Politici Comerciale SI Comert International - Licenta Rau

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Politici Comerciale SI Comert International - Licenta Rau - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Printre direcţiile pe care pot fi grupate prevederile specifice ale OMC referitoare la ţările în curs de dezvoltare regăsim:

    • A.

      Nivel mai înalt al obligaţiilor

    • B.

      Perioade mai flexibile de punere în aplicare a angajamentelor

    • C.

      Tratamentul mai favorabil acordat ţărilor dezvoltate

    • D.

      Angajamentul ţărilor dezvoltate de a acorda credite preferenţiale ţărilor în dezvoltare pentru mai rapida dezvoltare a acestora

    Correct Answer
    B. Perioade mai flexibile de punere în aplicare a angajamentelor
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "perioade mai flexibile de punere în aplicare a angajamentelor." This means that one of the specific provisions of the WTO regarding developing countries is that they are given more flexible timeframes to implement their commitments. This recognizes that developing countries may need more time and support to fully comply with the obligations set by the WTO. This flexibility allows them to gradually adjust their policies and practices in a way that suits their specific needs and circumstances.

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  • 2. 

    Nu este o caracteristică sistemică a mecanismului OMC de soluţionare a diferendelor:

    • A.

      La mecanism participă direct doar guvernele ţărilor membre

    • B.

      Compensarea pierderilor înregistrate de parteneri nu este de regulă cerută sau acordată

    • C.

      Prin consultări bilaterale se rezolvă majoritatea diferendelor apărute între membrii

    • D.

      Costurile de administrare a sistemului sunt reduse

    Correct Answer
    D. Costurile de administrare a sistemului sunt reduse
    Explanation
    The statement "costurile de administrare a sistemului sunt reduse" suggests that the administration costs of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism are low. This means that the expenses associated with managing and operating the system are not high. This characteristic implies that the mechanism is efficient and cost-effective in resolving trade disputes between member countries.

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  • 3. 

    A rămas acord plurilateral, la finele Rundei Uruguay:

    • A.

      Acordul privind aeronavele civile

    • B.

      Acordul privind produsele tropicale

    • C.

      Acordul privind salvgardarea

    • D.

      Codul antidumping

    Correct Answer
    A. Acordul privind aeronavele civile
    Explanation
    At the end of the Uruguay Round, a plurilateral agreement was reached on civil aircraft. This means that multiple countries agreed to a set of rules and regulations regarding civil aircraft. The agreement likely covers various aspects such as safety standards, trade regulations, and cooperation between countries in the aviation industry. This agreement is important for promoting international cooperation and ensuring the smooth operation of civil aviation across borders.

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  • 4. 

    La finele rundei Uruguay s-a stabilit continuarea negocierilor privind serviciile in domeniul:

    • A.

      Serviciilor educationale

    • B.

      Transporturi aeriene

    • C.

      Serviciile de consultanta

    • D.

      Transporturile maritime

    Correct Answer
    D. Transporturile maritime
    Explanation
    The question is asking about the continuation of negotiations in a specific field at the end of the round in Uruguay. The correct answer is "transporturile maritime" which translates to "maritime transport" in English. This means that the negotiations were focused on the services related to maritime transportation.

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  • 5. 

    Sunset clause este acea clauza adoptata la Runda Uruguay care prevedea ca:

    • A.

      Toate masurile compatibile conduitei GATT trebuiau retrase pana la finele rundei de negocieri

    • B.

      In schimbul eliminarii masurilor incompatibile conduitei internationale nu pot fi solicitate concesii

    • C.

      Orice masura din zona gri trebuia retrasa automat

    • D.

      Orice actiune de salvgardare trebuie sa fie limitata in timp

    Correct Answer
    D. Orice actiune de salvgardare trebuie sa fie limitata in timp
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "orice actiune de salvgardare trebuie sa fie limitata in timp" because a sunset clause refers to a provision in a law or agreement that sets a specific expiration date or termination point. In the context of international trade, a sunset clause would mean that any safeguard measures implemented to protect domestic industries from import competition must have a time limit and cannot be permanent. This ensures that the measures are temporary and do not disrupt the normal functioning of international trade in the long term.

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  • 6. 

    Nu este corecta una dintre urmatoarele afirmatii:

    • A.

      Membrii GATT s-au numit parti contractante

    • B.

      Regimul de draw-back este o masura de stimulare a exporturilor de natura fiscala

    • C.

      Indicele de frecventa se calculeaza ca raport intre volumul importurilor vizate de bariere netarifare si volumul total al importurilor

    • D.

      Examinarea politicii comerciale a primelor patru mari puteri comerciale se face la fiecare 2 ani

    Correct Answer
    C. Indicele de frecventa se calculeaza ca raport intre volumul importurilor vizate de bariere netarifare si volumul total al importurilor
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "indicele de frecventa se calculeaza ca raport intre volumul importurilor vizate de bariere netarifare si volumul total al importurilor". The statement is incorrect because the frequency index is actually calculated as the ratio between the number of occurrences of a specific event and the total number of events in a given period, not related to import volumes and tariff barriers.

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  • 7. 

    Este corecta doar afirmatia urmatoare:

    • A.

      Dispersia tarifara este diferenta dintre taxele vamale din doua tarife vamale diferite

    • B.

      OMC este o organizatie internationala din Sistemul Organizatiei Natiunilor Unite

    • C.

      Comertul cu servicii a facut obiectul negocierilor la ultimele doua runde GATT

    • D.

      Acordul privind achizitiile guvernamentale incheiat la Runda Uruguay este un acord plurilateral

    Correct Answer
    D. Acordul privind achizitiile guvernamentale incheiat la Runda Uruguay este un acord plurilateral
    Explanation
    The given statement is correct because the Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) concluded during the Uruguay Round of negotiations is indeed a plurilateral agreement. This means that it is an agreement between a limited number of WTO members, rather than being a multilateral agreement that includes all WTO members. The GPA aims to promote transparency, openness, and non-discrimination in government procurement.

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  • 8. 

    Printre principalele directii si actiuni avute in vedere de UE prin intermediul conceptului de eEurope nu regasim:

    • A.

      Folosirea la o scara mica (restransa) a card-urilor inteligente - Smart Card - pentru evitarea fraudelor aparute in sistem

    • B.

      Oferirea de servicii medicale on-line

    • C.

      Reprezentarea autoritatilor publice in varianta on-line

    • D.

      Asigurarea unui acces la preturi cat mai mici la Internet

    Correct Answer
    A. Folosirea la o scara mica (restransa) a card-urilor inteligente - Smart Card - pentru evitarea fraudelor aparute in sistem
    Explanation
    The eEurope concept focuses on various actions and directions taken by the EU, such as providing online medical services, representing public authorities online, and ensuring affordable internet access. However, it does not include the use of smart cards on a small scale to prevent fraud in the system.

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  • 9. 

    Printre trasaturile caracteristice ale protectiei economiei nationale prin intermediul instrumentelor de politica comerciala nu regasim:

    • A.

      Reprezinta numai una dintre alternativele ce pot fi folosite

    • B.

      Nu presupune in mod obligatoriu existenta unui parteneriat international

    • C.

      Trebuie sa asigure perspectiva reala a viabilitatii sectorului protejat

    • D.

      Protejarea economiei nationale se face cu instrumente specifice

    Correct Answer
    B. Nu presupune in mod obligatoriu existenta unui parteneriat international
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "nu presupune in mod obligatoriu existenta unui parteneriat international" (does not necessarily require the existence of an international partnership). This means that the protection of the national economy through trade policy instruments can be implemented without the need for an international partnership.

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  • 10. 

    Printre caracteristicile barierelor netarifare ce implica o limitare indirecta a importurilor prin pret regasim:

    • A.

      Intareste ideea ca protectia nu este o concesie facuta unor sectoare neeficiente, ci un drept cuvenit acestora

    • B.

      Punerea in aplicare a unor sanctiuni comerciale

    • C.

      Sunt masuri comerciale nediscriminatorii

    • D.

      Cadrul legal care le reglementeaza nu permite abuzul de astfel de masuri protectioniste

    Correct Answer
    A. Intareste ideea ca protectia nu este o concesie facuta unor sectoare neeficiente, ci un drept cuvenit acestora
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that one of the characteristics of non-tariff barriers that involve an indirect limitation of imports through price is that it reinforces the idea that protection is not a concession made to inefficient sectors, but a right deserved by them. This implies that the use of non-tariff barriers is justified as a means to protect domestic industries that may be less efficient compared to foreign competitors.

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  • 11. 

    In conditiile in care valoarea produsului finit este de 10000 unitati monetare, valoarea manoperei incorporate in produsul finit este de 2000 unitati monetare, iar taxa vamala nominala perceputa la produsul finit este de 20%, dispersia tarifara de 10 puncte procentuale, rata protectiei efective va fi:

    • A.

      90%

    • B.

      50%

    • C.

      28%

    • D.

      60%

    Correct Answer
    D. 60%
  • 12. 

    Printre scopurile avute in vedere in cadrul operatiunii de impunere vamala intalnim:

    • A.

      Protejarea sanatatii si securitatii populatiei

    • B.

      Respectarea prevederilor politicii comerciale

    • C.

      Plata taxelor vamale

    • D.

      Incurajarea activitatilor de export

    Correct Answer
    C. Plata taxelor vamale
    Explanation
    The purpose of customs imposition includes the payment of customs duties. These duties are charges imposed on goods that are being imported or exported, and they contribute to the revenue of the government. By ensuring that customs duties are paid, the government can generate income that can be used for various purposes such as funding public services and infrastructure development. Therefore, the correct answer is "plata taxelor vamale" which translates to "payment of customs duties."

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  • 13. 

    Este corecta una dintre urmatoarele afirmatii:

    • A.

      Tarifele vamale simple contin cate o singura coloana de taxe vamale pentru fiecare sursa de provenienta a marfurilor

    • B.

      Unul dintre efectele generate de simplificarea procedurilor vamale il reprezinta cresterea profitabilitatii firmelor importatoare

    • C.

      Tara de origine si aceea de provenienta a marfurilor coincid intotdeaua

    • D.

      Unul dintre efectele generate de simplificarea procedurilor vamale il reprezinta reducerea integritatii si credibilitatii unor structuri ale administratiei publice

    Correct Answer
    B. Unul dintre efectele generate de simplificarea procedurilor vamale il reprezinta cresterea profitabilitatii firmelor importatoare
    Explanation
    Simplifying customs procedures can lead to an increase in profitability for importing companies. This is because simplified procedures can reduce the time and costs associated with customs clearance, allowing companies to receive their goods faster and at a lower cost. This can result in improved efficiency and competitiveness for importers, leading to higher profits.

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  • 14. 

    Deprecierea monedei nationale este o masura de stimulare a exporturilor:

    • A.

      Care produce efecte favorabile pe termen foarte lung

    • B.

      Care are efect favorabil daca ritmul in care se produce deprecierea este superior celui in care se erodeaza puterea de cumparare a monedei la nivel intern

    • C.

      Care produce efecte favorabile pe termen lung

    • D.

      Care determina castiguri pentru firmele exportatoare ca urmare a preturilor mai ridicate pe care acestea le pot practica pe pietele externe

    Correct Answer
    B. Care are efect favorabil daca ritmul in care se produce deprecierea este superior celui in care se erodeaza puterea de cumparare a monedei la nivel intern
    Explanation
    Depreciation of the national currency can stimulate exports if the rate at which the currency depreciates is higher than the rate at which the purchasing power of the currency erodes domestically. This means that if the currency depreciates faster than inflation, it can make exports more competitive in international markets and lead to higher prices for exporting firms. However, it is important to note that this effect is only favorable if the depreciation rate is higher than the erosion of purchasing power domestically.

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  • 15. 

    Contingentele tarifare reprezinta:

    • A.

      O restrictie comerciala aplicata in circumstante determinate

    • B.

      O modalitate prin care se urmareste cresterea nejustificata a preturilor la import

    • C.

      O modalitate de punere in aplicare a unui regim comercial preferential

    • D.

      O bariera comerciala care limiteaza indirect importurile prin mecanismul preturilor

    Correct Answer
    C. O modalitate de punere in aplicare a unui regim comercial preferential
    Explanation
    Contingentele tarifare reprezinta o modalitate de punere in aplicare a unui regim comercial preferential. Acest lucru inseamna ca ele sunt utilizate pentru a facilita schimburile comerciale intre anumite tari sau grupuri de tari, prin permiterea importului sau exportului unui anumit volum de bunuri la tarife preferentiale sau chiar la tarife zero. Aceasta masura are scopul de a incuraja comertul si de a spori cooperarea economica intre tarile implicate.

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  • 16. 

    Licentele devin bariere comerciale atunci cand:

    • A.

      Perioada de valabilitate a licentei nu depaseste perioada de derulare efectiva a tranzactiei

    • B.

      Acordarea licentelor se face in mod nediscriminatoriu

    • C.

      Procedurile de acordare a licentelor sunt cat mai simple posibil

    • D.

      Acordarea licentelor nu este conditionata de detinerea unor sume in valuta de catre solicitantii acestora

    Correct Answer
    A. Perioada de valabilitate a licentei nu depaseste perioada de derulare efectiva a tranzactiei
    Explanation
    Licenses become trade barriers when the validity period of the license does not exceed the actual transaction period. This means that if the license expires before the transaction is completed, it can hinder the trade process.

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  • 17. 

    In conditiile in care pretul de tranzactie al unui produs in conditia de livrare CPT este de 8800 euro, cheltuielile de incarcare a marfii pe mijlocul de transport sunt de 40 de euro, cheltuielile de transport si de asigurare pe parcurs extern sunt de 100 de euro, respectiv 200 euro, sa se stabileasca suma in lei ce trebuie platita de importatorul roman stiind ca: taxa vamala este de 15%, suprataxa vamala 5%, acciza 50%, TVA-ul 24%, cursul zilei 4,05 lei/euro, iar coeficientul de evaluare vamala 4,00 lei/euro.

    • A.

      44352 lei

    • B.

      80352 lei

    • C.

      15552 lei

    • D.

      44906,4 lei

    Correct Answer
    A. 44352 lei
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 44352 lei. To calculate the total amount to be paid by the Romanian importer, we need to add the transaction price (8800 euro) with the loading expenses (40 euro), transport and external insurance expenses (100 euro and 200 euro respectively). This gives us a total of 9140 euro. Then, we need to apply the customs duty (15%), customs surcharge (5%), excise tax (50%), and VAT (24%) to this amount. After applying these taxes, the total amount in euros becomes 44352. Finally, we need to convert this amount to lei using the exchange rate of 4.05 lei/euro, resulting in a total of 44352 lei.

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  • 18. 

    Printre numeroasele limite/nise existente in cadrul reglementarilor OMC si care fac posibil un comportament anticoncurential regasim:

    • A.

      Practicile incorecte folosite in companii autohtone pe pietele de export sunt sactionate in mod incorect, invocandu-se in acest context caracterul extrateritorial al unor legi

    • B.

      Desi exista prevederi exprese ale OMC prin care tarile membre sunt obligate sa puna in aplicare o legislatie in domeniul concurentei, acestea nu sunt respectate

    • C.

      Mecanismul ce funtioneaza in cadrul OMC este mai putin eficient datorita eliminarii procedurilor de apel

    • D.

      Practicile de afaceri pur private, care restrictioneaza accesul la piete si care nu sunt sustinute de stat nu pot fi atacate cu prevederile GATT sau GATS

    Correct Answer
    D. Practicile de afaceri pur private, care restrictioneaza accesul la piete si care nu sunt sustinute de stat nu pot fi atacate cu prevederile GATT sau GATS
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that purely private business practices that restrict market access and are not supported by the state cannot be challenged under the provisions of GATT or GATS. This means that if a business engages in anti-competitive practices that limit competition and hinder market access, but these practices are purely private and not backed by the government, they cannot be addressed or regulated under the rules and agreements of GATT or GATS.

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  • 19. 

    Printre aspectele semnificative ale activitatii OMC in prezent nu regasim:

    • A.

      Atentie sporita acordatata de negociatori neo-protectionismului

    • B.

      Participarea in crestere a tarilor in curs de dezvoltare la activitatile comerciale si la definirea activitatii OMC

    • C.

      Influenta crescanda exercitata de societatea civila asupra agendei comerciale multilaterale sau a politicilor comerciale derulate de tarile dezvoltate

    • D.

      Controlul eficient al OMC asupra activitatilor desfasurate de societatile transnationale

    Correct Answer
    D. Controlul eficient al OMC asupra activitatilor desfasurate de societatile transnationale
    Explanation
    The given correct answer states that one of the significant aspects of the WTO's current activities is the efficient control over the activities carried out by transnational corporations. This means that the WTO is able to effectively monitor and regulate the actions of these corporations to ensure fair and ethical practices in international trade. The other options in the question highlight different aspects of the WTO's activities, such as the attention given to neo-protectionism, the increasing participation of developing countries, and the growing influence of civil society on the multilateral trade agenda. However, the efficient control over transnational corporations is not mentioned among these significant aspects.

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  • 20. 

    In categoria subventiilor indirecte de export putem regasi:

    • A.

      Subventiile acordate pentru folosirea bunurilor indigene prioritar fata de bunurile importate

    • B.

      Subventiile pentru stimularea ajustarilor structurale

    • C.

      Subventiile pentru promovarea anumitor ramuri industriale

    • D.

      Subventiile pentru dezvoltarea retelelor infrastructurale

    Correct Answer
    B. Subventiile pentru stimularea ajustarilor structurale
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "subventiile pentru stimularea ajustarilor structurale". This refers to subsidies that are provided to stimulate structural adjustments within an economy. These subsidies are aimed at supporting industries or sectors that are undergoing significant changes or transformations, such as technological advancements or shifts in consumer preferences. By providing financial assistance, these subsidies help facilitate the necessary adjustments and ensure a smoother transition for the affected industries.

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  • 21. 

    Nu este corecta una dintre urmatoarele afirmatii:

    • A.

      Crearea de comert este o consecinta a extinderii teritoriului vamal al unei tari

    • B.

      Prelevarile variabile la import fac parte din "zona gri" a protectionismului

    • C.

      Depunerile valutare prealabile la import sunt masuri de stimulare a exporturilor de natura valutara

    • D.

      Textul GATT nu a fost ratificat de parlamentele tarilor participante

    Correct Answer
    C. Depunerile valutare prealabile la import sunt masuri de stimulare a exporturilor de natura valutara
    Explanation
    The given answer states that "depunerile valutare prealabile la import sunt masuri de stimulare a exporturilor de natura valutara" is not correct. This means that the statement "pre-depositing foreign currency on imports is a measure to stimulate currency-based exports" is incorrect. The correct explanation for this is that pre-depositing foreign currency on imports is actually a measure to control imports and conserve foreign exchange reserves, rather than stimulate exports.

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  • 22. 

    Printre costurile implicate de protectionism regasim:

    • A.

      Cresterea eficientei cu care opereaza economia protejata

    • B.

      Scaderea preturilor la produsele folosite ca input-uri de producatorii interni

    • C.

      Cresterea preturilor (in special pe termen scurt) la produsele caracterizate de o relativa inelasticitate a cererii

    • D.

      Efectele redistributive in folosul utilizatorilor de produse protejate

    Correct Answer
    B. Scaderea preturilor la produsele folosite ca input-uri de producatorii interni
    Explanation
    Protectionism refers to the practice of imposing restrictions on imports in order to protect domestic industries. One of the costs associated with protectionism is the decrease in prices of products used as inputs by domestic producers. When imports are restricted, domestic producers have less competition, which can lead to a decrease in prices of the inputs they use to produce goods. This can benefit domestic producers by reducing their production costs and potentially increasing their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, the correct answer suggests that one of the costs of protectionism is the decrease in prices of products used as inputs by domestic producers.

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  • 23. 

    Nu fac parte in mod obisnuit dintre purtatorii de cerere de protectionism:

    • A.

      Gruparile sindicale

    • B.

      Sectoarele tehnilogic-intensive

    • C.

      Gruparile ecologiste

    • D.

      Companiile transnationale

    Correct Answer
    D. Companiile transnationale
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "companiile transnationale" because the other options listed (gruparile sindicale, sectoarele tehnilogic-intensive, gruparile ecologiste) are typically associated with advocating for protectionism. However, transnational companies are usually more focused on global expansion and free trade, rather than protectionist policies.

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  • 24. 

    Printre costurile pe care le presupun normele tehnice divergente nu regasim:

    • A.

      Pierderea efectelor pozitive derivate din practicarea economiei de scara

    • B.

      Costurile implicate de actiunile de lobby necesare pentru inlaturarea acestor norme

    • C.

      Costurile de informare

    • D.

      Costurile implicate de indeplinirea normelor tehnice

    Correct Answer
    B. Costurile implicate de actiunile de lobby necesare pentru inlaturarea acestor norme
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "costurile implicate de actiunile de lobby necesare pentru inlaturarea acestor norme". This means that among the costs associated with divergent technical standards, the cost of lobbying to remove these standards is not included. This suggests that the other options, such as the loss of economies of scale, the costs of information, and the costs of complying with technical standards, are all considered as costs associated with divergent technical standards.

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  • 25. 

    Printre factorii care au contribuit la includerea problemelor ecologice pe agenda OMC nu regasim:

    • A.

      Recunoasterea existentei unor obstacole comerciale conexe cu acest domeniu

    • B.

      Perceperea faptului ca politicile ambientale nationale sunt inadecvate

    • C.

      Temerea ca politicile nationale in domeniu vor creste competitivitatea companiilor autohtone

    • D.

      Ingrijorarea existenta cu privire la efectele negative ale comertului asupra mediului

    Correct Answer
    C. Temerea ca politicile nationale in domeniu vor creste competitivitatea companiilor autohtone
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "temerea ca politicile nationale in domeniu vor creste competitivitatea companiilor autohtone" which translates to "the fear that national policies in the field will increase the competitiveness of domestic companies." This answer suggests that one factor that did not contribute to the inclusion of ecological issues on the WTO agenda is the concern that national policies in the field will benefit domestic companies.

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  • 26. 

    Sunt considerate bariere comerciale cu dubla natura, tarifara si netarifara:

    • A.

      Prelevarile variabile la import

    • B.

      Taxele de export

    • C.

      Autolimitarile la export

    • D.

      Contingentele tarifare

    Correct Answer
    A. Prelevarile variabile la import
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "prelevarile variabile la import" because it refers to variable import levies. Variable import levies are a type of trade barrier that involves imposing additional charges on imported goods based on factors such as their quantity or value. This can make imported goods more expensive and less competitive compared to domestically produced goods, thus protecting domestic industries.

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  • 27. 

    Acordarea de facilitati bugetare unor sectoare din amonte reprezinta:

    • A.

      O subventionare indirecta a exporturilor

    • B.

      O subventionare directa a exporturilor

    • C.

      Oferirea unei prime de export

    • D.

      Oferirea unei facilitati fiscale la export

    Correct Answer
    A. O subventionare indirecta a exporturilor
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "o subventionare indirecta a exporturilor" which translates to "indirect subsidization of exports" in English. This means that providing budgetary facilities to upstream sectors indirectly supports and promotes exports. It implies that the government is offering financial assistance or incentives to industries or sectors that contribute to the production or supply chain of export goods, which in turn helps boost the overall export industry.

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  • 28. 

    Discriminarea impotriva produselor straine in procedurile de achizitii guvernamentale se poate manifesta sub urmatoarea forma:

    • A.

      Limitarea accesului companiilor straine la contractele de anvergura efectuate in cadrul unor achizitii publice pe baza de licitatie publica internationala

    • B.

      Impunerea unor conditii sau cerinte discriminatorii fata de ofertantii interni care s-au asociat cu parteneri externi

    • C.

      Oferirea de tratament comercial si financiar prferential unor companii care se angajeaza sa utilizeze cantitati insemnate de produse indigene, in procesul de executare a contractelor guvernamentale

    • D.

      Distribuirea discriminatorie a caietului de sarcini elaborat in vederea organizarii licitatiei internationale implicate de o anumita categorie de achizitii guvernamentale

    Correct Answer
    C. Oferirea de tratament comercial si financiar prferential unor companii care se angajeaza sa utilizeze cantitati insemnate de produse indigene, in procesul de executare a contractelor guvernamentale
    Explanation
    The correct answer is providing preferential commercial and financial treatment to companies that commit to using significant quantities of domestic products in the execution of government contracts. This form of discrimination involves giving special advantages to companies that prioritize the use of domestic products, which can disadvantage foreign companies and create an unfair playing field in government procurement processes.

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  • 29. 

    Dupa obiect taxele vamale se clasifica in:

    • A.

      De import, de export, de tranzit

    • B.

      Protectioniste, cu caracter fiscal

    • C.

      Speficice, ad-valorem, mixte

    • D.

      Autonome, conventionale, de retorsiune

    Correct Answer
    A. De import, de export, de tranzit
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "de import, de export, de tranzit". This is because customs duties are classified according to the type of trade they apply to. "De import" refers to duties imposed on goods imported into a country, "de export" refers to duties imposed on goods exported out of a country, and "de tranzit" refers to duties imposed on goods passing through a country in transit to another destination.

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  • 30. 

    Dispersia tarifara reprezinta:

    • A.

      Diferenta intre taxele vamale a doua produse cu grade de prelucrare diferite, din interiorul aceluiasi tarif vamal

    • B.

      Diferenta intre taxele vamale de import si taxele vamale de export la aceeasi categorie de produse

    • C.

      Diferenta dintre taxele vamale percepute pentru acelasi produs in doua tarife vamale diferite

    • D.

      Diferenta intre valorile nominale a doua produse cu grade de prelucrare diferite

    Correct Answer
    A. Diferenta intre taxele vamale a doua produse cu grade de prelucrare diferite, din interiorul aceluiasi tarif vamal
    Explanation
    Dispersia tarifara se referă la diferența dintre taxele vamale aplicate la două produse cu grade de prelucrare diferite, dar care fac parte din același tarif vamal. Aceasta înseamnă că, în cadrul aceluiași tarif vamal, produsele care au un grad mai mare de prelucrare vor avea taxe vamale mai mari decât cele cu un grad mai mic de prelucrare.

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  • 31. 

    Nu fac parte din categoria barierelor comerciale incadrate la documente si formalitati vamale suplimentare solicitate la import:

    • A.

      Nerecunosterea anumitor certificari tehnice

    • B.

      Nerecunosterea anumitor certificari sanitare sau fitosanitare

    • C.

      Impunerea unor penalizari pentru comiterea de greseli in ceea ce priveste completarea documentelor de import

    • D.

      Solicitarea de licente de import

    Correct Answer
    D. Solicitarea de licente de import
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "solicitarea de licente de import". This is because the other options mentioned in the question are barriers related to technical certifications, sanitary or phytosanitary certifications, and penalties for errors in completing import documents. However, the requirement for import licenses is not included in the category of additional customs documents and formalities.

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  • 32. 

    Printre efectele pe care le induce practicarea masurilor de retorsiune asupra tarii care le practica regasim:

    • A.

      Sporirea costurilor de adaptare

    • B.

      Necesitatea delocalizarii frecvente a capacitatilor productive

    • C.

      Reorientarea consumului anumitor categorii de produse

    • D.

      Imposibilitatea aplicarii unor strategii de afaceri coerente

    Correct Answer
    C. Reorientarea consumului anumitor categorii de produse
    Explanation
    The practice of retaliation measures by a country can lead to the reorientation of consumption towards certain categories of products. This means that as a result of these measures, consumers may start to prioritize or favor certain types of products over others. This could be due to the fact that certain products become more expensive or less accessible as a result of the retaliatory actions. As a result, consumers may shift their consumption patterns and preferences towards alternative products that are more readily available or affordable.

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  • 33. 

    Printre particularitatile barierelor comerciale netarifare nu regasim:

    • A.

      Se definesc printr-o mare diversitate tipologica

    • B.

      Acopera o mare varietate a domeniilor de aplicabilitate

    • C.

      Sunt masuri comerciale cu un grad de transparenta ridicat

    • D.

      Influenteaza direct volumul fizic al bunurilor importate

    Correct Answer
    C. Sunt masuri comerciale cu un grad de transparenta ridicat
  • 34. 

    Cea mai sensibila problema a gestionarii corelatiei comert-mediu de catre OMC este:

    • A.

      Masura in care politicile ambientale si efectele lor adverse pot fi adecvat gestionate in cadrul organizatiei

    • B.

      Masura in care pot fi armonizate pozitiile divergente ale tarilor dezvoltate si respectiv ale celor in curs de dezvoltare

    • C.

      Capacitatea tarilor in curs de dezvoltare de a respecta politicile ambientale convenite

    • D.

      Incapacitatea obtinerii consensului membrilor OMC cu privire la oportunitatea unei dezbateri referitoare la acest domeniu

    Correct Answer
    A. Masura in care politicile ambientale si efectele lor adverse pot fi adecvat gestionate in cadrul organizatiei
    Explanation
    The most sensitive issue in managing the trade-environment correlation by the WTO is the extent to which environmental policies and their adverse effects can be adequately managed within the organization. This suggests that there is a concern about how the WTO can effectively address and balance the environmental impact of trade policies while still promoting global trade. It implies that finding a way to manage and mitigate the negative environmental consequences of trade is crucial for the WTO's role in sustainable development.

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  • 35. 

    Care dintre urmatoarele afirmatii este adevarata:

    • A.

      Contingentele aduc venituri la bugetul de stat in timp ce taxele vamale transfera aceste venituri la nivelul companiilor implicate

    • B.

      Una dintre functiile politicii comerciale este realizarea unui echilibru static in cadrul balantei comerciale si al balantei de plati

    • C.

      Cererea de protectie depinde de localizarea regioanala a industriei respective

    • D.

      Unul din costurile protectionismului il reprezinta reducerea preturilor la anumite categorii de produse, in special la cele cu elasticitate redusa a cererii

    Correct Answer
    C. Cererea de protectie depinde de localizarea regioanala a industriei respective
    Explanation
    The answer states that the demand for protection depends on the regional location of the respective industry. This means that industries located in certain regions may have a higher demand for protectionist measures, such as tariffs or trade barriers, in order to protect domestic producers from foreign competition. The regional location of an industry can affect its competitiveness and vulnerability to international trade, leading to a higher demand for protection in some cases.

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  • 36. 

    Reprezinta un argument micro si mezoeconomic de sustinere a oportunitatii folosirii instrumentelor de politica comerciala:

    • A.

      Programele de dezvoltare economica

    • B.

      Mentinerea locurilor de munca

    • C.

      Argumentele de politica industriala

    • D.

      Argumentul derivat din teoria grupurilor de interese

    Correct Answer
    B. Mentinerea locurilor de munca
    Explanation
    The maintenance of jobs is a micro and mesoeconomic argument in support of the use of trade policy instruments. By implementing trade policies that protect domestic industries, such as imposing tariffs or quotas on imported goods, governments can help maintain jobs within those industries. This is because these policies can make it more expensive or difficult for foreign competitors to enter the market, thus reducing the risk of job losses to foreign competition. Therefore, the maintenance of jobs is seen as a valid reason to use trade policy instruments to support economic growth and stability.

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  • 37. 

    Referitor la protectia efectiva se apreciaza ca:

    • A.

      Vizeaza nivelul impunerii vamale asupra valorii nou create incorporate in produs

    • B.

      Nivelul sau este dat de nivelul taxelor vamale inscrise in tariful vamal

    • C.

      Vizeaza intraga valoare a produsului supus impunerii vamale

    • D.

      Este direct proportionala cu gradul de prelucrare al bunurilor importate

    Correct Answer
    A. Vizeaza nivelul impunerii vamale asupra valorii nou create incorporate in produs
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that the effective protection refers to the level of customs duties imposed on the newly created value incorporated in the product. This means that it measures the extent to which the customs duties affect the value added to the product through processing or manufacturing. It suggests that the higher the customs duties on the newly created value, the higher the level of effective protection.

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  • 38. 

    Care dintre urmatoarele afirmatii este adevarata, tinand cont de relatia contingente-taxe vamale:

    • A.

      Contingentele cultiva nediscriminarea

    • B.

      In cazul folosirii taxelor vamale ca instrument de protejare a economiei este mai dificila calcularea protectiei efective

    • C.

      Taxele vamale sunt mai putin transparente decat contingentele

    • D.

      Contingentele incurajeaza actiunile de lobby

    Correct Answer
    D. Contingentele incurajeaza actiunile de lobby
    Explanation
    Contingentele incurajeaza actiunile de lobby deoarece ele permit un anumit numar de bunuri sa fie importate la taxe vamale reduse sau chiar zero. Aceasta permite companiilor sau grupurilor de interese sa faca lobby pentru a obtine aceste contingentari si sa beneficieze de avantaje economice. Astfel, contingentarea poate crea oportunitati pentru actiuni de lobby si influenta politica.

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  • 39. 

    In categoria subventiilor tratate de Acordul privind Agricultura incheiat cu ocazia Rundei Uruguay regasim:

    • A.

      Subventii actionabile

    • B.

      Subventii neactionabile

    • C.

      Subventii directe acordate in functie de performantele inregistrate la export

    • D.

      Subventii transportului extern in cazul produselor importate

    Correct Answer
    C. Subventii directe acordate in functie de performantele inregistrate la export
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "subventii directe acordate in functie de performantele inregistrate la export." This answer refers to direct subsidies given based on export performance. The other options mentioned are "subventii actionabile" (actionable subsidies), "subventii neactionabile" (non-actionable subsidies), and "subventii transportului extern in cazul produselor importate" (external transportation subsidies for imported products). These options do not specifically mention subsidies based on export performance, making them incorrect.

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  • 40. 

    Ultima Conferinta Ministeriala a OMC a avut loc in decembrie 2011 la:

    • A.

      Singapore

    • B.

      Cancun

    • C.

      Geneva

    • D.

      Hong Kong

    Correct Answer
    C. Geneva
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Geneva. The question is asking about the location of the last Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The conference took place in December 2011, and Geneva is the headquarters of the WTO, making it a logical choice for hosting such an event.

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  • 41. 

    Care dintre urmatoarele afirmatii este incorecta in conformitate cu Mecanismul de Examinare a Politicilor Comerciale Nationale administrat de OMC:

    • A.

      Unul dintre obiectivele acestui mecanism este estimarea impactului politicilor si practicilor comerciale asupra sistemului comercial

    • B.

      Una dintre limitele principale ale sistemului este faptul ca rapoartele realizate, nu sunt suficient de analitice pentru a determina efectele economice ale diferitelor politici nationale

    • C.

      Prin acest mecanism de incearca inclinarea raportului de forte in favoarea tarilor dezvoltate

    • D.

      Un alt obiectiv important al acestui mecanism este conferirea unei transparente sporite participarii tarilor la OMC

    Correct Answer
    C. Prin acest mecanism de incearca inclinarea raportului de forte in favoarea tarilor dezvoltate
    Explanation
    The given statement is incorrect because the Mechanism for the Review of National Trade Policies administered by the WTO does not aim to tilt the balance of power in favor of developed countries. It is designed to provide a platform for all member countries to review and evaluate each other's trade policies and practices in a transparent manner. The objective is to ensure a fair and level playing field for all countries, regardless of their level of development.

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  • 42. 

    Care dintre urmatorele afirmatii este adevarata:

    • A.

      Disparitatea tarifara este diferenta intre taxele vamale la acelasi produs, in doua tarife vamale diferite

    • B.

      Depozitele valutare prealabile importului sunt considerate bariere paratarifare

    • C.

      Barierele netarifare au un pronuntat caracter de transparenta

    • D.

      Indicele de frecventa reprezinta una din metodele analitice de cuatificare a incidentei barierelor netarifare

    Correct Answer
    A. Disparitatea tarifara este diferenta intre taxele vamale la acelasi produs, in doua tarife vamale diferite
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that "disparitatea tarifara este diferenta intre taxele vamale la acelasi produs, in doua tarife vamale diferite." This means that tariff disparity refers to the difference in customs duties for the same product in two different tariff rates. This explanation clarifies the concept of tariff disparity and how it is measured.

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  • 43. 

    Se considera a fi taxe vamale cu nivel predeterminat:

    • A.

      Taxele autonome

    • B.

      Taxele conventionale

    • C.

      Taxele antidumping

    • D.

      Taxele ad-valorem

    Correct Answer
    C. Taxele antidumping
    Explanation
    Taxele antidumping sunt considerate a fi taxe vamale cu nivel predeterminat. Aceste taxe sunt impuse asupra importurilor de bunuri care sunt considerate a fi vândute la un preț mai mic decât prețul de piață din țara în care sunt produse. Scopul taxelor antidumping este de a proteja producătorii locali de concurența neloială a importurilor ieftine și de a menține echilibrul în comerțul internațional.

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  • 44. 

    Rata protectiei efective variaza invers proportional cu:

    • A.

      Gradul de prelucrare al produsului

    • B.

      Dispersia tarifara

    • C.

      Taxele vamale nominale la produsul finit

    • D.

      Valoarea materiei prime incorporate in produsul finit

    Correct Answer
    D. Valoarea materiei prime incorporate in produsul finit
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "valoarea materiei prime incorporate in produsul finit". This means that the effective protection rate varies inversely with the value of raw materials incorporated in the finished product. In other words, the higher the value of raw materials used in the finished product, the lower the effective protection rate. This suggests that the cost of raw materials plays a significant role in determining the level of protection for the finished product.

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  • 45. 

    Unul dintre indicatorii de masurare a protectionismului netarifar este:

    • A.

      Gradul de acoperire

    • B.

      Rata protectiei efective

    • C.

      Indicele dezvoltarii umane

    • D.

      Inclinatia spre export

    Correct Answer
    A. Gradul de acoperire
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "gradul de acoperire" (degree of coverage). This indicator measures the extent to which non-tariff measures (NTMs) are applied to restrict imports and protect domestic industries. It assesses the proportion of imports affected by NTMs, such as quotas, licenses, technical barriers, and subsidies. A higher degree of coverage indicates a higher level of protectionism, as more imports are subject to non-tariff barriers.

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  • 46. 

    Reprezinta forme de restrangere a teritoriului vamal:

    • A.

      Zona de liber schimb perfecta si imperfecta

    • B.

      Uniunea vamala perfecta si imperfecta

    • C.

      Antrepozitele vamale

    • D.

      Uniunea vamala si zona de liber schimb

    Correct Answer
    C. Antrepozitele vamale
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "antrepozitele vamale" because it refers to customs warehouses where goods can be stored without being subject to import duties or other taxes. These warehouses are used for temporary storage or processing of goods before they are released into the domestic market or re-exported. This form of restriction of the customs territory involves controlling the movement and storage of goods within these designated areas.

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  • 47. 

    Fac parte din categoria restrictiilor cantitative:

    • A.

      Acordurile de comercializare ordonata a produselor

    • B.

      Prelevarile variabile la import

    • C.

      Barierele paratarifare

    • D.

      Taxele antidumping

    Correct Answer
    A. Acordurile de comercializare ordonata a produselor
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "acordurile de comercializare ordonata a produselor." This is because the question is asking for a category of quantitative restrictions, and the other options listed (prelevarile variabile la import, barierele paratarifare, and taxele antidumping) are not related to quantitative restrictions. Acordurile de comercializare ordonata a produselor refers to agreements that regulate the orderly marketing of products, which can be considered a type of quantitative restriction.

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  • 48. 

    Nu este corecta una dintre urmatoarele afirmatii:

    • A.

      Subventiile de export sunt masuri de stimulare de natura bugetara

    • B.

      Facilitatile fiscale fac parte din categoria masurilor de promovare a exporturilor

    • C.

      Deciziile din cadrul GATT s-au adoptat prin consens

    • D.

      Singurul instrument de protejare de concurenta straina, permis de GATT, era tariful vamal

    Correct Answer
    B. Facilitatile fiscale fac parte din categoria masurilor de promovare a exporturilor
    Explanation
    Facilitatile fiscale nu fac parte din categoria masurilor de promovare a exporturilor.

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  • 49. 

    Nu este corecta una dintre urmatoarele afirmatii:

    • A.

      Limitarile voluntare la export sunt restrictii cantitative la import

    • B.

      Licentele de import sunt considerare bariere paratarifare

    • C.

      Subventiile directe sunt masuri de stimulare de natura bugetara

    • D.

      Acordurile privind comercializarea ordonata a produselor fac parte din "zona gri"

    Correct Answer
    B. Licentele de import sunt considerare bariere paratarifare
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "licentele de import sunt considerare bariere paratarifare." This statement is incorrect because import licenses are not considered as non-tariff barriers. Non-tariff barriers refer to any measure other than tariffs that can restrict trade, such as quotas, embargoes, or technical barriers. Import licenses, on the other hand, are simply permits required by some countries to regulate imports and ensure compliance with certain regulations or standards. They are not considered as barriers to trade, but rather as a regulatory tool.

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  • 50. 

    Preturile minime la import se folosesc atunci cand:

    • A.

      Costurile de productie la produsele indigene sunt semnificativ mai ridicate decat cele ale concurentilor externi

    • B.

      Se doreste realizarea unor importuri de produse la preturi cat mai scazute

    • C.

      Pe piata internationala preturile anumitor produse cresc semnificativ

    • D.

      Se doreste cresterea semnificativa a importurilor la respectivele categorii de produse

    Correct Answer
    A. Costurile de productie la produsele indigene sunt semnificativ mai ridicate decat cele ale concurentilor externi
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "costurile de productie la produsele indigene sunt semnificativ mai ridicate decat cele ale concurentilor externi." This means that minimum import prices are used when the production costs of domestic products are significantly higher than those of foreign competitors. This suggests that the purpose of setting minimum import prices is to protect domestic industries from unfair competition and ensure that they can compete with lower-cost foreign products.

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