Cardiovascular And Renal Functions- Acid-base Balance Test

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Cardiovascular And Renal Functions- Acid-base Balance Test - Quiz

This test is about acid-base balance in the human body and its connection with cardiovascular and renal functions. And how the disturbance in this balance can cause anomalies or disorders in the cardiovascular and renal functions. Well, with more than fifty questions, this MCQ quiz will have your knowledge of this topic tested. So, are you ready?


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The major cause of Acute Coronary Syndrome is…

    • A.

      ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    • B.

      AMI

    • C.

      CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE

    Correct Answer
    A. ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is the major cause of Acute Coronary Syndrome. Atherosclerosis is a condition where plaque builds up in the arteries, causing them to become narrow and hardened. This restricts blood flow to the heart, leading to various forms of Acute Coronary Syndrome such as angina or heart attack. Atherosclerosis is often caused by risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Managing these risk factors and adopting a healthy lifestyle can help prevent the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

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  • 2. 

    A condition in which the heart has lost the ability to pump enough blood to the body’s tissues...

    • A.

      Congestive heart failure

    • B.

      AMI

    • C.

      Atherosclerosis

    • D.

      Option 4

    Correct Answer
    A. Congestive heart failure
    Explanation
    Congestive heart failure is the correct answer because it is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. AMI refers to acute myocardial infarction, or a heart attack, which is a different condition. Atherosclerosis is a buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can contribute to heart failure but is not the same as heart failure itself. Option 4 is not a valid answer choice.

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  • 3. 

    Increases in biomarkers of cardiac injury are indicative of injury to the myocardium, but not an ischemic mechanism of injury.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Increases in biomarkers of cardiac injury, such as troponin levels, suggest damage to the heart muscle. However, these biomarkers alone cannot determine the specific cause of the injury. While elevated biomarkers can be seen in cases of myocardial infarction (heart attack) caused by ischemia (lack of blood flow), they can also be elevated in other conditions that cause damage to the myocardium, such as cardiac trauma or certain diseases. Therefore, an increase in cardiac injury biomarkers does not necessarily indicate an ischemic mechanism of injury.

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  • 4. 

    Increases in cardiac biomarker proteins reflect irreversible injury.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Increases in cardiac biomarker proteins reflect irreversible injury. This statement is true because cardiac biomarker proteins, such as troponin, are released into the bloodstream when there is damage to the heart muscle. These biomarkers are specific to the heart and their presence indicates that there has been damage to the heart tissue. Since irreversible injury refers to damage that cannot be reversed or repaired, an increase in cardiac biomarker proteins would suggest that the injury to the heart muscle is permanent and cannot be undone. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 5. 

    Is the inability of the heart to increase its output sufficiently to meet the peripheral demands or blood...

    • A.

      CHF

    • B.

      HOHF (high output heart failure)

    • C.

      AMI

    Correct Answer
    B. HOHF (high output heart failure)
    Explanation
    High output heart failure (HOHF) is the correct answer because it refers to the inability of the heart to increase its output sufficiently to meet the peripheral demands or blood flow requirements of the body, despite having a normal or elevated cardiac output. This condition can be caused by factors such as anemia, hyperthyroidism, arteriovenous fistulas, or severe infections. In HOHF, the heart is not able to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to symptoms of heart failure. CHF (congestive heart failure) and AMI (acute myocardial infarction) are not the correct answers as they refer to different conditions.

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  • 6. 

    Hormone released by the stressed heart & are found in the circulation, increases the renal excretion of sodium, stimulated by the stretch of the heart wall that occurs in heart failure...

    • A.

      B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)

    • B.

      Cardiac troponin

    • C.

      Myoglobin

    Correct Answer
    A. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
    Explanation
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is the hormone released by the stressed heart and is found in the circulation. It increases the renal excretion of sodium and is stimulated by the stretch of the heart wall that occurs in heart failure. This hormone helps to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance by promoting diuresis and natriuresis. BNP levels are often elevated in individuals with heart failure, making it a useful marker for diagnosing and monitoring the condition. Cardiac troponin and myoglobin are not directly involved in the regulation of sodium excretion and are not specifically released by the stressed heart.

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  • 7. 

    Form a complex that regulates the interaction of actin & myosin ~ regulates cardiac contraction...

    • A.

      Myoglobin

    • B.

      3 troponin subunits (I, T and C)

    • C.

      BNP

    • D.

      Cpk (MB)

    Correct Answer
    B. 3 troponin subunits (I, T and C)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 3 troponin subunits (I, T and C). Troponin is a complex of three subunits (I, T, and C) that regulates the interaction of actin and myosin in muscle contraction. Troponin I inhibits actin-myosin interaction, troponin T binds to tropomyosin, and troponin C binds to calcium ions, allowing for muscle contraction. Therefore, the presence of these three troponin subunits is essential for the regulation of cardiac contraction.

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  • 8. 

    Troponins are localized primarily in the myofibrils (94- 97%) with a smaller cytoplasmic fraction (3- 6%).

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Troponins are proteins that are primarily found in the myofibrils, which are the contractile units of muscle cells. They play a crucial role in muscle contraction by regulating the interaction between actin and myosin. A small fraction of troponins can also be found in the cytoplasm of muscle cells. Therefore, the statement that troponins are primarily localized in the myofibrils with a smaller cytoplasmic fraction is true.

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  • 9. 

    A hormone that is mainly released from the myocardial ventricles...

    • A.

      ALT

    • B.

      Myoglobin

    • C.

      Troponin

    • D.

      B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)

    Correct Answer
    D. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
    Explanation
    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is mainly released from the myocardial ventricles. BNP is a hormone that is secreted in response to increased stretching of the ventricular walls, which occurs in conditions such as heart failure. It helps to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance by promoting vasodilation and diuresis. Measuring BNP levels in the blood can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for heart failure.

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  • 10. 

    Are biomarkers of the atherosclerotic process...

    • A.

      Troponin

    • B.

      C- reactive protein(CRP)

    • C.

      AST

    • D.

      CPK (MB)

    Correct Answer
    B. C- reactive protein(CRP)
    Explanation
    CRP, or C-reactive protein, is a biomarker of the atherosclerotic process. Atherosclerosis is the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to narrowing and hardening of the blood vessels. CRP is an inflammatory marker that indicates the presence of inflammation in the body. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Elevated levels of CRP have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including heart attacks and strokes. Therefore, CRP is a useful biomarker for assessing the presence and severity of atherosclerosis.

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  • 11. 

    The normal GFR is ________

    Correct Answer
    120 to 125 mL/min
    Explanation
    The normal GFR (glomerular filtration rate) is typically between 120 to 125 mL/min. GFR is a measure of how well the kidneys are functioning in filtering waste products from the blood. This range is considered normal for adults and indicates that the kidneys are effectively filtering and removing waste from the body. Any value significantly lower or higher than this range may indicate kidney dysfunction or disease.

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  • 12. 

    The normal pH of blood is maintained in the narrow range of...

    • A.

      7.35- 7.45

    • B.

      6.0 - 7.20

    • C.

      7.20- 7.45

    Correct Answer
    A. 7.35- 7.45
    Explanation
    The normal pH of blood is maintained in the narrow range of 7.35-7.45. This range is crucial for the proper functioning of various metabolic processes in the body. Deviations from this range can lead to serious health issues. The pH of blood is regulated by the body's buffer systems, which help maintain the balance between acidic and alkaline substances in the blood. The pH range of 7.35-7.45 is slightly alkaline, which is necessary for optimal enzyme activity and oxygen transport in the blood.

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  • 13. 

    For RBCs the pH is...

    • A.

      7.2

    • B.

      6.0

    Correct Answer
    A. 7.2
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 7.2 because the pH of red blood cells (RBCs) is slightly alkaline. The normal pH range for RBCs is between 7.35 and 7.45, which is slightly higher than neutral pH of 7.0. This alkaline pH is important for maintaining the proper function and structure of RBCs, allowing them to effectively carry oxygen throughout the body. A pH of 7.2 falls within this normal range for RBCs.

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  • 14. 

     pH is  of skeletal muscle...

    • A.

      7.2

    • B.

      6.0

    Correct Answer
    B. 6.0
    Explanation
    The pH of skeletal muscle is 6.0.

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  • 15. 

    At a blood pH 7.4, the ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid is...

    • A.

      1:20

    • B.

      20:1

    • C.

      10:1

    • D.

      20:2

    Correct Answer
    B. 20:1
    Explanation
    At a blood pH of 7.4, the ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid is 20:1. This means that there is a higher concentration of bicarbonate ions compared to carbonic acid ions in the blood. This ratio is important for maintaining the acid-base balance in the body. Bicarbonate acts as a buffer, helping to neutralize excess acid in the blood, while carbonic acid helps regulate the concentration of carbon dioxide in the body. A ratio of 20:1 indicates that there is a sufficient amount of bicarbonate to maintain the blood pH at a normal level.

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  • 16. 

    Uric acid is the final breakdown product of which type of metabolism?

    • A.

      Urea

    • B.

      Glucose

    • C.

      Purine

    Correct Answer
    C. Purine
    Explanation
    Uric acid is the final breakdown product of purine metabolism. Purines are nitrogenous compounds found in various foods and also produced by the body. When purines are broken down, they form uric acid as the end product. Uric acid is then excreted from the body through urine. High levels of uric acid can lead to conditions like gout, as the excess uric acid can form crystals in the joints.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is absorbed by the DCT...

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Creatine

    • C.

      Uric acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Sodium
    Explanation
    Sodium is absorbed by the DCT (distal convoluted tubule) in the kidneys. The DCT is responsible for the reabsorption of various substances, including sodium, from the urine back into the bloodstream. This helps regulate the body's sodium levels and maintain overall fluid balance. Creatine and uric acid, on the other hand, are not primarily absorbed by the DCT.

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  • 18. 

    Acidosis and alkalosis are best define as fluctuation of co2 and blood ph content due to changes in...

    • A.

      Co2 content

    • B.

      Bicarbonate buffer system

    • C.

      02 content

    • D.

      All the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Bicarbonate buffer system
    Explanation
    Acidosis and alkalosis refer to imbalances in the pH of the blood, which can be caused by changes in the bicarbonate buffer system. This system helps regulate the pH by maintaining a balance between bicarbonate ions and carbon dioxide in the blood. When there is an excess of carbon dioxide, it can lead to acidosis, while a decrease in carbon dioxide can result in alkalosis. Therefore, the correct answer is the bicarbonate buffer system.

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  • 19. 

    Which one of the following is the final point of water regulation...

    • A.

      Collecting tubule

    • B.

      PCT

    • C.

      DCT

    • D.

      Loop of henle

    Correct Answer
    A. Collecting tubule
    Explanation
    The collecting tubule is the final point of water regulation in the kidney. It is responsible for reabsorbing water from the filtrate and concentrating the urine. This process occurs after the initial filtration of blood in the glomerulus and reabsorption of essential nutrients in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and loop of Henle also play important roles in regulating water and electrolyte balance, but the collecting tubule is the final site where water reabsorption occurs before the urine is excreted.

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  • 20. 

    Normal urine output per day is...

    • A.

      1-1.5 L/day

    • B.

      1-2.5 L/day

    • C.

      1.5-2.5 L/day

    Correct Answer
    A. 1-1.5 L/day
    Explanation
    The normal urine output per day is 1-1.5 L/day. This range is considered to be within the normal range for urine production in a healthy individual. It is important to maintain a proper balance of fluid intake and output to ensure normal kidney function and hydration levels in the body.

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  • 21. 

    Sodium bicarbonate & carbonic acid ratio is calculated by...

    • A.

      Natelson

    • B.

      Henderson-Hasselbalch

    • C.

      Nateson

    Correct Answer
    B. Henderson-Hasselbalch
    Explanation
    The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is used to calculate the ratio between sodium bicarbonate and carbonic acid. This equation relates the pH of a solution to the pKa and the concentrations of the acid and its conjugate base. It is commonly used in the field of chemistry and biochemistry to determine the pH of a buffer solution. Therefore, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is the correct answer for this question.

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  • 22. 

    Which part of the renal tubule reabsorbs water and solutes from the filtrate and secret substances into it...

    • A.

      PCT

    • B.

      Loop of Henle

    • C.

      DCT

    • D.

      ALL the above

    Correct Answer
    A. PCT
    Explanation
    The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is responsible for reabsorbing water and solutes from the filtrate, as well as secreting substances into it. This is the initial part of the renal tubule where the majority of reabsorption occurs. The loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule (DCT) also play roles in reabsorption and secretion, but they are not solely responsible for these processes. Therefore, the correct answer is PCT.

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  • 23. 

    A common cause of respiratory alkalosis is...

    • A.

      Hyperventilation

    • B.

      Asthma

    • C.

      Vomitting

    • D.

      Diarrhea

    Correct Answer
    A. Hyperventilation
    Explanation
    Respiratory alkalosis occurs when there is an excessive loss of carbon dioxide from the body, leading to a decrease in carbonic acid levels and an increase in blood pH. Hyperventilation, characterized by rapid and deep breathing, is a common cause of respiratory alkalosis. During hyperventilation, there is an increased elimination of carbon dioxide from the lungs, resulting in an imbalance between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate levels in the blood. This leads to an alkaline state. Asthma, vomiting, and diarrhea do not directly cause hyperventilation and are not commonly associated with respiratory alkalosis.

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  • 24. 

    The bowman's capsule is the collection point of for glomerular filtrate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The bowman's capsule is a cup-shaped structure in the kidney that surrounds the glomerulus, which is responsible for filtering waste products from the blood to form urine. The bowman's capsule acts as a collection point for the glomerular filtrate, which is the fluid that is filtered out of the blood in the glomerulus. Therefore, the statement that the bowman's capsule is the collection point for glomerular filtrate is true.

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  • 25. 

    Respiratory acidosis is defined as...

    • A.

      Increase in co2 and ph

    • B.

      Increase in CO2 content and PCO2 with a decrease with ph

    • C.

      Decrease in CO2 content and increase in ph

    • D.

      Decrease in CO2 content and decrease in ph

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase in CO2 content and PCO2 with a decrease with ph
    Explanation
    Respiratory acidosis is a condition characterized by an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) content and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in the blood, which leads to a decrease in pH. When there is an accumulation of CO2 in the body, it combines with water to form carbonic acid, resulting in an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH. This condition can occur due to various factors such as hypoventilation or lung diseases that impair proper gas exchange, leading to the retention of CO2 in the blood.

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  • 26. 

    Metabolic alkalosis is due to...

    • A.

      Increase in carbonic acid (H2CO3)

    • B.

      Increase in bicarbonate (HCo3)

    • C.

      Decrease in carbonic acid (H2CO3)

    • D.

      Decrease in bicarbonate (HCo3)

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase in bicarbonate (HCo3)
    Explanation
    Metabolic alkalosis is a condition characterized by an increase in the bicarbonate (HCO3-) levels in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as excessive vomiting, intake of certain medications like diuretics, or hormonal imbalances. When there is an increase in bicarbonate, it leads to an imbalance in the acid-base levels of the body, resulting in alkalosis. This can cause symptoms like muscle twitching, confusion, and irregular heart rhythms. Therefore, an increase in bicarbonate is the correct explanation for metabolic alkalosis.

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  • 27. 

    Metabolic acidosis is due to...

    • A.

      Increase in Co2 and ph

    • B.

      Decrease in Co2 content and PCO2 with an decrease in ph

    • C.

      Decrease in Co2 content and PCO2 with an increase in ph

    • D.

      Increase in Co2 content and PCO2 with an decrease in ph

    Correct Answer
    B. Decrease in Co2 content and PCO2 with an decrease in ph
    Explanation
    Metabolic acidosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in pH levels in the body, accompanied by a decrease in carbon dioxide (CO2) content and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2). This means that there is an accumulation of acids or a loss of bicarbonate in the body, leading to a decrease in pH. The increase in CO2 and pH mentioned in the other options does not align with the characteristics of metabolic acidosis.

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  • 28. 

    The solute that constitutes most of the total osmolality is...

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Potassium 

    • C.

      Glucose

    • D.

      Urea

    Correct Answer
    A. Sodium
    Explanation
    The solute that constitutes most of the total osmolality is sodium. This is because sodium is the most abundant electrolyte in the extracellular fluid and plays a crucial role in maintaining osmotic balance and regulating fluid levels in the body. Sodium ions are actively transported across cell membranes, and their concentration gradient drives the movement of water and other solutes. Therefore, sodium is the primary solute responsible for determining the osmolality of the body fluids.

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  • 29. 

    If the GFR is too low, everything will be reabsorb including waste.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    If the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is too low, it means that the kidneys are not effectively filtering waste products from the blood. As a result, everything, including waste, will be reabsorbed back into the bloodstream instead of being excreted through urine. This can lead to a buildup of toxins and waste in the body, which can be harmful to overall health. Therefore, the statement "If the GFR is too low, everything will be reabsorbed including waste" is true.

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  • 30. 

    Even a slight decrease in the GFR results in abnormal renal function test.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A decrease in the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) does not necessarily result in abnormal renal function tests. The GFR is a measure of how well the kidneys are functioning and a decrease in GFR can indicate kidney dysfunction. However, abnormal renal function tests can also be caused by other factors such as inflammation, infection, or medication side effects. Therefore, it is not always true that a slight decrease in GFR will lead to abnormal renal function tests.

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  • 31. 

    As the filtrate travels down the loop of henle, it becomes less concentrated.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because as the filtrate travels down the loop of Henle, it actually becomes more concentrated. This is due to the reabsorption of water and solutes such as sodium and chloride ions. The loop of Henle plays a crucial role in the concentration of urine by creating a concentration gradient in the medulla of the kidney.

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  • 32. 

    The bowman's capsule is the collection point for glomerular filtrate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The bowman's capsule is a structure in the kidney that surrounds the glomerulus. It is responsible for collecting the glomerular filtrate, which is the fluid that is filtered from the blood in the glomerulus. This filtrate contains waste products and excess water that need to be excreted from the body. Therefore, it is correct to say that the bowman's capsule is the collection point for glomerular filtrate.

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  • 33. 

    The total conc. of cations & anions is equal in the body fluids is described as...

    • A.

      Anion gap

    • B.

      Alkalosis

    • C.

      Acidosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Anion gap
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Anion gap. Anion gap refers to the difference between the concentrations of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negatively charged ions) in the body fluids. In a healthy individual, the total concentration of cations and anions is equal, resulting in a balanced anion gap. An imbalance in the anion gap can indicate certain medical conditions or metabolic disorders.

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  • 34. 

    Alkalemia =

    • A.

      Decrease in H+ conc.

    • B.

      Increase in H+ conc.

    Correct Answer
    A. Decrease in H+ conc.
    Explanation
    Alkalemia refers to a condition in which the blood pH level is higher than the normal range. This can be caused by a decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+). When there is a decrease in H+ concentration, it results in a more alkaline or basic environment, leading to alkalemia. Therefore, the correct answer is "decrease in H+ conc."

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  • 35. 

    Acidemia =

    • A.

      Increase in H+ conc.

    • B.

      Decrease in H+ conc.

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase in H+ conc.
    Explanation
    Acidemia refers to a condition in which there is an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the blood. This can occur due to various factors such as respiratory or metabolic disorders. When the concentration of H+ increases, the pH of the blood decreases, making it more acidic. Therefore, the correct answer is "increase in H+ conc."

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  • 36. 

    Respiratory alkalosis- due to a decrease in carbonic acid.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Respiratory alkalosis occurs when there is a decrease in carbonic acid levels in the body. Carbonic acid is formed when carbon dioxide combines with water in the blood. When there is a decrease in carbonic acid, the pH of the blood increases, making it more alkaline. Therefore, the statement that respiratory alkalosis is due to a decrease in carbonic acid is true.

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  • 37. 

    Alkalosis-

    • A.

      Rise in blood pH

    • B.

      Decline in blood pH

    Correct Answer
    A. Rise in blood pH
    Explanation
    Alkalosis refers to a condition where there is an increase in blood pH. This means that the blood becomes more basic or alkaline. It can occur due to various reasons such as excessive vomiting, ingestion of alkaline substances, or certain medical conditions. In alkalosis, there is a decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions in the blood, leading to an increase in pH. This can disrupt the normal functioning of the body and may cause symptoms such as muscle twitching, confusion, and tingling sensations.

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  • 38. 

    Acidosis-

    • A.

      Decline in blood pH

    • B.

      Rise in blood pH

    Correct Answer
    A. Decline in blood pH
    Explanation
    Acidosis refers to a condition in which there is a decline in blood pH. This means that the blood becomes more acidic, indicating an imbalance in the body's acid-base levels. This can occur due to various factors such as excessive production of acid, impaired elimination of acid, or a loss of bicarbonate ions. Acidosis can have detrimental effects on various bodily functions and may require medical intervention to restore the pH balance.

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  • 39. 

    The body has 3 lines of defense to regulate acid-base balance & maintain blood pH (~7.4). These include all the following except…

    • A.

      Kidneys (renal mechanism)

    • B.

      Lungs (respiratory mechanism)

    • C.

      Blood buffers

    • D.

      A and C only

    Correct Answer
    D. A and C only
    Explanation
    The body has three lines of defense to regulate acid-base balance and maintain blood pH, which are the kidneys (renal mechanism), the lungs (respiratory mechanism), and blood buffers. Therefore, the correct answer is "A and C only" because it excludes the kidneys and blood buffers, which are both important components of the body's defense against acid-base imbalances.

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  • 40. 

    BUFFERS CAN REMOVE H+ IONS FROM THE BODY.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Buffers cannot remove H+ ions from the body. Buffers are substances that help maintain the pH balance in the body by accepting or donating H+ ions as needed. They do not remove H+ ions from the body, but rather help to regulate their concentration and prevent drastic changes in pH levels.

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  • 41. 

    A Buffer is defined as a solution of weak acid (HA) & its salt (BA) with a strong base.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH when small amounts of acid or base are added. It consists of a weak acid (HA) and its salt (BA) with a strong base. The weak acid can donate protons (H+) to neutralize any added base, while the salt can accept protons to neutralize any added acid. This combination allows the buffer solution to maintain a relatively constant pH. Therefore, the statement that a buffer is defined as a solution of weak acid (HA) and its salt (BA) with a strong base is true.

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  • 42. 

    The buffering capacity of the blood is maintain reversibly by an exchange process between bicarbonate and...

    • A.

      Calcium

    • B.

      Potassium

    • C.

      Sodium

    • D.

      Chlorine

    Correct Answer
    C. Sodium
    Explanation
    The buffering capacity of the blood is maintained reversibly by an exchange process between bicarbonate and sodium. Sodium ions play a crucial role in maintaining the pH balance in the blood. They help regulate the bicarbonate concentration, which acts as a buffer to prevent drastic changes in blood pH. This exchange process ensures that the blood remains within a narrow pH range, allowing for proper functioning of bodily systems.

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  • 43. 

    Water is distributed...

    • A.

      Inside cells (14L)= ICF

    • B.

      Outside cells (28L) = ECF

    • C.

      Both A and B

    Correct Answer
    C. Both A and B
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Both A and B." This means that water is distributed both inside cells (ICF) and outside cells (ECF). The ICF refers to the fluid within the cells, while the ECF refers to the fluid outside the cells. Therefore, water is present in both compartments of the body.

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  • 44. 

    ECF is divided into...

    • A.

      Interstitial fluid (10.5L)

    • B.

      Both A and C

    • C.

      Plasma (3.5L)

    Correct Answer
    B. Both A and C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Both A and C". This means that ECF is divided into both interstitial fluid (10.5L) and plasma (3.5L). Interstitial fluid is the fluid that surrounds and bathes the cells in tissues, while plasma is the liquid component of blood. So, ECF consists of both these components.

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  • 45. 

    Plasma osmolality is largely dependent on the concentration of...

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Potassium

    • C.

      Chlorine

    • D.

      Iron

    Correct Answer
    A. Sodium
    Explanation
    Plasma osmolality is largely dependent on the concentration of sodium because sodium is the primary extracellular cation and plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of water and electrolytes in the body. It helps regulate osmotic pressure, fluid balance, and cellular function. Changes in sodium concentration can lead to alterations in plasma osmolality, which can have significant effects on various physiological processes. Potassium, chlorine, and iron also play important roles in the body, but they do not have as significant an impact on plasma osmolality as sodium does.

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  • 46. 

    principle extracellular cation...

    • A.

      Sodium (NA)

    • B.

      Potassium (K)

    • C.

      Chlorine (CL)

    Correct Answer
    A. Sodium (NA)
    Explanation
    Sodium is the principle extracellular cation because it is the most abundant cation found outside of cells in the body. It plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, nerve function, and muscle contraction. Sodium is actively transported out of cells and is regulated by the kidneys to ensure proper levels in the body. Potassium, on the other hand, is the principle intracellular cation, while chloride is an anion that helps balance the positive charge of sodium and potassium.

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  • 47. 

    principle intracellular cation is...

    • A.

      Chlorine

    • B.

      Potassium 

    • C.

      Sodium

    Correct Answer
    B. Potassium 
    Explanation
    Potassium is the principle intracellular cation because it is the most abundant positively charged ion found inside the cells. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's electrical potential, regulating cell volume, and controlling the transmission of nerve impulses. Sodium, on the other hand, is the principle extracellular cation, while chlorine is an anion commonly found in the extracellular fluid.

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  • 48. 

    Osmolarity =

    • A.

      No. of moles per L solution

    • B.

      No. of moles per kg of solvent

    Correct Answer
    A. No. of moles per L solution
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "no. of moles per L solution" because osmolarity is a measure of the concentration of solute particles in a solution. It is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. This measurement is important in determining the osmotic pressure and the overall effect of a solution on biological systems.

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  • 49. 

    Osmolality=

    • A.

      No. of moles per L solution

    • B.

      No. of moles per kg of solvent

    Correct Answer
    B. No. of moles per kg of solvent
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "no. of moles per kg of solvent." Osmolality refers to the concentration of solute particles in a solution, specifically the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. It is a measure of the solute concentration without considering the volume of the solution, making it a more accurate measure for solutions with varying volumes or temperatures.

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  • 50. 

    Sodium is actively transported out of the tubules by a ________

    Correct Answer
    NA-K ATPase pump
    Explanation
    Sodium is actively transported out of the tubules by the NA-K ATPase pump. This pump plays a crucial role in maintaining the sodium-potassium balance in the body. It uses energy from ATP to move three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell. This process is essential for various physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and maintaining proper fluid balance.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 02, 2021
    Quiz Created by
    Catherine Halcomb
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