Physical Science Chapter 21

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Physical Science Chapter 21 - Quiz


Physical. Science.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Light can only be seen through very thin metal. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Light can be seen through many materials, not just very thin metal. This is because light can pass through transparent or translucent substances such as glass, water, and even air. Therefore, the statement that light can only be seen through very thin metal is incorrect.

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  • 2. 

    Generally, MOs are low in energy because their electrons will be found between two nuclei.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    MOs, or molecular orbitals, are formed by the combination of atomic orbitals. These orbitals can be bonding or antibonding, depending on the phase relationship between the atomic orbitals. Bonding orbitals have lower energy because the electrons are concentrated between the nuclei, resulting in a stabilizing interaction. Antibonding orbitals, on the other hand, have higher energy because the electrons are concentrated outside the region between the nuclei, resulting in a destabilizing interaction. Therefore, the statement that MOs are generally low in energy because their electrons will be found between two nuclei is false.

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  • 3. 

    Compositions of alloys are generally fixed in simple rations. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because compositions of alloys are not generally fixed in simple ratios. Alloys are formed by combining two or more metals, and the proportions of these metals can vary depending on the desired properties of the alloy. The composition of alloys can be adjusted to achieve specific characteristics such as strength, hardness, and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the compositions of alloys are not fixed and can be tailored to meet specific requirements.

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  • 4. 

    For an alloy to form, the atoms must be different sizes. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    An alloy can form even if the atoms are the same size. In fact, many alloys are formed by mixing atoms of the same size but different chemical properties. The properties of the alloy are determined by the combination of different atoms and their arrangement, rather than just their size. Therefore, the statement that "for an alloy to form, the atoms must be different sizes" is false.

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  • 5. 

    Often alloys are better conductors than either of the metals, in their pure form, that make up an alloy. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Alloys are often better conductors than either of the metals in their pure form because the addition of different metals can enhance the electrical conductivity of the alloy. The mixture of metals in an alloy creates a more ordered and structured arrangement of atoms, allowing for easier movement of electrons and thus better conductivity.

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  • 6. 

    Semi-metals are electrically conductive and have high melting points. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Semi-metals, also known as metalloids, exhibit properties of both metals and non-metals. They have the ability to conduct electricity to some extent, although not as efficiently as metals. Additionally, semi-metals have relatively high melting points compared to non-metals, which can be attributed to their partially metallic nature. Therefore, the statement that semi-metals are electrically conductive and have high melting points is true.

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  • 7. 

    Semi- conductors and metals are very similar in the way each forms alloys. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Semi-conductors and metals have similar behavior when it comes to forming alloys. Both can form solid solutions with other elements, resulting in the creation of alloys. In alloys, the atoms of the different elements mix together at the atomic level, leading to changes in the properties of the material. This similarity in the formation of alloys suggests that semi-conductors and metals share some common characteristics in terms of their atomic structure and bonding. Therefore, the statement "Semi-conductors and metals are very similar in the way each forms alloys" is true.

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  • 8. 

    Metal-metal compound

    Correct Answer
    Alloy
    Explanation
    An alloy is a type of metal-metal compound where two or more metallic elements are combined together to create a new material with enhanced properties. Alloys are formed by mixing the metals in a molten state and allowing them to solidify. The resulting material exhibits improved strength, hardness, corrosion resistance, and other desirable characteristics compared to the individual metals. Common examples of alloys include steel (iron and carbon), bronze (copper and tin), and brass (copper and zinc).

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  • 9. 

    Electrons act like a lubricant between layers of nuclei

    Correct Answer
    Reflectivity
  • 10. 

    Movement of electrons 

    Correct Answer
    Thermal conductivity
    Explanation
    Thermal conductivity refers to the ability of a material to conduct heat. The movement of electrons plays a crucial role in this process as they carry thermal energy from one point to another. In materials with high thermal conductivity, the electrons can move freely, transferring heat quickly. On the other hand, in materials with low thermal conductivity, the movement of electrons is restricted, resulting in slower heat transfer. Therefore, the movement of electrons is directly related to thermal conductivity.

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  • 11. 

    An electron which is not focused around any one nucleus

    Correct Answer
    conduction band
    Explanation
    The term "conduction band" refers to a range of energy levels in a material where electrons are free to move and conduct electricity. In this context, the given description of an electron not being focused around any one nucleus suggests that it is in the conduction band. This means that the electron is not bound to a specific atom or nucleus but rather has enough energy to move freely within the material.

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  • 12. 

    Property of obsorbing photons throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. 

    Correct Answer
    opacity
    Explanation
    Opacity is the property of a material or substance that allows it to absorb photons across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. This means that the material is able to absorb light, heat, and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, preventing them from passing through. The term "opacity" is commonly used to describe how much light is able to pass through a material, with high opacity indicating that very little light is transmitted. Therefore, opacity is the correct answer in this case as it accurately describes the property of absorbing photons throughout the electromagnetic spectrum.

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  • 13. 

    Substances that conduct electricity better than insulators but not as good as conductors. 

    Correct Answer
    Semiconductors
    Explanation
    Semiconductors are substances that have electrical conductivity properties between those of insulators and conductors. They conduct electricity better than insulators, which have very low conductivity, but not as well as conductors, which have high conductivity. Semiconductors have a unique property called the band gap, which allows them to conduct electricity under certain conditions. This makes them useful in various electronic devices, such as transistors and diodes, where their conductivity can be controlled and manipulated.

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  • 14. 

    The degree to which a substance conducts heat. 

    Correct Answer
    Thermal conductivity
    Explanation
    Thermal conductivity refers to the degree to which a substance can conduct heat. It is a measure of how easily heat can flow through a material. Substances with high thermal conductivity are good conductors of heat, while those with low thermal conductivity are poor conductors. This property is important in various applications, such as in the design of insulation materials or in determining the efficiency of heat transfer in engineering systems.

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  • 15. 

    A measure for current flowing through a semiconductor 

    Correct Answer
    Reflectivity
  • 16. 

    Neclei surrounded by a sea of electrons 

    Correct Answer
    Conduction band
    Explanation
    The conduction band is the energy band in a material where electrons are free to move and conduct electricity. In this context, the statement "Nuclei surrounded by a sea of electrons" suggests that the electrons in the material are not tightly bound to the nuclei and are able to move freely. This is a characteristic of the conduction band, where electrons can easily move and contribute to the flow of electric current.

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  • 17. 

    How easily light bounces off a surface of a substance

    Correct Answer
    Reflectivity
    Explanation
    Reflectivity refers to the ability of a surface to reflect light. It measures how easily light bounces off a surface of a substance. A substance with high reflectivity will reflect a large amount of light, while a substance with low reflectivity will absorb or scatter the light instead of reflecting it. Reflectivity is an important property in various fields such as optics, materials science, and photography, as it affects the appearance, visibility, and performance of objects and surfaces.

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  • 18. 

    Why are alloys not useful to us today?

    • A.

      Have lower melting temperatures

    • B.

      Have a higher conductivity rate

    • C.

      Are less malleable

    • D.

      Reduce weight in objects

    Correct Answer
    B. Have a higher conductivity rate
    Explanation
    Alloys are not useful to us today because they have a higher conductivity rate. This means that they are good conductors of electricity and heat, which can be undesirable in certain applications. For example, in electrical wiring, high conductivity can lead to excessive heat generation and energy loss. Additionally, alloys with high conductivity may not be suitable for applications where insulation or resistance is required. Therefore, alloys with lower conductivity rates are preferred in many modern applications.

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  • 19. 

    How do metals and semiconductors change with increasing temperature?

    • A.

      Metals become less resistive and semiconductors more resistive

    • B.

      Metals and semiconductors become less resistive

    Correct Answer
    B. Metals and semiconductors become less resistive
    Explanation
    As the temperature increases, the atoms in metals and semiconductors gain more thermal energy, causing them to vibrate more vigorously. In metals, this increased vibration disrupts the flow of electrons, resulting in increased resistance. However, in semiconductors, the increased thermal energy allows more electrons to break free from their atoms and contribute to the flow of current, reducing resistance. Therefore, both metals and semiconductors become less resistive as the temperature increases.

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  • Feb 14, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 22, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Julierass311
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