Dr. Richmond Ch. 26

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Richmond Quizzes & Trivia

Chapter 26 Acid-Base Balance


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    True or False. Because of their abundant hydrogen bonds, all functional proteins are influenced by H+ concentration?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Functional proteins are influenced by H+ concentration because the abundance of hydrogen bonds in these proteins allows them to interact with H+ ions. These interactions can affect the protein's structure, stability, and function. Therefore, the H+ concentration plays a role in regulating the activity of functional proteins.

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  • 2. 

    What is the normal arterial blood pH?

    • A.

      7.0

    • B.

      4.7

    • C.

      7.4

    • D.

      7.35

    Correct Answer
    C. 7.4
    Explanation
    The normal arterial blood pH is 7.4. This is considered the optimal pH level for arterial blood. pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, and a pH of 7.4 indicates a slightly alkaline environment. Maintaining a stable blood pH is crucial for the proper functioning of the body's physiological processes. Deviations from this normal range can lead to various health issues.

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  • 3. 

    What is the normal pH of venous blood?

    • A.

      7.53

    • B.

      7.35

    • C.

      7.4

    • D.

      7.45

    Correct Answer
    B. 7.35
    Explanation
    The normal pH of venous blood is 7.35. pH is a measure of acidity or alkalinity, with a value of 7 being neutral. A pH below 7 indicates acidity, while a pH above 7 indicates alkalinity. The normal pH range for venous blood is slightly acidic, typically between 7.35 and 7.45. This range is important for maintaining the proper functioning of various physiological processes in the body, including enzyme activity and oxygen transport.

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  • 4. 

    Blood pH above 7.45 is _______________?

    • A.

      Alkalosis

    • B.

      Acidosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Alkalosis
    Explanation
    Blood pH above 7.45 indicates alkalosis. Alkalosis is a condition characterized by an excess of base or a deficiency of acid in the blood, resulting in a pH level higher than the normal range of 7.35-7.45. This can be caused by various factors such as hyperventilation, excessive vomiting, or certain medications. Alkalosis can lead to symptoms like muscle twitching, confusion, and tingling sensations. It is important to identify and treat the underlying cause of alkalosis to restore the acid-base balance in the body.

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  • 5. 

    Blood pH below 7.35 is ________________?

    • A.

      Alkalosis

    • B.

      Acidosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Acidosis
    Explanation
    A blood pH below 7.35 indicates acidosis. Acidosis refers to a condition where there is an excess of acid or a decrease in the levels of bicarbonate in the blood, leading to an acidic pH. This can be caused by various factors such as respiratory or metabolic disorders, kidney dysfunction, or certain medications. Acidosis can have serious implications on various body systems and may require medical intervention to restore the pH balance.

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  • 6. 

    What are the sources of H+ ions?

    • A.

      Metabolic processes and ingested food

    • B.

      Fats and proteins

    • C.

      Bicarbonate and phosphate

    • D.

      HCO3 and H+

    Correct Answer
    A. Metabolic processes and ingested food
    Explanation
    Metabolic processes and ingested food are the sources of H+ ions. During metabolic processes, cells produce H+ ions as byproducts, which are then released into the bloodstream. Additionally, ingested food contains various compounds that can release H+ ions, such as acids found in citrus fruits. Therefore, both metabolic processes and ingested food contribute to the presence of H+ ions in the body.

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  • 7. 

    What is the first line of buffer system with a reaction time of less than a second?

    • A.

      Renal mechanisms

    • B.

      Brain stem respiratory centers

    • C.

      Chemical buffers

    Correct Answer
    C. Chemical buffers
    Explanation
    Chemical buffers are the first line of the buffer system with a reaction time of less than a second. Chemical buffers play a crucial role in maintaining the pH balance in the body by quickly accepting or releasing hydrogen ions to prevent drastic changes in acidity. These buffers are present in various bodily fluids, such as blood, and help to stabilize pH levels, ensuring proper functioning of physiological processes.

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  • 8. 

    What is the buffer system that has a reaction time of 1-3 minutes and change in respiratory rate and depth?

    • A.

      Renal mechanisms

    • B.

      Brain stem respiratory centers

    • C.

      Chemical buffers

    Correct Answer
    B. Brain stem respiratory centers
    Explanation
    The brain stem respiratory centers are responsible for controlling the rate and depth of respiration. They receive inputs from various sensors in the body, such as chemoreceptors, and adjust the respiratory rate and depth accordingly. This system has a reaction time of 1-3 minutes, meaning that it takes this amount of time for the brain stem respiratory centers to respond to changes in the body's respiratory needs. Chemical buffers and renal mechanisms are not directly involved in controlling respiratory rate and depth, making them incorrect options.

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  • 9. 

    What buffer system has a reaction time of hours to a day and is most potent in acid base regulatory system?

    • A.

      Renal mechanisms

    • B.

      Brain stem respiratory centers

    • C.

      Chemical buffers

    Correct Answer
    A. Renal mechanisms
    Explanation
    Renal mechanisms refer to the processes in the kidneys that help regulate the acid-base balance in the body. These mechanisms involve the reabsorption and excretion of ions, such as hydrogen and bicarbonate ions, to maintain the pH within a normal range. Unlike chemical buffers, which have a reaction time of seconds to minutes, renal mechanisms have a much slower reaction time of hours to a day. Therefore, they are considered to be the most potent buffer system in the acid-base regulatory system.

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  • 10. 

    In a chemical buffer sytem molecules will bind or release H+ when the pH drops?

    • A.

      Release

    • B.

      Bind

    Correct Answer
    B. Bind
    Explanation
    In a chemical buffer system, molecules will bind H+ when the pH drops. This is because buffers are composed of weak acids and their conjugate bases, which can react with H+ ions in the solution. When the pH drops, the concentration of H+ ions increases, causing the weak acid molecules in the buffer to bind with these excess H+ ions, preventing a drastic change in the pH level. This binding process helps maintain the stability of the solution's pH.

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  • 11. 

    In a chemical buffer system molecules will bind or release H+ when the pH rises?

    • A.

      Release

    • B.

      Bind

    Correct Answer
    A. Release
    Explanation
    In a chemical buffer system, when the pH rises, the molecules in the system will release H+ ions. This is because buffers are designed to maintain a stable pH by absorbing excess H+ ions when the pH is too low and releasing H+ ions when the pH is too high. By releasing H+ ions, the buffer system helps to bring the pH back to its optimal level, preventing drastic changes in acidity or alkalinity.

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  • 12. 

    What are the three chemical buffer systems?

    • A.

      Brain stem, chemical, renal

    • B.

      Bicarbonate, phosphate, protein

    • C.

      Alkalosis, acidosis, pH

    Correct Answer
    B. Bicarbonate, phosphate, protein
    Explanation
    The correct answer is bicarbonate, phosphate, protein. Chemical buffer systems are essential for maintaining the pH balance in the body. Bicarbonate acts as a buffer in the blood and extracellular fluid, phosphate buffers are present in intracellular fluids, and proteins act as buffers in both intracellular and extracellular fluids. These buffer systems help prevent drastic changes in pH levels by accepting or donating hydrogen ions as needed.

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  • 13. 

    What is the main buffer of extracellular fluid? (ECF)

    • A.

      Bicarbonate buffer

    • B.

      Chemical buffer

    • C.

      Phosphate buffer

    • D.

      Protein buffer

    Correct Answer
    A. Bicarbonate buffer
    Explanation
    The main buffer of extracellular fluid is the bicarbonate buffer. Bicarbonate (HCO3-) acts as a weak base and can accept hydrogen ions (H+) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which can then dissociate into water and carbon dioxide. This buffer system helps to maintain the pH of the extracellular fluid within a narrow range by either accepting or donating hydrogen ions as needed.

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  • 14. 

    What is the result of a strong acid?

    • A.

      Slight increase in pH

    • B.

      Slight decrease in pH

    Correct Answer
    B. Slight decrease in pH
    Explanation
    A strong acid is a substance that completely dissociates in water, releasing a high concentration of hydrogen ions (H+). When these hydrogen ions are released, they increase the concentration of H+ ions in the solution, leading to a decrease in pH. Therefore, the result of a strong acid is a slight decrease in pH.

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  • 15. 

    What is the result of a strong base?

    • A.

      Slight increase in pH

    • B.

      Slight decrease in pH

    Correct Answer
    A. Slight increase in pH
    Explanation
    A strong base is a substance that can accept protons or donate hydroxide ions. When a strong base is added to a solution, it reacts with water molecules to form hydroxide ions (OH-) which increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in the solution. The presence of more hydroxide ions leads to a decrease in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in the solution, resulting in an increase in pH. Therefore, the result of a strong base is a slight increase in pH.

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  • 16. 

    The bicarbonate ion concentration of ECF is regulated by_________?

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      H+

    • C.

      Respiratory system

    • D.

      Kidneys

    Correct Answer
    D. Kidneys
    Explanation
    The bicarbonate ion concentration of ECF is regulated by the kidneys. The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining the acid-base balance of the body by reabsorbing or excreting bicarbonate ions. They filter the blood and selectively reabsorb bicarbonate ions back into the bloodstream or excrete them in the urine, depending on the body's needs. This regulation helps to maintain the pH of the extracellular fluid within a narrow range, ensuring proper functioning of various physiological processes.

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  • 17. 

    The bicarbonate ion concentration of plasma is regulated by __________________?

    • A.

      Kidneys

    • B.

      Respiratory system

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Arterioles

    Correct Answer
    B. Respiratory system
    Explanation
    The bicarbonate ion concentration of plasma is regulated by the respiratory system. The respiratory system plays a crucial role in maintaining the acid-base balance in the body by regulating the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) in the blood. When CO2 levels increase, the respiratory system increases the breathing rate, allowing more CO2 to be exhaled, which helps to decrease the bicarbonate ion concentration. Conversely, when CO2 levels decrease, the respiratory system slows down the breathing rate, allowing more CO2 to accumulate in the blood, which increases the bicarbonate ion concentration.

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  • 18. 

    The total amount of bicarbonate that is available in the body is called the ______________.

    • A.

      Alkaline reserve

    • B.

      Acidolic reserve

    • C.

      Bicarbonate ion reserve

    Correct Answer
    A. Alkaline reserve
    Explanation
    The term "alkaline reserve" refers to the total amount of bicarbonate that is present in the body. Bicarbonate is an important component of the body's buffering system, which helps maintain the pH balance. It acts as a base and helps neutralize excess acid in the body. Therefore, the alkaline reserve represents the body's ability to counteract acidosis and maintain a stable pH level.

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  • 19. 

    What system buffers urine and ICF?

    • A.

      Protein buffer systems

    • B.

      Bicarbonate buffer system

    • C.

      Chemical buffer system

    • D.

      Phosphate buffer system

    Correct Answer
    D. Phosphate buffer system
    Explanation
    The phosphate buffer system is responsible for buffering urine and intracellular fluid (ICF). Phosphate ions can act as both a weak acid and a weak base, allowing them to bind to excess hydrogen ions or release hydrogen ions as needed to maintain a stable pH. This buffering system helps to prevent drastic changes in pH levels in the urine and ICF, ensuring that they remain within the appropriate range for normal physiological functioning.

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  • 20. 

    What buffer system is the most plentiful and powerful source of buffers and is found in plasma and the cells?

    • A.

      Phosphate buffer system

    • B.

      Chemical buffer system

    • C.

      Protein buffer system

    • D.

      Renal mechanisms

    Correct Answer
    C. Protein buffer system
    Explanation
    The protein buffer system is the most plentiful and powerful source of buffers found in plasma and cells. Proteins have the ability to act as both acids and bases, allowing them to bind or release hydrogen ions to maintain a stable pH. This buffer system plays a crucial role in regulating the pH of bodily fluids, preventing drastic changes that could disrupt cellular function. Additionally, proteins are abundant in the body, making this buffer system highly available and effective.

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  • 21. 

    True or False? Amino acids have exposed groups of atoms called carboxly groups (-COOH) which dissociate to release H+ when the pH begins to rise and other amino acids have exposed groups that can act as bases and accept H+.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In old book see pg. 1051

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  • 22. 

    The _______________ of red blood cells is an excellent example of a protein that functions as an intracellular buffer.

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      H+

    • C.

      Hemoglobin

    Correct Answer
    C. Hemoglobin
    Explanation
    In old a&p book see pg. 1051

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  • 23. 

    Carbon dioxide generated by cellular respiration enters erythrocytes in the circulation and is converted to bicarbonate ions for transport in the plasma:CO2 + H2O ----> H2CO3 <---> H+  + HCO3 CO2 unloading reaction causes a shift to the_____________?

    • A.

      Right

    • B.

      Left

    Correct Answer
    B. Left
    Explanation
    In old a&p book see pg. 1052

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  • 24. 

    An accumulation of CO2 is called____________________?

    • A.

      Hypercapnia

    • B.

      Hyperoxygenation

    • C.

      Hyperemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypercapnia
    Explanation
    Hypercapnia is the correct answer because it refers to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the bloodstream. This condition occurs when the body is unable to adequately remove CO2, leading to an increase in its levels. Hyperoxygenation, on the other hand, refers to an excessive amount of oxygen in the blood, while hyperemia refers to an increased blood flow to a specific area of the body.

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  • 25. 

    In respiratory regulation of H+ if blood pH decreases then the respiratory center (in the medulla oblongata) is _________________

    • A.

      Depressed

    • B.

      Activated

    Correct Answer
    B. Activated
    Explanation
    When blood pH decreases, it indicates that the blood is becoming more acidic. In response to this, the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata is activated. This activation leads to an increase in the rate and depth of breathing, allowing the body to eliminate excess carbon dioxide (CO2) through exhalation. By removing CO2, the body can help restore the blood pH to a more normal level. Therefore, the correct answer is "activated."

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  • 26. 

    In respiratory regulation of H+ if blood pH is increased the respiratory center (in the medulla oblongata) is _________________

    • A.

      Depressed

    • B.

      Activated.

    Correct Answer
    A. Depressed
    Explanation
    When blood pH is increased, it means that the blood is becoming more alkaline. In response to this, the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata is depressed. This means that the respiratory center is inhibited or slowed down, leading to a decrease in the rate and depth of breathing. This is a regulatory mechanism that helps to bring the blood pH back to normal levels by reducing the elimination of carbon dioxide, which is an acidic compound.

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  • 27. 

    A major control of blood pH with a variable range of 7.2 to 7.6 is__________________.

    • A.

      Compensation

    • B.

      Respiratory regulation

    • C.

      Alveolar ventilation

    Correct Answer
    C. Alveolar ventilation
    Explanation
    Alveolar ventilation refers to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the pH level of blood within a narrow range of 7.2 to 7.6. By adjusting the rate and depth of breathing, alveolar ventilation helps regulate the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. When the blood becomes too acidic (low pH), the body increases alveolar ventilation to remove excess carbon dioxide and restore pH balance. Conversely, when the blood becomes too alkaline (high pH), alveolar ventilation decreases to retain carbon dioxide and maintain pH homeostasis.

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  • 28. 

    What can result from shallow breathing, either from hypoventilation or impaired lung infections, and is characterized by falling blood pH and net CO2 retention?

    • A.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • B.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • C.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • D.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Respiratory acidosis
    Explanation
    see pg 1055 in old a&p book

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  • 29. 

    What results when carbon dioxide is eliminated from the body faster than it is produced, causing the blood to become more alkaline and hyperventilation is occuring?

    • A.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • B.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • C.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • D.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Respiratory alkalosis
    Explanation
    Respiratory alkalosis occurs when carbon dioxide is eliminated from the body faster than it is produced, leading to a decrease in the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood. This causes the blood to become more alkaline. Hyperventilation, which is characterized by rapid and deep breathing, can cause this condition as it increases the rate of carbon dioxide elimination. Therefore, respiratory alkalosis is the correct answer in this case.

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  • 30. 

    Only the _____________ can rid the body of acids generated by cellular metabolism.

    Correct Answer
    kidneys
    kidney
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "kidneys". The kidneys are responsible for filtering waste products, including acids, from the blood and excreting them in the form of urine. They help maintain the body's acid-base balance by regulating the levels of acids and bases in the blood. Without the kidneys, the body would not be able to eliminate these acids, leading to an imbalance and potential health issues.

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  • 31. 

    ____________ buffers cannot eliminate acids or bases from the body.

    • A.

      Chemical

    • B.

      Cellular

    • C.

      Acidosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Chemical
    Explanation
    Chemical buffers are unable to eliminate acids or bases from the body. While chemical buffers can help regulate pH levels by absorbing or releasing hydrogen ions, they do not remove acids or bases from the body. Other physiological processes, such as cellular metabolism and the respiratory system, are responsible for eliminating acids and bases from the body. Therefore, the correct answer is chemical.

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  • 32. 

    Which buffer system is the most important inorganic blood buffer?

    • A.

      Chemical

    • B.

      Bicarbonate

    • C.

      Phosphate

    Correct Answer
    B. Bicarbonate
    Explanation
    Bicarbonate is the most important inorganic blood buffer system because it helps maintain the pH balance in the blood. It acts as a weak base and can accept hydrogen ions to decrease acidity or release hydrogen ions to increase acidity, thus regulating the blood pH. Bicarbonate buffer system plays a crucial role in maintaining the acid-base balance in the body and preventing drastic changes in blood pH that could be harmful to cellular functions.

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  • 33. 

    True or False. The kidneys can conserve bicarbonate ions from filtrate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    see pg. 1053

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  • 34. 

    True or False. Renal tubules can synthesize new bicarbonate ions (but will excrete H+ ions)

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because renal tubules have the ability to synthesize new bicarbonate ions. They play a crucial role in maintaining the acid-base balance in the body by reabsorbing bicarbonate ions and excreting hydrogen ions. This process helps to regulate the pH of the blood and maintain homeostasis.

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  • 35. 

    If body enters ____________: Tubules secrete bicarbonate ions and reclaim H+ ions.

    • A.

      Acidosis

    • B.

      Alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Alkalosis
    Explanation
    In alkalosis, the body's pH level becomes too alkaline or basic. To counteract this, the tubules in the body secrete bicarbonate ions and reclaim H+ ions. This helps to lower the pH level and bring it back to a more normal range. In acidosis, on the other hand, the body's pH level becomes too acidic, and the tubules would work to secrete H+ ions and reclaim bicarbonate ions to raise the pH level.

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  • 36. 

    What is normal PCO2?

    • A.

      Above 45mm/hg

    • B.

      Below 35mm/hg

    • C.

      55-65mm/hg

    • D.

      35-45mm/hg

    Correct Answer
    D. 35-45mm/hg
    Explanation
    The normal PCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) in the blood is typically between 35-45mm/hg. This range indicates a balanced level of carbon dioxide in the body, which is essential for maintaining proper pH and respiratory function. PCO2 levels above 45mm/hg may suggest respiratory acidosis or inadequate ventilation, while levels below 35mm/hg may indicate respiratory alkalosis or hyperventilation. Therefore, the correct answer is 35-45mm/hg.

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  • 37. 

    What results from carbon dioxide retention a, PCO2 above 45mm/hg, and is the most common cause of acid-base imbalance?

    • A.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • C.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • D.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Respiratory acidosis
    Explanation
    Respiratory acidosis occurs when there is an accumulation of carbon dioxide in the body, leading to an increase in PCO2 levels above 45mm/hg. This condition is the most common cause of acid-base imbalance. It is characterized by a decrease in blood pH and can be caused by conditions such as hypoventilation, lung diseases, or respiratory muscle weakness. The retention of carbon dioxide leads to an increase in the production of carbonic acid, resulting in an acidic environment in the body.

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  • 38. 

    What occurs when carbon dioxide is eliminated faster than it is produced and has a PCO2 below 35mm/hg?

    • A.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • B.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    • C.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • D.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Respiratory alkalosis
    Explanation
    Respiratory alkalosis occurs when carbon dioxide is eliminated faster than it is produced, leading to a decrease in PCO2 levels below 35mm/hg. This condition is characterized by a shift in the body's pH towards alkalinity, causing symptoms such as dizziness, tingling in the extremities, and muscle spasms. The excessive elimination of carbon dioxide can be caused by hyperventilation, fever, anxiety, or high altitudes.

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  • 39. 

    Pneumonia, cystic fibrosis and emphysema all result in increased CO2, decreased blood pH, shallow breathing and increased PCO2. What is this condition called?

    • A.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • B.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • C.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • D.

      Respiratorky alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Respiratory acidosis
    Explanation
    Pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, and emphysema are all conditions that affect the respiratory system and can lead to decreased lung function. As a result, the body is unable to effectively eliminate carbon dioxide (CO2), leading to increased levels of CO2 in the blood. This causes a decrease in blood pH, as CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid. Shallow breathing is a compensatory mechanism the body uses to try to remove excess CO2. Therefore, the correct answer is respiratory acidosis, which refers to a condition characterized by increased CO2, decreased blood pH, shallow breathing, and increased PCO2.

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  • 40. 

    What is associated with stress or pain and results in hyperventilation, increased blood pH and decreased PCO2?

    • A.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • B.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • C.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • D.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Respiratory alkalosis
    Explanation
    Respiratory alkalosis is associated with stress or pain and results in hyperventilation, increased blood pH, and decreased PCO2. When a person hyperventilates, they breathe rapidly and shallowly, causing excessive elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the body. This leads to a decrease in the partial pressure of CO2 in the blood, resulting in an alkaline state (increased blood pH). This condition is known as respiratory alkalosis. It is often seen in situations of anxiety, panic attacks, or pain, where the body's response is to breathe rapidly in an attempt to increase oxygen supply.

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  • 41. 

    What is the 2nd most common cause of acid-base imbalances, has low blood pH, low HCO3, decreased PCO2 and can be caused by alcohol consumption, lactic acid accumulation, ketosis and/or diarrhea?

    • A.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • B.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • C.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • D.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Metabolic acidosis
    Explanation
    Metabolic acidosis is the correct answer because it is characterized by low blood pH, low bicarbonate (HCO3) levels, and decreased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2). It can be caused by various factors such as alcohol consumption, lactic acid accumulation, ketosis, and diarrhea. This condition occurs when there is an excess of acid or a loss of bicarbonate in the body, leading to an imbalance in the acid-base levels.

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  • 42. 

    What is caused by vomiting or excess intake of antacids and has an increased blood pH, increased HCO3 and an increased PCO2?

    • A.

      Metabolic acidosis

    • B.

      Metabolic alkalosis

    • C.

      Respiratory acidosis

    • D.

      Respiratory alkalosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Metabolic alkalosis
    Explanation
    Metabolic alkalosis is caused by vomiting or excessive intake of antacids. It is characterized by an increased blood pH, increased levels of bicarbonate (HCO3), and increased levels of carbon dioxide (PCO2). This occurs due to the loss of acid from the body or an increase in bicarbonate levels. The increased bicarbonate levels cause the blood to become more alkaline, leading to metabolic alkalosis.

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  • 43. 

    *FREEBIE* Blood pH limits are 7.0-7.8. Below 7.0 central nervous system depressed->coma->deathAbove 7.8 nervous system over-excited ->convulsions->deathRespiratory and renal compensations: Restore blood pH

  • 44. 

    Gamete production in males begins at:

    • A.

      Infancy

    • B.

      Birth

    • C.

      Puberty

    Correct Answer
    C. Puberty
    Explanation
    Gamete production in males begins at puberty. This is when the reproductive system matures and starts producing sperm cells. Prior to puberty, the male reproductive system is not fully developed, and therefore, gamete production does not occur. Infancy and birth are too early stages for gamete production to begin.

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  • 45. 

    True or False: Sperm development takes 64-72 days?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Sperm development does indeed take approximately 64-72 days. The process of spermatogenesis begins in the testes, where immature sperm cells called spermatogonia undergo a series of divisions and differentiations to eventually form mature sperm cells. This process takes around 2-3 months to complete. The newly formed sperm cells then travel through the epididymis, where they mature and gain motility before being ejaculated during sexual intercourse. Therefore, the statement that sperm development takes 64-72 days is true.

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  • 46. 

    What day(s) of the ovarian cycle is the following?First day of menstrual phase, GnRH stimulates secretion of FSH and LH by anterior pituitary

    • A.

      Days 5-10

    • B.

      Days 10-12

    • C.

      Day 1

    • D.

      Day 28

    Correct Answer
    C. Day 1
    Explanation
    On the first day of the menstrual phase, GnRH stimulates the secretion of FSH and LH by the anterior pituitary. This is the beginning of the ovarian cycle, where the follicles in the ovaries start to develop. Therefore, the correct answer is Day 1.

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  • 47. 

    On what(s) day of the ovarian cycle is there a burst of LH and FSH from anterior pituitary causing ovulation to occur?

    • A.

      Day 28

    • B.

      Day 1

    • C.

      Days 15-20

    • D.

      Day 14

    Correct Answer
    D. Day 14
    Explanation
    During the ovarian cycle, there is a burst of LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) from the anterior pituitary on day 14, which causes ovulation to occur. This is because the surge of LH triggers the release of a mature egg from the ovary, which is then ready for fertilization. Therefore, day 14 is the correct answer as it corresponds to the peak of LH and FSH secretion, leading to ovulation.

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  • 48. 

    The ovarian cycle consists of three phases, the follicular phase, ovulation and the __________ phase.

    • A.

      Primary

    • B.

      Luteal

    • C.

      Secretory

    • D.

      Proliferative

    Correct Answer
    B. Luteal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is luteal. The ovarian cycle consists of three phases: the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase. During the luteal phase, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and prepares the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg. This phase typically lasts for about 14 days and if pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to the start of a new ovarian cycle.

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  • 49. 

    What is secreted by the trophoblasts of blastocysts (day 7), and maintains the corpus luteum?

    • A.

      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

    • B.

      Follicle stimulating hormone

    • C.

      Luteinizing hormone

    • D.

      Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone

    Correct Answer
    D. Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone
    Explanation
    Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) is secreted by the trophoblasts of blastocysts on day 7. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the corpus luteum, which is responsible for producing progesterone during early pregnancy. hCG stimulates the corpus luteum to continue producing progesterone, which is necessary for the maintenance of the endometrium and the prevention of menstruation. This hormone is commonly used as a marker in pregnancy tests, as its presence indicates the presence of a developing embryo.

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  • 50. 

    Amniocentisis can be taken at what week(s) of pregnancy?

    • A.

      8-10 weeks

    • B.

      10-12 weeks

    • C.

      14-16 weeks

    • D.

      Anytime, does not matter

    Correct Answer
    C. 14-16 weeks
    Explanation
    Amniocentesis is a prenatal test that is typically performed between 14-16 weeks of pregnancy. This timing allows for the collection of a sufficient amount of amniotic fluid for testing. The test involves inserting a needle into the amniotic sac to extract a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal cells. These cells are then analyzed to detect genetic abnormalities or other conditions. Performing amniocentesis earlier than 14 weeks may increase the risk of complications, while waiting until after 16 weeks may reduce the accuracy of the test. Therefore, the optimal time for amniocentesis is between 14-16 weeks of pregnancy.

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