# Physics Of Therapeutic Modalities

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UNIT 4, PTA 102

• 1.

### THE STUDY OF ENERGYOF A SYSTEM AND TRANSFER OF ENERGY  BETWEEN SYSTEM AND ENVIRONMENT

Explanation
Thermodynamics is the study of energy, including the energy of a system and the transfer of energy between the system and its environment. It focuses on understanding how energy behaves and can be converted or transferred in various processes. This field of study is essential in understanding the fundamental principles behind energy conversion, such as heat engines and refrigeration systems.

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• 2.

### ENERGY DUE TO RANDOM MOVEMENT OF MOLECULES (FORM OF KINETIC ENERGY)

Explanation
Heat is the transfer of energy between objects or systems due to the random movement of molecules. It is a form of kinetic energy, as the molecules in a substance gain energy and move faster, causing an increase in temperature. This transfer of energy can occur through conduction, convection, or radiation. Heat is commonly measured in units such as calories or joules.

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• 3.

### MEASURE OF AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY OF A SUBSTANCE

Explanation
Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance. It indicates the level of thermal energy present in a system. The higher the temperature, the greater the average kinetic energy of the particles within the substance. Conversely, a lower temperature indicates lower average kinetic energy. Temperature is a fundamental property of matter and is commonly measured using various scales such as Celsius, Fahrenheit, or Kelvin.

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• 4.

### CONSERVATION OF ENERGYENERGY CAN NOT BE CREATED OR DESTROYED, BUT CAN CHANGE ONE FORM TO ANOTHER

Explanation
The given correct answer states the principle of conservation of energy, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can only be transformed from one form to another. This principle is known as the first law of thermodynamics. It emphasizes that the total amount of energy in a closed system remains constant, and any changes in energy are due to the conversion between different forms of energy.

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• 5.

### HEAT TRANSFERFLOWS FROM HOT OBJECTS TO COLD OBJECTS

Explanation
The second law of thermodynamics states that heat transfer occurs from hot objects to cold objects. This law is a fundamental principle in thermodynamics that describes the direction of heat flow. It explains that heat naturally flows from a higher temperature region to a lower temperature region until thermal equilibrium is reached. The second law of thermodynamics also encompasses concepts such as entropy and the irreversibility of certain processes.

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• 6.

### COLLISION OF MOLECULES BETWEEN SUBSTANCES IN CONTACT WITH EACH OTHER

• A.

CONVERSION

• B.

CONVECTION

• C.

CONDUCTION

• D.

C. CONDUCTION
Explanation
Conduction is the transfer of heat through direct contact between substances. When molecules collide with each other, they transfer energy, which results in the transfer of heat. In this process, heat is conducted from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. Therefore, the collision of molecules between substances in contact with each other is a characteristic of conduction.

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• 7.

### TRANSFER OF HEAT DUE TO CURRENTS OF LIQUID OR GASES THAT MOVE PAST A SURFACE

• A.

CONDUCTION

• B.

CONVECTION

• C.

CONVERSION

• D.

EVAPORATION

B. CONVECTION
Explanation
Convection is the correct answer because it refers to the transfer of heat due to the movement of liquid or gases past a surface. In this process, the heat is transferred through the movement of the fluid particles, which carry the heat energy from one place to another. This can occur through natural convection, where the fluid motion is caused by density differences due to temperature variations, or through forced convection, where an external force, such as a fan or pump, is used to move the fluid.

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• 8.

### TRANSFORMATION OF MOLECULES FROM A LIQUID TO GASEOUS STATE. MUST HAVE ENOUGH ENERGY TO OVERCOME COHESIVE ATTRACTION OF LIQUID. USE OF A HIGH KINETIC MOTION RESULTS IN COOLING

• A.

• B.

CONVERSION

• C.

EVAPORATION

• D.

CONDUCTION

C. EVAPORATION
Explanation
Evaporation is the process in which molecules in a liquid state gain enough energy to become a gas. In order for molecules to evaporate, they must have enough energy to overcome the cohesive attraction of the liquid, meaning that the intermolecular forces holding the liquid together must be overcome. This process is facilitated by high kinetic motion, which allows the molecules to escape from the liquid and enter the gas phase. Evaporation is a cooling process because it requires energy, which is taken from the surroundings, resulting in a decrease in temperature.

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• 9.

### ENERGY ABSORBED IN THE BODY IN ONE FORM AND THEN CONVERTED TO HEAT

• A.

CONVERSION

• B.

CONVECTION

• C.

• D.

CONDUCTION

A. CONVERSION
Explanation
Conversion refers to the process of changing energy from one form to another. In this context, the energy is absorbed in the body in one form and then converted to heat. This means that the energy is transformed from its original form into heat energy. The other options, convection, radiation, and conduction, do not involve the conversion of energy from one form to another. Therefore, the correct answer is conversion.

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• 10.

### ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES TRAVEL THROUGH THE AIR AND ARE ABSORBED

• A.

CONDUCTION

• B.

EVAPORATION

• C.

• D.

CONVERSION

Explanation
Electromagnetic waves are able to travel through the air and can be absorbed by various materials. This process is known as radiation.

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• 11.

### A LAW STATING THAT INTENSITIES VARY AS TO THE SQUARE OF DISTANCE IS CALLED THE ?

• A.

BUNSEN-ROSCOE LAW OF RECIPROCITY

• B.

INVERSE SQUARE LAW

• C.

COSINE LAW

B. INVERSE SQUARE LAW
Explanation
The correct answer is "INVERSE SQUARE LAW". This law states that the intensity of a physical quantity, such as light or sound, decreases as the square of the distance from the source increases. This means that if you double the distance from the source, the intensity will decrease by a factor of four. The inverse square law is a fundamental principle in physics and is used to understand the behavior of various phenomena, including radiation, gravity, and electromagnetic fields.

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• 12.

### TOTAL ENERGY= INTENSITY OF ENERGY X TIME IT IS APPLIED

• A.

BUNSEN-ROSCOE LAW OF RECIPROCITY

• B.

INVERSE SQUARE LAW

• C.

COSINE LAW

A. BUNSEN-ROSCOE LAW OF RECIPROCITY
Explanation
The Bunsen-Roscoe Law of Reciprocity states that the effect of light on a photosensitive material is determined by the total energy received, regardless of the intensity or duration of exposure. This means that the total energy absorbed by the material is the same, regardless of whether it was exposed to high intensity for a short period of time or low intensity for a longer period of time. Therefore, the equation given in the question, TOTAL ENERGY = INTENSITY OF ENERGY X TIME IT IS APPLIED, aligns with the Bunsen-Roscoe Law of Reciprocity.

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• 13.

### IF ANGLE OF INCIDENCE INCREASES, THEN THE EFFICIENCY DECREASES IN PROPORTION

• A.

BUNSEN-ROSCOE LAW OF RECIPROCITY

• B.

INVERSE SQUARE LAW

• C.

COSINE LAW

C. COSINE LAW
Explanation
The cosine law states that the efficiency of a surface in converting incident radiation into useful energy decreases in proportion to the increase in the angle of incidence. This means that as the angle of incidence increases, the efficiency of the surface decreases. The cosine law is based on the principle that the amount of radiation absorbed by a surface is proportional to the cosine of the angle between the incident radiation and the normal to the surface. Therefore, as the angle of incidence increases, the cosine of that angle decreases, resulting in a decrease in efficiency.

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• 14.

### ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES TRANSMIT ENERGY

• A.

TRUE

• B.

FALSE

A. TRUE
Explanation
Electromagnetic waves transmit energy because they consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that can transfer energy through space. This energy transfer occurs without the need for a medium, making electromagnetic waves capable of traveling through vacuum as well as through various materials. Examples of electromagnetic waves include radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays.

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• 15.

### ENERGY MUST BE ABSORBED TO TAKE EFFECT, CAN BE REFLECTED BACK, REFRACTED, PASS THROUGH, AND ABSORBED

• A.

GROTTHUS- DRAPER LAW

• B.

ARNDT- SHULTE PRINCIPLE

A. GROTTHUS- DRAPER LAW
Explanation
The Grotthuss-Draper Law states that in order for a substance to be affected by radiation, energy must be absorbed. This energy can then be reflected back, refracted, pass through the substance, or be absorbed by it. This law is commonly used in the study of photochemistry and explains how light interacts with matter.

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• 16.

### IF THE ENERGY ABSORBED IS TOO SMALL TO STIMULATE A TISSUE, THERE IS NO REACTION. IF ENOUGH ENERGY IS ABSORBED, THEN HAVE NORMAL FUNCTIONS. IF ENERGY IS TOO GREAT , CANNOT FUNCTION NORMALLY. THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY GIVEN AND THE AMOUNT ABSORBED DETERMINE EFFECTS.

• A.

GROTTHUS- DRAPER LAW

• B.

ARNDT-SHULTE PRINCIPLE

B. ARNDT-SHULTE PRINCIPLE
• 17.

### REFERRING TO WAVELENGTH PENETRATION RELATIIONSHIPTHE ________ THE WAVELENGTH, THE __________ THE PENETRATION

• A.

GREATER , LESSER

• B.

LESSER, GREATER

• C.

GREATER, GREATER

C. GREATER, GREATER
Explanation
The greater the wavelength, the greater the penetration. This means that longer wavelengths have the ability to penetrate deeper into a medium compared to shorter wavelengths. This relationship is commonly observed in various phenomena such as the penetration of light through different materials or the ability of radio waves to pass through obstacles.

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• 18.

### INFRARED PENETRATES BETTER THAN MICROWAVE AND SHORTWAVE

• A.

TRUE

• B.

FALSE

B. FALSE
Explanation
Infrared does not penetrate better than microwave and shortwave. In fact, microwave and shortwave have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies, allowing them to penetrate materials better than infrared. Infrared radiation is absorbed and reflected more easily by objects, making it less effective in penetrating through them compared to microwave and shortwave radiation. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 19.

### PARTICLES MOVE BACK AND FORTH ALONG LONGITUDINAL WAVES

ACOUSIC SPECTRUM
• 20.

### LONGITUDINAL WAVES

SOUND WAVES
Explanation
Sound waves are a type of longitudinal wave. Longitudinal waves are characterized by the vibration of particles in the same direction that the wave is traveling. Sound waves are created by the vibration of an object, which causes particles in the surrounding medium to vibrate and transfer energy. These waves can travel through solids, liquids, and gases, and they require a medium to propagate. Therefore, sound waves are a specific example of longitudinal waves.

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• 21.

### DISTANCES BETWEEN PERIOD OF CONDENSATION

WAVELENGTH
Explanation
The given answer, "WAVELENGTH," is the most appropriate explanation for the question. It suggests that the distances between periods of condensation are determined by the wavelength of the wave. Wavelength refers to the distance between two consecutive points in a wave that are in phase, such as two peaks or two troughs. In the context of condensation, this suggests that the distance between periods of condensation is directly related to the wavelength of the wave causing the condensation.

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• 22.

### CONDENSATION(CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY)

• A.

HIGH PRESSURE

• B.

MOLECULES FAR APART

• C.

MOLECULES CLOSE TOGETHER

• D.

LOW PRESSURE

A. HIGH PRESSURE
C. MOLECULES CLOSE TOGETHER
Explanation
When there is high pressure, the molecules are forced closer together. This is because the increased pressure compresses the space between the molecules, causing them to come into closer proximity. Therefore, both high pressure and molecules close together are correct explanations for condensation.

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• 23.

### REFRACTION (CHOOSE ALL THAT APPLY)

• A.

LOW PRESSURE

• B.

HIGH PRESSURE

• C.

MOLECULES CLOSE TOGETHER

• D.

MOLECULES FAR APART

A. LOW PRESSURE
D. MOLECULES FAR APART
Explanation
The correct answer is LOW PRESSURE and MOLECULES FAR APART. Refraction occurs when light waves pass through a medium with a different density, causing the waves to change direction. Low pressure refers to a less dense medium, which can cause the light waves to refract. Additionally, when molecules are far apart, the medium is less dense, allowing for greater refraction of light waves.

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• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Mar 06, 2010
Quiz Created by
Melissa_mccrory

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