevention

    • B.

      The school must inform the parents of any suicide threats

    • C.

      The school does not have the right to transport the student to another agency without student or parental consent.

    • D.

      The school must have a written planned response to suicide threats

    Correct Answer
    C. The school does not have the right to transport the student to another agency without student or parental consent.
    Explanation
    Schools do have the right to transport a student to another agency without student or parental consent if the student is deemed to be in immediate danger or at risk of harming themselves. This is done to ensure the safety and well-being of the student.

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  • 27. 

    Don't have sex with your patients.

    • A.

      Well... duh.

    • B.

      But what if I...? No? Okay.

    • C.

      This is stupid-- this isn't even a real question and the choices make no sense.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Well... duh.
    B. But what if I...? No? Okay.
    C. This is stupid-- this isn't even a real question and the choices make no sense.
  • 28. 

    Which of the following is true about terminating therapy with a client?

    • A.

      The psychologist cannot terminate therapy if the client doesn't feel ready yet.

    • B.

      The psychologist has to make a referral for the client if they can't see them anymore, except in cases of violence or threats.

    • C.

      If the psychologist feels the client is not likely to benefit from additional therapy, they must terminate it.

    • D.

      If the client is being harmed by continued service, the therapist should continue with the client to find out why.

    Correct Answer
    C. If the psychologist feels the client is not likely to benefit from additional therapy, they must terminate it.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that if the psychologist feels the client is not likely to benefit from additional therapy, they must terminate it. This means that if the therapist believes that continuing therapy will not be helpful for the client, they are obligated to end the therapy. This decision should be based on professional judgment and considering the best interests of the client. It is important for therapists to ensure that they are providing effective and beneficial treatment to their clients.

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  • 29. 

    A child says "okay" to therapy, this is an example of:

    • A.

      Consent, but not informed consent

    • B.

      Informed consent

    • C.

      Assent

    • D.

      An ethical violation by the psychologist for trying to attain consent from a child instead of parent.

    Correct Answer
    C. Assent
    Explanation
    Assent refers to a child's agreement or willingness to participate in a decision-making process, such as therapy, based on their understanding and maturity level. In this case, the child saying "okay" indicates their agreement to undergo therapy, but it does not necessarily imply that they have been fully informed about the details or potential risks involved. Therefore, this example represents assent, where the child's agreement is sought and respected, but it does not meet the criteria for informed consent, which requires a comprehensive understanding of the situation.

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  • 30. 

    Informed consent must be ___________________.

    • A.

      Just, Appropriate, and Voluntary

    • B.

      Knowing, Appropriate, and Voluntary

    • C.

      Knowing, Competent, and Voluntary

    • D.

      Just, Competent, and Voluntary

    Correct Answer
    C. Knowing, Competent, and Voluntary
    Explanation
    Informed consent must be knowing, competent, and voluntary. This means that individuals must have a clear understanding of the information provided to them, they must have the ability to make decisions based on that information, and their decision to consent must be made without any form of coercion or pressure.

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