# Physical Science Module 11

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The forces in creation are being placed directly under the microscope in this quiz, as we turn our attention to the physical topics of fundamental forces, Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion, planets and much more.

• 1.

### Which is the weakest of the fundamental forces?

• A.

Gravitational Force

• B.

Electromagnetic Force

• C.

Weak Force

• D.

Strong Force

A. Gravitational Force
Explanation
The gravitational force is considered the weakest of the fundamental forces. It is responsible for the attraction between objects with mass. Compared to the other fundamental forces, such as the electromagnetic force, weak force, and strong force, gravity has the least amount of strength. It has a very long-range but is significantly weaker in terms of its influence on particles and objects. This is evident in everyday life, where we can easily overcome the force of gravity by lifting objects or jumping.

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• 2.

### A student drops a ball, and it begins to fall due to the force of gravity that the earth exerts on it.  According to Newton's 3rd Law of Motion, the ball exerts an equal and opposite force on the earth.  True or False

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
According to Newton's 3rd Law of Motion, for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In this scenario, the force of gravity that the earth exerts on the ball is the action, and the equal and opposite force that the ball exerts on the earth is the reaction. Therefore, the statement is true.

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• 3.

### The gravitational force between two objects (mass1 = 5kg, mass2 = 2kg) is measured when the objects are 10 centimeters apart.  If the 5-kg mass is replaced with a 20-kg mass and the 2-kg mass is replaced with a 12-kg mass, how does the new gravitational attraction compare to the first one that was measured?

• A.

The new gravitational force is 12 times larger than the old one

• B.

The new gravitational force is 24 times larger than the old one

• C.

The new gravitational force is 12 times smaller than the old one

• D.

The new gravitational force is 24 times smaller than the old one

B. The new gravitational force is 24 times larger than the old one
Explanation
When the masses are replaced with larger ones, the gravitational force between them increases. The gravitational force is directly proportional to the product of the masses, which means that if the masses are multiplied by a certain factor, the gravitational force will also be multiplied by the same factor. In this case, the mass1 is replaced with a 20-kg mass (4 times larger) and mass2 is replaced with a 12-kg mass (6 times larger). Therefore, the new gravitational force will be 4 x 6 = 24 times larger than the old one.

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• 4.

### The gravitational force between two objects (mass1 = 10kg, mass2 = 6kg) is measured when the objects are 12 centimeters apart.  If the distance between them is increased to 36 centimeters, how does the new gravitational attraction compare to the first one that was measured?

• A.

The new gravitational force is 3 times larger than the old one

• B.

The new gravitational force is 9 times larger than the old one

• C.

The new gravitational force is 3 times smaller than the old one

• D.

The new gravitational force is 9 times smaller than the old one

D. The new gravitational force is 9 times smaller than the old one
Explanation
When the distance between two objects is increased, the gravitational force between them decreases. The force of gravity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. In this case, the distance is increased from 12 centimeters to 36 centimeters, which is a factor of 3. The inverse square relationship means that the gravitational force will be 3 squared, or 9 times smaller than the original force.

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• 5.

### Two moons orbit two different planets, but they orbit their planets at the same distance.  If the first one takes 3 months to make an orbit and the second takes 1 year, which is being subjected to the greatest gravitational attraction?

• A.

The first moon experiences the greatest gravitational force

• B.

The second moon experiences the greatest gravitational force

A. The first moon experiences the greatest gravitational force
Explanation
The gravitational force between two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. Since both moons are orbiting their planets at the same distance, the only factor that determines the gravitational force experienced by each moon is their mass. The first moon takes 3 months to complete an orbit, which means it has a smaller mass compared to the second moon that takes 1 year to complete an orbit. Therefore, the first moon experiences the greatest gravitational force.

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• 6.

### Which planets are the outer planets?

• A.

Mars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

• B.

Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn

• C.

Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter

• D.

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

D. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
Explanation
The correct answer is Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. These four planets are considered the outer planets because they are located beyond the asteroid belt in our solar system. They are also known as the gas giants or ice giants, as they are primarily composed of gases and have no solid surface. These planets are much larger than the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) and have a different composition and atmosphere.

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• 7.

### Which planet in the solar system receives the least amount of insolation?

• A.

Venus

• B.

Mars

• C.

Saturn

• D.

Neptune

D. Neptune
Explanation
Neptune receives the least amount of insolation among the given options. Insolation refers to the amount of solar radiation received by a planet. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun, which means it is located at a greater distance and receives less sunlight compared to the other planets. This distance results in lower insolation on Neptune, making it the planet that receives the least amount of solar radiation.

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• 8.

### Which of the following orbits is more likely that of a comet that is relatively easy to see in the night sky?

• A.

Orbit a.

• B.

Orbit b.

• C.

Orbit c.

C. Orbit c.
Explanation
Comets that are relatively easy to see in the night sky usually have highly elliptical orbits that take them close to the Sun. Orbit c is the most likely choice for a comet because it appears to have a more elongated shape compared to the other two options. This suggests that the comet would spend more time closer to the Sun, where it would be more visible from Earth.

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• 9.

### What part or parts of a comet come and go during a comet's orbit?

• A.

Nucleus & Coma

• B.

Coma & Tail

• C.

Tail & Nucleus

• D.

Tail

B. Coma & Tail
Explanation
During a comet's orbit, both the coma and tail come and go. The coma is a cloud of gas and dust that surrounds the nucleus of the comet and becomes visible when the comet approaches the Sun. The tail is formed when solar radiation and the solar wind push the coma away from the nucleus, creating a glowing trail of gas and dust that points away from the Sun. As the comet moves further from the Sun, the coma and tail gradually dissipate, only to reappear again when the comet approaches the Sun on its next orbit.

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• 10.

### What is the Kuiper belt considered to be a source of?

• A.

Comets

• B.

Short-period Comets

• C.

Long-period Comets

• D.

Very Long-period Comets

B. Short-period Comets
Explanation
The Kuiper belt is a region in our solar system beyond the orbit of Neptune that is considered to be a source of short-period comets. These comets have orbits that take them around the Sun in less than 200 years. The Kuiper belt is believed to be a reservoir of icy bodies, including dwarf planets like Pluto, that occasionally get perturbed by gravitational interactions and are sent into the inner solar system as comets. Therefore, the correct answer is short-period comets.

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• 11.

### What theory says that gravity is caused by the exchange of particles between objects with mass?

• A.

The Bent Space & Time Theory of Gravity

• B.

The Graviton Theory of Gravity

• C.

Einstein's General Theory of Relativity

B. The Graviton Theory of Gravity
Explanation
The Graviton Theory of Gravity suggests that gravity is caused by the exchange of particles, known as gravitons, between objects with mass. This theory proposes that these particles mediate the gravitational force, similar to how photons mediate the electromagnetic force. It is a hypothetical theory that attempts to explain the nature of gravity at a quantum level.

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• 12.

### Suppose a scientist determines that there are only two fundamental forces in nature:  the electroweak force and the strong force.  Which of the two current theories of gravity does this mean is true?

• A.

Graviton Theory of Gravity

• B.

General Theory of Relativity

B. General Theory of Relativity
Explanation
If a scientist determines that there are only two fundamental forces in nature, the electroweak force and the strong force, it means that the General Theory of Relativity is true. The General Theory of Relativity is a theory of gravity that explains the force of gravity as the curvature of spacetime caused by mass and energy. It is the currently accepted theory of gravity in physics and has been successful in explaining various phenomena, such as the bending of light around massive objects and the existence of black holes. Therefore, if there are only two fundamental forces, the General Theory of Relativity would be the correct theory of gravity.

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• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Feb 09, 2013
Quiz Created by
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