Contain a small piece of linear DNA
Combine to make larger organisms
Are commonly bigger than eukaryotic cells
It is composed of two layers of phospholipids arranged with their hydrophilic ends pointing inwards.
Protein channels span the width of the membrane and allow the transport of substances through them
Lipid-soluble substances such as alcohol can diffuse through unhindered by the plasma membrane’s control system
Molecules of cholesterol regulate the fluidity of the structure.
Convert glucose into a useable form of energy for the cell
Harness the sun’s energy to convert inorganic nutrients such as water and carbon dioxide into organic nutrients
Extract excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
Convert the chemical energy from the sun into light energy.
Aerobic respiration would be the primary source of energy when an organism is attempting to escape a predator
Aerobic respiration is more efficient as it completely breaks down the glucose molecule and creates the maximum possible amount of ATP.
Fermentation produces 10 ATP molecules per glucose molecule, whilst aerobic respiration produces 36–38 molecules of ATP
Ermentation is a much slower process and is really only used when an organism is in grave danger
B because the stomach is an acidic environment and protein digestion occurs here
C because pepsin is the enzyme that digests protein and its optimum pH is acidic.
D because it has the same conditions as C but the protein has a higher surface area to volume ratio for more efficient enzyme action
D because it has the same conditions as C but the protein has a lower surface area to volume ratio for more efficient enzyme action
All living things are composed of groups of cells.
Cells are the basic unit of life
New cells are produced from existing cells
Cells are organised structures
Defined internal structure
Nucleus that is not membrane-bound
Single-stranded DNA molecule
Diffusion: along the concentration gradient Osmosis: movement of dissolved salts Active transport: requires energy
Diffusion: Passive Osmosis: movement of water from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration Active transport: occurs through a protein channel
Diffusion: requires energy Osmosis: movement of water Active transport: against the concentration gradient
Diffusion: movement of a substance from a region of high to a region of low concentration Osmosis: occurs through a protein channel Active transport: along the concentration gradient
Occurs in the presence of oxygen, produces less ATP and produces lactic acid in plants
Occurs in the absence of oxygen, produces more ATP and produces ethanol in plants
Occurs in the absence of oxygen, produces less ATP and produces lactic acid in animals
Occurs in the absence of oxygen, produces less ATP and produces ethanol in animals
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
C6H12O6 + 6CO2 → 6O2 + 6H2O
6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
6CO2 + 6O2 → C6H12O6 + 6 H2O