Philosophy Study Quiz

75 Questions | Total Attempts: 13

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Philosophy Quizzes & Trivia

Study guide for Final exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher developed a theory of reincarnation?
    • A. 

      Protagoras

    • B. 

      Heraclitus

    • C. 

      Pythagoras

    • D. 

      Parmenides

  • 2. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher used his theory of the nature of atoms to explain the character of our sensations (such as our sense of color or the way certain foods tstae)?
    • A. 

      Empedocles

    • B. 

      Thales

    • C. 

      Democritus

    • D. 

      Heraclitus

  • 3. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher believed that the body was the source of evil and that the purpose of life was to purify the soul of the influence of the body?
    • A. 

      Protagoras

    • B. 

      Parmenides

    • C. 

      Pythagoras

    • D. 

      Pericles

  • 4. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher thought that the constantly changing nature of reality was nevertheless made uniform and orderly insofar as it was governed by a force or principle he called the logos?
    • A. 

      Democritus

    • B. 

      Pythagoras

    • C. 

      Parmenides

    • D. 

      Heraclitus

  • 5. 
    The pre-Socratic philosopher who thought reality was composed of atoms and empty space (or the void) was:
    • A. 

      Democritus

    • B. 

      Parmenides

    • C. 

      Pythagoras

    • D. 

      Empedocles

  • 6. 
    Which of the following thinkers was a Sophist?
    • A. 

      Pythagoras

    • B. 

      Democritus

    • C. 

      Protagoras

    • D. 

      Empedocles

  • 7. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher wrote in riddles and various paradoxical sayings?
    • A. 

      Heraclitus

    • B. 

      Parmenides

    • C. 

      Anaximander

    • D. 

      Empedocles

  • 8. 
    Which Sophist said that we couldn't know the nature of the gods because our minds are too limited, the subject is too obscure, and life is too short to attain such ultimate knowledge? Hint: he also said "man is the measure of all things."
    • A. 

      Empedocles

    • B. 

      Protagoras

    • C. 

      Democritus

    • D. 

      Gorgias

  • 9. 
    Which pre-Socratic said that Being neither was nor will be but simply is?
    • A. 

      Pythagoras

    • B. 

      Heraclitus

    • C. 

      Thales

    • D. 

      Parmenides

  • 10. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher said reality consisted of the four basic elements, earth, air, fire, and water (along with the forces of love and trife)?
    • A. 

      Anaximander

    • B. 

      Anaximines

    • C. 

      Democritus

    • D. 

      Empedocles

  • 11. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher said that you cannot step into the same river twice?
    • A. 

      Empedocles

    • B. 

      Parmenides

    • C. 

      Heraclitus

    • D. 

      Pythagoras

  • 12. 
    The sophist who taught that truth was relative to belief was:
    • A. 

      Protagoras

    • B. 

      Gorgias

    • C. 

      Heraclitus

    • D. 

      Thales

  • 13. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher argued that change and motion were illusions and that we shouldn't listen to what our senses tell us about the world?
    • A. 

      Heraclitus

    • B. 

      Thales

    • C. 

      Empedocles

    • D. 

      Parmenides

  • 14. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher believed that nature or the world came out to be out of the struggle of fundamental oppositions (like dry and moist and hot and cold and light and dark) and the cyclic movement of these into and out of the apeiron (or the boundless or the unlimited)?
    • A. 

      Thales

    • B. 

      Anaximander

    • C. 

      Anaximines

    • D. 

      Anaxagoras

  • 15. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher believed that the cosmos generated a kind of glorious symphony (the Harmony of the Heavenly Spheres) that we could not hear unless our souls were sufficiently purified of the influences of our bodies?
    • A. 

      Pythagoras

    • B. 

      Protagoras

    • C. 

      Heraclitus

    • D. 

      Anaximines

  • 16. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher said that everything was ultimately air?
    • A. 

      Anaximander

    • B. 

      Thales

    • C. 

      Anaximines

    • D. 

      Empedocles

  • 17. 
    Which of the following sayings is attributed to the Sophist Protagoras?
    • A. 

      "you cannot step into the same river twice."

    • B. 

      "wherever you go, there you are."

    • C. 

      "man is the measure of all things."

    • D. 

      "dogs bark at those whom they do not know."

  • 18. 
    The pre-Socratic philosopher associated with music, mathematics, and mysticism was:
    • A. 

      Pythagoras

    • B. 

      Empedocles

    • C. 

      Heraclitus

    • D. 

      Parmenides

  • 19. 
    The word philosophy was coined by Pythagoras.  It's a combination of philo and sophia which together mean:
    • A. 

      The love of God

    • B. 

      The will of Zeus

    • C. 

      The love of wisdom

    • D. 

      The search for love

  • 20. 
    What were the two general attitudes toward life embraced by the Sophists?
    • A. 

      Pragmatism and animism

    • B. 

      Skepticism and relativism

    • C. 

      Humanism and anthropomorphism

    • D. 

      Apathy and cynicism

  • 21. 
    Which of the following statement was not included in Gorgias' treatise "On Nature or What is Not"?
    • A. 

      Nothing exists

    • B. 

      Even if something did exist, we could not know that it existed.

    • C. 

      Even if we could know that something existed, we could not communicate this knowledge to anyone else.

    • D. 

      Even if we could communicate this knowledge to someone else, he or she would probably not be that interested in it anyway.

  • 22. 
    Philosophy emerged in ancient Greece when thinkers began to move from:
    • A. 

      More mythological to more rational ways of explaining the world.

    • B. 

      More agricultural to more industrial ways of making a living.

    • C. 

      More rational to more mythological ways of explaining the world.

    • D. 

      More scientific to more religious ways of explaining the meaning of life.

  • 23. 
    Which of the following figures is known as "the Father of Western Philosophy"? (Hint: there's a famous story told about his having once fallen into a cistern because he was so preoccupied looking up the the heavens.)
    • A. 

      Thales

    • B. 

      Heraclitus

    • C. 

      Parmenides

    • D. 

      Pythagoras

  • 24. 
    Which pre-Socratic philosopher said that reality was one and that nothing changes?
    • A. 

      Pythagoras

    • B. 

      Parmenides

    • C. 

      Heraclitus

    • D. 

      Protagoras

  • 25. 
    What was Heraclitus' symbol for reality?
    • A. 

      Earth

    • B. 

      Air

    • C. 

      Fire

    • D. 

      Water

  • 26. 
    Socrates' argument about the impossibility of desiring evil implies that, evil, when it occurs, is always due to:
    • A. 

      The desire to sin for pleasure

    • B. 

      Hades or the Devil

    • C. 

      The desire to be miserable

    • D. 

      Some form of ignorance or moral blindness

  • 27. 
    Socrates answers Meno's paradox of inquiry by:
    • A. 

      Asking Meno if he had ever heard of Pythagoras.

    • B. 

      Describing the soul's immortality and how learning is really recollection.

    • C. 

      Getting Meno to admit that he really doesn't know what virtue is.

    • D. 

      Discussing the phenomenological implications of brain teasers.

  • 28. 
    Meno's first definition of "virtue" included which of the following?
    • A. 

      The virtue of a ship builder and a doctor.

    • B. 

      The suggestion that virtue was "the power of governing mankind."

    • C. 

      The virtue of a man & a woman and the suggestion that virtue was relative.

    • D. 

      The idea that virtue was "the desire of things honorable and the power of attaining them."

  • 29. 
    At one point in the dialogue (in response to Socrates' criticism to his second definition of "virtue"), Meno suggested that virtue should be equated with:
    • A. 

      Compassion

    • B. 

      Justice

    • C. 

      Courage

    • D. 

      Honesty

  • 30. 
    At the very begining of the dialogue, Meno wants Socrates to tell him:
    • A. 

      The quickest way to get to the Parthenon.

    • B. 

      What virtue is.

    • C. 

      How a guy from out of town might get some action in Athens.

    • D. 

      How virtue is acquired.

  • 31. 
    In the Republc, Plato suggested that the world of particular, changing things was:
    • A. 

      The only world of which we could have complete knowledge.

    • B. 

      Divine since it was created by the Cosmic Soul.

    • C. 

      Only a reflection of the world on universal, unchanging Forms.

    • D. 

      Ultimately composed of earth, air, fire, and water.

  • 32. 
    Which character helped Meno and Socrates search for teachers of virtue?
    • A. 

      Democritus.

    • B. 

      Anytus.

    • C. 

      Pericles.

    • D. 

      Meno's young slave.

  • 33. 
    According to Plato's "Divided Line," the second level down from the top includes:
    • A. 

      Images of things.

    • B. 

      Mathematical truths.

    • C. 

      Physical things.

    • D. 

      Eternal, unchanging Forms.

  • 34. 
    To investigate the teachability if virtue toward the end of the dialogue, Socrates and Meno work through the following, basic argument:
    • A. 

      If virtue is knowledge, then virtue must be teachable. If virtue is teachable, then it must be profitable. If virtue is profitable, then there ought to be some people making some money teaching it. The Sophists make money teaching virtue. Therefore, virtue must be profitable and teachable. Therefore, virtue must be knowledge.

    • B. 

      If virtue is knowledge, then virtue must be teachable. If virtue is teachable, then there ought to be teachers of it. There are no teachers of virtue. Therefore, virtue is not teachable. Therefore, virtue is not knowledge.

    • C. 

      If virtue is knowledge, then virtue must be teachable. If virtue is teachable, then there ought to be schools where it's taught. There might be a school in Egypt. Therefore, virtue might be teachable, and it might be knowledge, but you would need lots of cash to find out.

    • D. 

      If virtue is knowledge, then virtue must be teachable. If virtue is teachable, there ought to be teachers of it. There are plenty of teachers of virtue. Therefore, virtue must be teachable. Therefore, virtue must be knowledge.

  • 35. 
    According to Plato's "Divided Line," the third level down from the top includes:
    • A. 

      The eternal, unchanging Forms.

    • B. 

      The physical things of this world.

    • C. 

      Images of things in this world.

    • D. 

      Mathematical truths.

  • 36. 
    Which level of reality described by "the Divide Line" would correspond to the puppets that cast the shadows watched by the prisoners in Plato's "Parable of the Cave"?
    • A. 

      The level of mathematical truths.

    • B. 

      The level of images or reflections.

    • C. 

      The level of the Forms.

    • D. 

      The level of physical objects.

  • 37. 
    Socrates essentially argues that no one desires evil by suggesting that:
    • A. 

      To desire evil is to be really bad, and no one is really bad, so evil really doesn't exist.

    • B. 

      Either they think that evil is really evil and don't really see how miserable they must be to desire it or they think that evil isn't so bad after all, so they really must know that evil is evil and yet desire to be miserable anyway.

    • C. 

      They either think what they desire is good (in which case, they don't really desire evil) or they must know it is evil (in which case, they don't really desire evil) or they must know it is evil (in which case, they must desire to be miserable). Since, however, no one desires to be miserable, then no one desires evil.

    • D. 

      If they did, then they must be pretty dumb, and besides that, if they actually desired evil, then they probably are psychotic which would mean that they don't know the difference between good and evil, and so they don't desire evil because they think that everything is really pretty good.

  • 38. 
    Which level or reality described by "the Divide Line" would correspond to the shadows watched by the prisoners in Plato's "Parable of the Cave"?
    • A. 

      The level of mathematical truths.

    • B. 

      The level of images or reflections.

    • C. 

      The level of physical objects.

    • D. 

      The level of the Forms.

  • 39. 
    What realm of reality described by "the Divided Line" would correspond to the area above and outside the cave in Plato's "Parable of the Cave"?
    • A. 

      The Sensible Realm.

    • B. 

      The Kingdom of God.

    • C. 

      The Intelligible Realm.

    • D. 

      The Realm That Passes All Understanding.

  • 40. 
    Meno's last definition of "virtue" claimed that it should be identified with:
    • A. 

      The desire of fine things and the money to buy them.

    • B. 

      The power of governing mankind.

    • C. 

      The general impossibility of inquiring into things you don't really already know.

    • D. 

      The desire of things honorable and the power of attaining them.

  • 41. 
    According to Plato's "Divided Line," the lowest level includes:
    • A. 

      Images or reflections of things.

    • B. 

      The eternal, unchanging Forms.

    • C. 

      Mathematical truths.

    • D. 

      Physical things.

  • 42. 
    The ultimate conclusion of the Meno was that virtue was the result of:
    • A. 

      Lucky guesswork.

    • B. 

      Divine dispensation.

    • C. 

      A sort of spiritual lottery conducted among the gentlemen of Athens.

    • D. 

      Sublime desperation.

  • 43. 
    Socrates claims that he doesn't know how virtue is acquired because:
    • A. 

      He's really not interested in that sort of thing.

    • B. 

      He doesn't know what virtue is.

    • C. 

      He feels such questions are metaphysically intangible.

    • D. 

      He never met Gorgias.

  • 44. 
    Socrates responds to Meno's first definition of "virtue" by saying:
    • A. 

      How lucky he was to get so many definitions when he asked for just one.

    • B. 

      "Zeus, Almighty, now here is a man who know how to define things!"

    • C. 

      How strange it was that Meno gave his definition without praying first.

    • D. 

      "Wow, Meno, what a bummer; you must really be an idiot!"

  • 45. 
    Who did Anytus recommend as perfectly good teachers of virtue?
    • A. 

      The Sophists.

    • B. 

      The gods.

    • C. 

      The followers of Pythagoras.

    • D. 

      Any Athenian gentleman.

  • 46. 
    The basic problem with all of Meno's definitions, according to Socrates, was:
    • A. 

      That he kept forgetting what Gorgias had taught him.

    • B. 

      That he kept reciting poetry when he should have answered the questions.

    • C. 

      That he kept fumbling around in his pockets and wouldn't speak clearly.

    • D. 

      That he kept giving examples or parts of virtue rather than its essence.

  • 47. 
    Very basically, what math problem did Socrates ask the slave boy to solve?
    • A. 

      How to fit a circle into a square without using any triangles.

    • B. 

      How to determine the square root of 2, 457, 943.

    • C. 

      How much money they would need to buy three big bottles of wine.

    • D. 

      How to construct a square with twice the area of a given square.

  • 48. 
    In their search for teachers of virtue, Socrates initially suggested that they consider those individuals who profess to profess to teach virtue and who get paid for their instruction.  Who do they identify as individuals fitting this description?
    • A. 

      The Olympian gods.

    • B. 

      Any of the aristocratic gentlemen of Athens.

    • C. 

      Any of a number of wise priests and priestesses.

    • D. 

      The Sophists.

  • 49. 
    In the "Parable of the Cave," after the released prisoner goes up out of the cave and looks up at the heavens, what does the sun correspond to in Socrates' previous description of "The Divided Line"?
    • A. 

      A really big and really hot physical object.

    • B. 

      The light of the fire that generates shadows on the cave walls.

    • C. 

      The Form of the Good.

    • D. 

      The Pythagorean theorem.

  • 50. 
    At the very end of Plato's Meno, what is the last thing Socrates asks Meno to do?
    • A. 

      He suggests Meno ought to visit the public baths in downtown Athens before he met with anyone else.

    • B. 

      He suggested that Meno should take a few courses in Logic before visiting with him again.

    • C. 

      He asked Meno if he wanted to go see one of Aristophanes' plays later that evening.

    • D. 

      He asked Meno to track down Anytus and try to calm him down and convince him not to be exasperated.

  • 51. 
    What are the two primary goods identified by the Process theodicy?
    • A. 

      Discord and intensity

    • B. 

      Harmony and triviality

    • C. 

      Intensity and triviality

    • D. 

      Harmony and intensity

  • 52. 
    When Job finally broke the silence and cursed, what exactly did he curse?
    • A. 

      God.

    • B. 

      Nature and all those renegades who stole his livestock.

    • C. 

      The day he was born.

    • D. 

      Satan.

  • 53. 
    Which of the following phrases captures most effectively the attitude of Job's friends?
    • A. 

      Judging a book by its cover.

    • B. 

      Blaming the victim.

    • C. 

      Casting the first stone.

    • D. 

      Missing the boat.

  • 54. 
    The two primary good above stand in direct opposition to two primary evils.  Given the order of the goods in the right answer above, which of the follwoing identify the two primary evils in theor proper corresponding order?
    • A. 

      Triviality and intensity

    • B. 

      Triviality and discord

    • C. 

      Discord and triviality

    • D. 

      Intensity and discord

  • 55. 
    Among the following, which is one of the main themes of the Augustinian theodicy?
    • A. 

      That, ultimately, God must be held responsible for the sins of His creation.

    • B. 

      That evil is a vicious, demonic force over which God has little control.

    • C. 

      That when God gave Satan dominion over earth, all hell broke loose.

    • D. 

      That evil is either sin or the punishment of sin.

  • 56. 
    At the end of the Book of Job, God:
    • A. 

      Punishes Satan for having tricked Him into tormenting Job.

    • B. 

      Chastises the friends and rewards Job for his truthfulness.

    • C. 

      Gets bored with the whole scene and sends a giant meteor to crush them all.

    • D. 

      Kills Job's friends and gives Job more kids and a brand new washer & dryer.

  • 57. 
    Satan's first "bet" with God regarding Job is that, if God took away all of Job's possessions and children, Job would:
    • A. 

      Enter into conspiracy with Satan to overthrow God.

    • B. 

      Shave his head and fall in the dust and praise God's name.

    • C. 

      Cry and kick and scream just like a baby.

    • D. 

      Curse God and betray his faith.

  • 58. 
    Which of the following captures the criticism of the Irenaean theodicy best?
    • A. 

      That God could have achieved the ends of "soul-making" without our having to suffer as radically as we have throughout history.

    • B. 

      That suffering is not "spiritual rehabilitation" but punishment for sin.

    • C. 

      That humans are the ones responsible for evil, not God.

    • D. 

      That the theodicy would be more popular if its name was easier to spell.

  • 59. 
    Which of the following captures the spirit of the Irenaean theodicy most effectively?
    • A. 

      That God placed us in a world of evil in order to strengthen us spiritually.

    • B. 

      That God knew all along we were sinners and deserved to suffer.

    • C. 

      That God was playing a cruel cosmic trick on us just to see who would "get it."

    • D. 

      That God wanted to give us all a better life but did not have the power to do so.

  • 60. 
    What did the first major criticism of the Augustinian theodicy essentially involve?
    • A. 

      The idea that hell is necessary if God is truly just.

    • B. 

      The idea that - contrary to what Augustine maintained-- sin (or moral evil) couldn't have existed before the punishment of sin (or natural evil).

    • C. 

      The idea that God (the Creator) must ultimately be responsible for the sins of his creation.

    • D. 

      The idea that - contrary to what Augustine maintained -- the punishment of sin (or natural evil) couldn't have existed before sin (or moral evil).

  • 61. 
    When Job passes the first "test," Satan suggests that God:
    • A. 

      Should kill Job's wife.

    • B. 

      Should just kill Job and get it over with.

    • C. 

      Should afflict Job with some horrible disease.

    • D. 

      Should send a flood to wash all humans away.

  • 62. 
    What is the Irenaean theodicy sometimes called?
    • A. 

      The "soul-shaking theodicy"

    • B. 

      The "soul-taking theodicy"

    • C. 

      The "soul- baking theodicy"

    • D. 

      The "soul-making theodicy"

  • 63. 
    Kushner thinks the argument of the Book of Job forces us to choose between:
    • A. 

      A mysterious God who is not really concerned or a concerned God who is really mysterious.

    • B. 

      A good God who is not totally powerful or a powerful God who is not totally good.

    • C. 

      A good God who is not very funny or a funny God who is not very good.

    • D. 

      A cruel God who is not totally powerful or a powerful God who is not completely cruel.

  • 64. 
    Which of the following authors both thought God's power was limited?
    • A. 

      Kushner and Hick

    • B. 

      Augustine and Whitehead

    • C. 

      Irenaeus and Kushner

    • D. 

      Kushner and Whitehead

  • 65. 
    Believing in god's power and supreme goodness, the friends:
    • A. 

      Get all confused and start fighting with each other.

    • B. 

      Accuse Job of wrongdoing and suggest he beg God for forgiveness.

    • C. 

      Kill three reams and offer them to God on Job's behalf.

    • D. 

      Can't figure out why Job should be suffering so much.

  • 66. 
    Which of the three theodicies discussed by Hick affirmed the importance of freedom?
    • A. 

      The Process.

    • B. 

      The Irenaean.

    • C. 

      The Augustinian.

    • D. 

      All of the above.

  • 67. 
    Kushner maintains that there are three basic ideas that help clarify the arguments raised in (and by) the Book of Job.  What do these ideas involve?
    • A. 

      God's cruelty, God's gambling problem, and Job's confusion.

    • B. 

      Satan's wickedness, God's gullibility, and Job's goodness.

    • C. 

      God's power, God's goodness, and Job's goodness.

    • D. 

      God's power, Satan's wickedness, and Job's goodness.

  • 68. 
    When God finally appears to Job at the end of the book, He:
    • A. 

      Apologizes to Job for accepting Satan's wager.

    • B. 

      Parts the Red Sea to show Job how powerful He is.

    • C. 

      Proclaims His vast powers in the universe and humbles Job.

    • D. 

      Suggests that Job has a bad sense of humor and tells him to 'get a life!'

  • 69. 
    Which of Kushner's "propositions" does job accept and which one does he reject?
    • A. 

      He accepts God's goodness and his own innocence but rejects God's power.

    • B. 

      He accepts God's power and his innocence but rejects God's goodness.

    • C. 

      He accepts Satan's wickedness and God's power but rejects God's justice.

    • D. 

      He accepts God's power and God's goodness and finally admits he is a sinner.

  • 70. 
    Which of Kushner's "propositions" did the friends accept and reject?
    • A. 

      They accept God's goodness and Jobs innocence but reject God's power.

    • B. 

      They accept God's power and Job's innocence but reject God's goodness.

    • C. 

      They accept Satan's wickedness and God's power but reject God's justice.

    • D. 

      They accept God's power and God's goodness and reject Job's goodness.

  • 71. 
    Which "propositions" did Kushner accept and which did he reject?
    • A. 

      He accepts God's goodness and Job's innocence but rejects God's power.

    • B. 

      He accepts God's power and Job's innocence but rejects God's goodness.

    • C. 

      He accepts Satan's wickedness and God's power but rejects God's justice.

    • D. 

      He accepts God's power and God's goodness but reject Job's goodness.

  • 72. 
    What did the friends do when they first saw Job?
    • A. 

      They scolded him for acting like such a self-righteous baby.

    • B. 

      They saw how he suffered and sat with him in silence for 7 days and nights.

    • C. 

      They washed his feet and put oil on his head and cooked him some barbecue.

    • D. 

      They told him how far they had traveled and asked him to fix them some food.

  • 73. 
    At one point in his talk, Kushner describes human beings as:
    • A. 

      Too miserable to deserve any kindness.

    • B. 

      The language of God.

    • C. 

      Having almost as much power as God.

    • D. 

      Basically evil.

  • 74. 
    Sometime Agustine referred to evil as:
    • A. 

      A big bag of downers.

    • B. 

      The hole in the doughnut gone vicious.

    • C. 

      The absence (or privation) of goodness.

    • D. 

      The brute, motive force of fragmentary purpose disregarding the eternal vision.

  • 75. 
    How did Job react to the news that he had lost everything, including his children?
    • A. 

      He ripped his clothes and ran through the desert screaming hysterically.

    • B. 

      He tore his robe, shaved his head, lay down in the dust, and praised the lord.

    • C. 

      He was so distraught and grief-stricken that boils began to erupt all over him.

    • D. 

      He cursed God's name.