Philosophy Study Quiz

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Philosophy Quizzes & Trivia

Study guide for Final exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher developed a theory of reincarnation?

    • A.

      Protagoras

    • B.

      Heraclitus

    • C.

      Pythagoras

    • D.

      Parmenides

    Correct Answer
    C. Pythagoras
    Explanation
    Pythagoras is the correct answer because he is known for developing a theory of reincarnation. According to Pythagoras, the soul is immortal and goes through a cycle of rebirth after death. He believed in the transmigration of souls, where the soul can inhabit different bodies throughout multiple lifetimes. This theory of reincarnation was a significant aspect of Pythagorean philosophy and had a lasting influence on later philosophical and religious traditions.

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  • 2. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher used his theory of the nature of atoms to explain the character of our sensations (such as our sense of color or the way certain foods tstae)?

    • A.

      Empedocles

    • B.

      Thales

    • C.

      Democritus

    • D.

      Heraclitus

    Correct Answer
    C. Democritus
    Explanation
    Democritus, a pre-Socratic philosopher, used his theory of the nature of atoms to explain the character of our sensations. According to Democritus, all matter is composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. He believed that different combinations and arrangements of atoms give rise to different sensations, such as our sense of color or the way certain foods taste. This theory suggests that our sensory experiences can be explained by the interaction of atoms, providing a materialistic explanation for the nature of our sensations.

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  • 3. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher believed that the body was the source of evil and that the purpose of life was to purify the soul of the influence of the body?

    • A.

      Protagoras

    • B.

      Parmenides

    • C.

      Pythagoras

    • D.

      Pericles

    Correct Answer
    C. Pythagoras
    Explanation
    Pythagoras, a pre-Socratic philosopher, believed that the body was the source of evil and that the purpose of life was to purify the soul from the influence of the body. He believed in the concept of metempsychosis, which is the transmigration of the soul into another body after death. Pythagoras emphasized the importance of spiritual and intellectual development to achieve this purification and attain a higher level of existence. His teachings had a significant influence on later philosophical and religious traditions, particularly in the areas of ethics and spirituality.

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  • 4. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher thought that the constantly changing nature of reality was nevertheless made uniform and orderly insofar as it was governed by a force or principle he called the logos?

    • A.

      Democritus

    • B.

      Pythagoras

    • C.

      Parmenides

    • D.

      Heraclitus

    Correct Answer
    D. Heraclitus
    Explanation
    Heraclitus believed that the constantly changing nature of reality was still governed by a force or principle called the logos. He argued that everything is in a state of flux and that change is the fundamental nature of the universe. However, he also believed that there is an underlying order and unity to this change, which he attributed to the logos. This principle or force acts as a guiding and organizing principle, bringing order to the ever-changing world.

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  • 5. 

    The pre-Socratic philosopher who thought reality was composed of atoms and empty space (or the void) was:

    • A.

      Democritus

    • B.

      Parmenides

    • C.

      Pythagoras

    • D.

      Empedocles

    Correct Answer
    A. Democritus
    Explanation
    Democritus is the correct answer because he was a pre-Socratic philosopher who believed that reality was made up of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms, which existed in empty space or the void. He proposed that all matter was composed of these atoms, which differed in shape, size, and arrangement, and that they were in constant motion. Democritus' atomic theory laid the foundation for modern atomic theory and had a significant influence on the development of scientific thought.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following thinkers was a Sophist?

    • A.

      Pythagoras

    • B.

      Democritus

    • C.

      Protagoras

    • D.

      Empedocles

    Correct Answer
    C. Protagoras
    Explanation
    Protagoras was a Sophist, a group of ancient Greek thinkers who focused on rhetoric and the art of persuasion. They believed that truth and knowledge were subjective and that individuals could shape reality through persuasive language and argumentation. Protagoras was known for his famous statement, "Man is the measure of all things," which encapsulated the relativistic perspective of the Sophists. Unlike Pythagoras, Democritus, and Empedocles, who were known for their contributions to mathematics, atomic theory, and the four elements, respectively, Protagoras' philosophical focus was on human perception and the power of persuasion.

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  • 7. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher wrote in riddles and various paradoxical sayings?

    • A.

      Heraclitus

    • B.

      Parmenides

    • C.

      Anaximander

    • D.

      Empedocles

    Correct Answer
    A. Heraclitus
    Explanation
    Heraclitus is the correct answer because he was known for writing in riddles and paradoxical sayings. He believed that reality is constantly changing and that everything is in a state of flux. His famous saying "You cannot step into the same river twice" reflects his belief in the ever-changing nature of the world. This style of writing and philosophical approach set him apart from other pre-Socratic philosophers. Parmenides, Anaximander, and Empedocles, on the other hand, did not have the same reputation for using riddles and paradoxes in their writings.

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  • 8. 

    Which Sophist said that we couldn't know the nature of the gods because our minds are too limited, the subject is too obscure, and life is too short to attain such ultimate knowledge? Hint: he also said "man is the measure of all things."

    • A.

      Empedocles

    • B.

      Protagoras

    • C.

      Democritus

    • D.

      Gorgias

    Correct Answer
    B. Protagoras
    Explanation
    Protagoras, the Sophist, argued that the nature of the gods is unknowable due to the limitations of our minds, the obscurity of the subject, and the brevity of human life. He believed that human beings are the ultimate measure of all things, implying that knowledge is subjective and relative to individual experiences and perceptions. Protagoras' philosophy highlights the skepticism and agnosticism surrounding the nature of gods and the limitations of human understanding.

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  • 9. 

    Which pre-Socratic said that Being neither was nor will be but simply is?

    • A.

      Pythagoras

    • B.

      Heraclitus

    • C.

      Thales

    • D.

      Parmenides

    Correct Answer
    D. Parmenides
    Explanation
    Parmenides believed that reality is unchanging and eternal, and that being simply exists without any change or movement. He argued that being cannot come from non-being, and that it is impossible for something to both exist and not exist at the same time. This idea of being as a constant and unchanging entity is the basis of Parmenides' philosophy.

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  • 10. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher said reality consisted of the four basic elements, earth, air, fire, and water (along with the forces of love and trife)?

    • A.

      Anaximander

    • B.

      Anaximines

    • C.

      Democritus

    • D.

      Empedocles

    Correct Answer
    D. Empedocles
    Explanation
    Empedocles, a pre-Socratic philosopher, believed that reality was composed of the four basic elements: earth, air, fire, and water. He also proposed the existence of two opposing forces, love and strife, which acted upon these elements to create and destroy. This theory, known as Empedocleanism, aimed to explain the nature of the universe and the processes of change and transformation. Empedocles' ideas had a significant influence on subsequent philosophers and scientists, particularly in the fields of cosmology and metaphysics.

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  • 11. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher said that you cannot step into the same river twice?

    • A.

      Empedocles

    • B.

      Parmenides

    • C.

      Heraclitus

    • D.

      Pythagoras

    Correct Answer
    C. Heraclitus
    Explanation
    Heraclitus, a pre-Socratic philosopher, believed in the concept of constant change and flux in the universe. He argued that everything is constantly in motion and nothing remains the same. The statement "you cannot step into the same river twice" reflects his philosophy, as he believed that the river is constantly changing, and therefore, each time you step into it, it is a different river. This idea illustrates his belief in the impermanence and constant transformation of the world.

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  • 12. 

    The sophist who taught that truth was relative to belief was:

    • A.

      Protagoras

    • B.

      Gorgias

    • C.

      Heraclitus

    • D.

      Thales

    Correct Answer
    B. Gorgias
    Explanation
    Gorgias is the correct answer because he was a prominent sophist who believed that truth is subjective and relative to individual beliefs. He argued that there is no absolute truth and that language is a tool that can be used to manipulate and persuade others. Gorgias' teachings were influential in ancient Greece and challenged the notion of objective truth that was prevalent at the time.

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  • 13. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher argued that change and motion were illusions and that we shouldn't listen to what our senses tell us about the world?

    • A.

      Heraclitus

    • B.

      Thales

    • C.

      Empedocles

    • D.

      Parmenides

    Correct Answer
    D. Parmenides
    Explanation
    Parmenides is the correct answer because he believed that change and motion were illusions and that our senses were unreliable in perceiving the true nature of the world. He argued that the world is unchanging, indivisible, and timeless, and that our perception of change and motion is merely an illusion. Parmenides' philosophy was in contrast to other pre-Socratic philosophers like Heraclitus and Empedocles, who believed in the reality of change and motion. Thales, another pre-Socratic philosopher, focused more on the study of nature and the concept of water as the fundamental substance.

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  • 14. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher believed that nature or the world came out to be out of the struggle of fundamental oppositions (like dry and moist and hot and cold and light and dark) and the cyclic movement of these into and out of the apeiron (or the boundless or the unlimited)?

    • A.

      Thales

    • B.

      Anaximander

    • C.

      Anaximines

    • D.

      Anaxagoras

    Correct Answer
    B. Anaximander
    Explanation
    Anaximander, a pre-Socratic philosopher, believed that nature or the world emerged from the conflict between fundamental oppositions such as dry and moist, hot and cold, and light and dark. He also proposed that these oppositions cyclically moved into and out of the apeiron, which refers to the boundless or the unlimited. This concept of the apeiron as the source of all things was central to Anaximander's philosophy. Thales, Anaximines, and Anaxagoras were also pre-Socratic philosophers, but their beliefs differed from Anaximander's.

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  • 15. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher believed that the cosmos generated a kind of glorious symphony (the Harmony of the Heavenly Spheres) that we could not hear unless our souls were sufficiently purified of the influences of our bodies?

    • A.

      Pythagoras

    • B.

      Protagoras

    • C.

      Heraclitus

    • D.

      Anaximines

    Correct Answer
    A. Pythagoras
    Explanation
    Pythagoras believed that the cosmos generated a kind of glorious symphony, known as the Harmony of the Heavenly Spheres. He believed that our souls could only hear this symphony if they were purified of the influences of our bodies. This suggests that Pythagoras believed in the importance of spiritual purification and the connection between the soul and the harmonious nature of the universe.

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  • 16. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher said that everything was ultimately air?

    • A.

      Anaximander

    • B.

      Thales

    • C.

      Anaximines

    • D.

      Empedocles

    Correct Answer
    C. Anaximines
    Explanation
    Anaximines is the correct answer because he believed that the fundamental substance of the universe was air. He proposed that air could be transformed into other elements through condensation and rarefaction, thus forming different objects and substances. This concept of air as the primary element is known as aerism. Anaximines' theory was a significant contribution to early Greek philosophy and laid the foundation for further exploration of the nature of reality by other philosophers.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following sayings is attributed to the Sophist Protagoras?

    • A.

      "you cannot step into the same river twice."

    • B.

      "wherever you go, there you are."

    • C.

      "man is the measure of all things."

    • D.

      "dogs bark at those whom they do not know."

    Correct Answer
    C. "man is the measure of all things."
    Explanation
    The saying "man is the measure of all things" is attributed to the Sophist Protagoras. This phrase reflects Protagoras' relativistic philosophy, which suggests that truth and knowledge are subjective and depend on individual perception. According to Protagoras, humans are the ultimate judges of reality, and each person's perception is valid for themselves. This idea challenges the notion of absolute truth and emphasizes the importance of individual experiences and perspectives.

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  • 18. 

    The pre-Socratic philosopher associated with music, mathematics, and mysticism was:

    • A.

      Pythagoras

    • B.

      Empedocles

    • C.

      Heraclitus

    • D.

      Parmenides

    Correct Answer
    A. Pythagoras
    Explanation
    Pythagoras is the correct answer because he is well-known for his contributions to music, mathematics, and mysticism. He believed in the harmony of the universe and the idea that numbers and ratios are the fundamental building blocks of reality. Pythagoras also established the Pythagorean school, which emphasized the study of mathematics, music, and philosophy. His teachings had a significant influence on later philosophers and mathematicians, making him the most fitting choice among the given options.

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  • 19. 

    The word philosophy was coined by Pythagoras.  It's a combination of philo and sophia which together mean:

    • A.

      The love of God

    • B.

      The will of Zeus

    • C.

      The love of wisdom

    • D.

      The search for love

    Correct Answer
    C. The love of wisdom
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the love of wisdom". The word "philosophy" is derived from the Greek words "philo" meaning love and "sophia" meaning wisdom. Therefore, philosophy can be understood as the pursuit and appreciation of knowledge, understanding, and wisdom.

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  • 20. 

    What were the two general attitudes toward life embraced by the Sophists?

    • A.

      Pragmatism and animism

    • B.

      Skepticism and relativism

    • C.

      Humanism and anthropomorphism

    • D.

      Apathy and cynicism

    Correct Answer
    B. Skepticism and relativism
    Explanation
    The correct answer is skepticism and relativism. The Sophists were a group of philosophers in ancient Greece who emphasized the importance of individual perception and subjectivity. They believed that truth and morality were relative and differed from person to person. Skepticism refers to their doubt and questioning of absolute truths, while relativism reflects their belief in the subjective nature of truth and morality. These attitudes challenged traditional beliefs and encouraged critical thinking and self-reliance.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following statement was not included in Gorgias' treatise "On Nature or What is Not"?

    • A.

      Nothing exists

    • B.

      Even if something did exist, we could not know that it existed.

    • C.

      Even if we could know that something existed, we could not communicate this knowledge to anyone else.

    • D.

      Even if we could communicate this knowledge to someone else, he or she would probably not be that interested in it anyway.

    Correct Answer
    D. Even if we could communicate this knowledge to someone else, he or she would probably not be that interested in it anyway.
  • 22. 

    Philosophy emerged in ancient Greece when thinkers began to move from:

    • A.

      More mythological to more rational ways of explaining the world.

    • B.

      More agricultural to more industrial ways of making a living.

    • C.

      More rational to more mythological ways of explaining the world.

    • D.

      More scientific to more religious ways of explaining the meaning of life.

    Correct Answer
    A. More mythological to more rational ways of explaining the world.
    Explanation
    During ancient Greece, there was a shift in thinking from relying on mythological explanations to embracing more rational ways of understanding the world. This change marked the emergence of philosophy as thinkers sought to explain phenomena through logic, reason, and observation rather than attributing them to supernatural or mythical beings. This transition allowed for the development of critical thinking and the exploration of natural causes and principles, laying the foundation for the philosophical traditions that followed.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following figures is known as "the Father of Western Philosophy"? (Hint: there's a famous story told about his having once fallen into a cistern because he was so preoccupied looking up the the heavens.)

    • A.

      Thales

    • B.

      Heraclitus

    • C.

      Parmenides

    • D.

      Pythagoras

    Correct Answer
    A. Thales
    Explanation
    Thales is known as "the Father of Western Philosophy" because he is considered the first philosopher in Western history. He was a Greek philosopher who lived in the 6th century BCE and is known for his contributions to various fields such as mathematics, astronomy, and philosophy. Thales is often credited with introducing a rational and naturalistic approach to understanding the world, moving away from mythological and supernatural explanations. The story of him falling into a cistern while stargazing highlights his preoccupation with observing and understanding the natural world.

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  • 24. 

    Which pre-Socratic philosopher said that reality was one and that nothing changes?

    • A.

      Pythagoras

    • B.

      Parmenides

    • C.

      Heraclitus

    • D.

      Protagoras

    Correct Answer
    B. Parmenides
    Explanation
    Parmenides, a pre-Socratic philosopher, believed that reality was one and unchanging. He argued that change was an illusion and that true reality could only be perceived through reason and logic. Parmenides' philosophy was in contrast to the views of other pre-Socratic philosophers like Heraclitus, who believed in the constant flux and change of the world.

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  • 25. 

    What was Heraclitus' symbol for reality?

    • A.

      Earth

    • B.

      Air

    • C.

      Fire

    • D.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    C. Fire
    Explanation
    Heraclitus believed that fire was the symbol for reality. He argued that fire represented the constant change and flux that exists in the world. Fire, in his philosophy, symbolized the transformative nature of reality and the idea that everything is in a state of constant motion and change. This aligns with his famous statement, "Everything flows."

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  • 26. 

    Socrates' argument about the impossibility of desiring evil implies that, evil, when it occurs, is always due to:

    • A.

      The desire to sin for pleasure

    • B.

      Hades or the Devil

    • C.

      The desire to be miserable

    • D.

      Some form of ignorance or moral blindness

    Correct Answer
    D. Some form of ignorance or moral blindness
    Explanation
    Socrates' argument suggests that evil actions occur due to some form of ignorance or moral blindness. This means that when individuals engage in evil behavior, it is not because they desire to sin for pleasure, are influenced by Hades or the Devil, or have the desire to be miserable. Instead, Socrates believes that people commit evil acts because they lack knowledge or understanding of what is morally right or wrong. This ignorance or moral blindness leads them to make choices that result in evil outcomes.

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  • 27. 

    Socrates answers Meno's paradox of inquiry by:

    • A.

      Asking Meno if he had ever heard of Pythagoras.

    • B.

      Describing the soul's immortality and how learning is really recollection.

    • C.

      Getting Meno to admit that he really doesn't know what virtue is.

    • D.

      Discussing the phenomenological implications of brain teasers.

    Correct Answer
    B. Describing the soul's immortality and how learning is really recollection.
    Explanation
    Socrates answers Meno's paradox of inquiry by describing the soul's immortality and how learning is really recollection. He explains that the soul is immortal and has knowledge from past lives, and learning is the process of recollecting that knowledge. This explanation counters Meno's paradox, which argues that inquiry is impossible because we either know something already or we don't know what we're looking for. Socrates' explanation suggests that we have innate knowledge within us, and inquiry is the process of remembering and rediscovering that knowledge.

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  • 28. 

    Meno's first definition of "virtue" included which of the following?

    • A.

      The virtue of a ship builder and a doctor.

    • B.

      The suggestion that virtue was "the power of governing mankind."

    • C.

      The virtue of a man & a woman and the suggestion that virtue was relative.

    • D.

      The idea that virtue was "the desire of things honorable and the power of attaining them."

    Correct Answer
    C. The virtue of a man & a woman and the suggestion that virtue was relative.
    Explanation
    Meno's first definition of "virtue" included the virtue of a man and a woman and the suggestion that virtue was relative. This means that according to Meno, virtue can be possessed by both men and women, and it is not an absolute concept but rather depends on the context and perspective.

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  • 29. 

    At one point in the dialogue (in response to Socrates' criticism to his second definition of "virtue"), Meno suggested that virtue should be equated with:

    • A.

      Compassion

    • B.

      Justice

    • C.

      Courage

    • D.

      Honesty

    Correct Answer
    B. Justice
    Explanation
    Meno suggested that virtue should be equated with justice. This means that he believes that being just or fair in one's actions and decisions is a key aspect of being virtuous. Justice involves treating others fairly and giving them what they deserve. Meno's suggestion aligns with the traditional understanding of virtue as a moral excellence that encompasses fairness and righteousness in one's behavior.

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  • 30. 

    At the very begining of the dialogue, Meno wants Socrates to tell him:

    • A.

      The quickest way to get to the Parthenon.

    • B.

      What virtue is.

    • C.

      How a guy from out of town might get some action in Athens.

    • D.

      How virtue is acquired.

    Correct Answer
    D. How virtue is acquired.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "how virtue is acquired." In the dialogue, Meno asks Socrates to explain what virtue is and how it is acquired. This suggests that Meno is seeking knowledge about the nature and acquisition of virtue. The other options, such as directions to the Parthenon or advice on getting romantic encounters, are not related to the topic of virtue. Therefore, the most relevant and accurate answer is that Meno wants to know how virtue is acquired.

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  • 31. 

    In the Republc, Plato suggested that the world of particular, changing things was:

    • A.

      The only world of which we could have complete knowledge.

    • B.

      Divine since it was created by the Cosmic Soul.

    • C.

      Only a reflection of the world on universal, unchanging Forms.

    • D.

      Ultimately composed of earth, air, fire, and water.

    Correct Answer
    C. Only a reflection of the world on universal, unchanging Forms.
    Explanation
    Plato believed that the world of particular, changing things is only a reflection of the world of universal, unchanging Forms. According to him, the physical world that we perceive with our senses is imperfect and constantly changing, while the world of Forms is perfect and eternal. The physical world is merely a shadow or imitation of the true reality found in the world of Forms. Therefore, our knowledge of the physical world is limited and incomplete, whereas true knowledge can only be obtained by contemplating the Forms.

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  • 32. 

    Which character helped Meno and Socrates search for teachers of virtue?

    • A.

      Democritus.

    • B.

      Anytus.

    • C.

      Pericles.

    • D.

      Meno's young slave.

    Correct Answer
    B. Anytus.
    Explanation
    Anytus is the correct answer because he is the character who helped Meno and Socrates in their search for teachers of virtue. The other options, Democritus, Pericles, and Meno's young slave, are not mentioned as being involved in this particular search.

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  • 33. 

    According to Plato's "Divided Line," the second level down from the top includes:

    • A.

      Images of things.

    • B.

      Mathematical truths.

    • C.

      Physical things.

    • D.

      Eternal, unchanging Forms.

    Correct Answer
    B. Mathematical truths.
    Explanation
    According to Plato's "Divided Line," the second level down from the top includes mathematical truths. In Plato's theory, the Divided Line represents different levels of reality and knowledge. The second level represents the intelligible realm, where abstract concepts and mathematical truths exist. Plato believed that these mathematical truths are eternal and unchanging, unlike physical things which are subject to change. Therefore, the correct answer is mathematical truths.

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  • 34. 

    To investigate the teachability if virtue toward the end of the dialogue, Socrates and Meno work through the following, basic argument:

    • A.

      If virtue is knowledge, then virtue must be teachable. If virtue is teachable, then it must be profitable. If virtue is profitable, then there ought to be some people making some money teaching it. The Sophists make money teaching virtue. Therefore, virtue must be profitable and teachable. Therefore, virtue must be knowledge.

    • B.

      If virtue is knowledge, then virtue must be teachable. If virtue is teachable, then there ought to be teachers of it. There are no teachers of virtue. Therefore, virtue is not teachable. Therefore, virtue is not knowledge.

    • C.

      If virtue is knowledge, then virtue must be teachable. If virtue is teachable, then there ought to be schools where it's taught. There might be a school in Egypt. Therefore, virtue might be teachable, and it might be knowledge, but you would need lots of cash to find out.

    • D.

      If virtue is knowledge, then virtue must be teachable. If virtue is teachable, there ought to be teachers of it. There are plenty of teachers of virtue. Therefore, virtue must be teachable. Therefore, virtue must be knowledge.

    Correct Answer
    B. If virtue is knowledge, then virtue must be teachable. If virtue is teachable, then there ought to be teachers of it. There are no teachers of virtue. Therefore, virtue is not teachable. Therefore, virtue is not knowledge.
    Explanation
    The given answer correctly identifies the argument that if virtue is teachable, then there ought to be teachers of it. However, it also points out that there are no teachers of virtue, leading to the conclusion that virtue is not teachable. This conclusion is then used to argue that virtue is not knowledge. Therefore, the answer provides a logical explanation based on the premises and conclusions of the argument.

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  • 35. 

    According to Plato's "Divided Line," the third level down from the top includes:

    • A.

      The eternal, unchanging Forms.

    • B.

      The physical things of this world.

    • C.

      Images of things in this world.

    • D.

      Mathematical truths.

    Correct Answer
    B. The physical things of this world.
    Explanation
    According to Plato's "Divided Line," the third level down from the top includes the physical things of this world. This means that at this level, we are dealing with the visible and tangible objects that exist in our material reality. Plato believed that these physical things are only a shadow or a reflection of the higher level of reality, which consists of the eternal and unchanging Forms. The physical things in this world are subject to change and decay, unlike the Forms that are perfect and timeless. Therefore, the correct answer is the physical things of this world.

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  • 36. 

    Which level of reality described by "the Divide Line" would correspond to the puppets that cast the shadows watched by the prisoners in Plato's "Parable of the Cave"?

    • A.

      The level of mathematical truths.

    • B.

      The level of images or reflections.

    • C.

      The level of the Forms.

    • D.

      The level of physical objects.

    Correct Answer
    D. The level of physical objects.
    Explanation
    According to "the Divide Line" described in Plato's "Parable of the Cave," the level of reality that corresponds to the puppets that cast the shadows watched by the prisoners would be the level of physical objects. This level represents the material world that we perceive through our senses, which includes the shadows and puppets in the cave. The other options, such as the level of mathematical truths, images or reflections, and the Forms, do not directly correspond to the puppets and shadows in the cave.

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  • 37. 

    Socrates essentially argues that no one desires evil by suggesting that:

    • A.

      To desire evil is to be really bad, and no one is really bad, so evil really doesn't exist.

    • B.

      Either they think that evil is really evil and don't really see how miserable they must be to desire it or they think that evil isn't so bad after all, so they really must know that evil is evil and yet desire to be miserable anyway.

    • C.

      They either think what they desire is good (in which case, they don't really desire evil) or they must know it is evil (in which case, they don't really desire evil) or they must know it is evil (in which case, they must desire to be miserable). Since, however, no one desires to be miserable, then no one desires evil.

    • D.

      If they did, then they must be pretty dumb, and besides that, if they actually desired evil, then they probably are psychotic which would mean that they don't know the difference between good and evil, and so they don't desire evil because they think that everything is really pretty good.

    Correct Answer
    C. They either think what they desire is good (in which case, they don't really desire evil) or they must know it is evil (in which case, they don't really desire evil) or they must know it is evil (in which case, they must desire to be miserable). Since, however, no one desires to be miserable, then no one desires evil.
    Explanation
    Socrates argues that no one desires evil because they either think what they desire is good (in which case, they don't really desire evil) or they must know it is evil (in which case, they don't really desire evil) or they must know it is evil (in which case, they must desire to be miserable). Since no one desires to be miserable, it follows that no one desires evil. This is because if someone truly desired evil, they would either be ignorant of its evil nature or they would desire to be miserable, both of which are unlikely scenarios.

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  • 38. 

    Which level or reality described by "the Divide Line" would correspond to the shadows watched by the prisoners in Plato's "Parable of the Cave"?

    • A.

      The level of mathematical truths.

    • B.

      The level of images or reflections.

    • C.

      The level of physical objects.

    • D.

      The level of the Forms.

    Correct Answer
    B. The level of images or reflections.
    Explanation
    In Plato's "Parable of the Cave," the prisoners are chained in a cave and can only see shadows on the wall in front of them. These shadows are mere reflections or images of the real objects that exist outside the cave. The "Divide Line" in Plato's philosophy represents different levels of reality, with the lowest level being the physical objects themselves and the highest level being the Forms or the ultimate truth. Since the shadows watched by the prisoners are not the actual physical objects but rather images or reflections, they would correspond to the level of images or reflections in the "Divide Line."

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  • 39. 

    What realm of reality described by "the Divided Line" would correspond to the area above and outside the cave in Plato's "Parable of the Cave"?

    • A.

      The Sensible Realm.

    • B.

      The Kingdom of God.

    • C.

      The Intelligible Realm.

    • D.

      The Realm That Passes All Understanding.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Intelligible Realm.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Intelligible Realm. In Plato's "Parable of the Cave," the area above and outside the cave represents the realm of the Intelligible. This realm is characterized by abstract concepts, universal truths, and the Forms or Ideas. It is a higher level of reality that can only be understood through reason and intellect, as opposed to the lower realm of the Sensible where we perceive the physical world through our senses. The Intelligible Realm represents a deeper understanding and knowledge of reality beyond the limitations of our sensory perception.

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  • 40. 

    Meno's last definition of "virtue" claimed that it should be identified with:

    • A.

      The desire of fine things and the money to buy them.

    • B.

      The power of governing mankind.

    • C.

      The general impossibility of inquiring into things you don't really already know.

    • D.

      The desire of things honorable and the power of attaining them.

    Correct Answer
    D. The desire of things honorable and the power of attaining them.
    Explanation
    Meno's last definition of "virtue" states that it should be identified with the desire of things honorable and the power of attaining them. This means that virtue is not only about desiring honorable things but also having the ability to achieve them. It emphasizes the importance of both intention and action in leading a virtuous life.

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  • 41. 

    According to Plato's "Divided Line," the lowest level includes:

    • A.

      Images or reflections of things.

    • B.

      The eternal, unchanging Forms.

    • C.

      Mathematical truths.

    • D.

      Physical things.

    Correct Answer
    A. Images or reflections of things.
    Explanation
    According to Plato's "Divided Line," the lowest level includes images or reflections of things. This means that at this level, individuals perceive the physical world through their senses, but these perceptions are not the true reality. They are mere copies or representations of the true Forms or Ideas, which exist in a higher realm. Plato believed that the physical world is a shadowy reflection of the perfect and unchanging Forms, and true knowledge can only be attained by understanding these Forms through reason and intellect.

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  • 42. 

    The ultimate conclusion of the Meno was that virtue was the result of:

    • A.

      Lucky guesswork.

    • B.

      Divine dispensation.

    • C.

      A sort of spiritual lottery conducted among the gentlemen of Athens.

    • D.

      Sublime desperation.

    Correct Answer
    B. Divine dispensation.
    Explanation
    The ultimate conclusion of the Meno was that virtue was the result of divine dispensation. This means that virtue is not something that can be acquired through human effort or reasoning alone, but rather, it is a gift bestowed upon individuals by the gods. This conclusion suggests that virtue is not within human control, but rather, it is determined by a higher power.

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  • 43. 

    Socrates claims that he doesn't know how virtue is acquired because:

    • A.

      He's really not interested in that sort of thing.

    • B.

      He doesn't know what virtue is.

    • C.

      He feels such questions are metaphysically intangible.

    • D.

      He never met Gorgias.

    Correct Answer
    B. He doesn't know what virtue is.
    Explanation
    Socrates claims that he doesn't know what virtue is because this implies that he lacks a clear understanding or definition of virtue. This lack of knowledge prevents him from knowing how virtue is acquired, as he cannot determine the nature or essence of virtue itself. Socrates' acknowledgment of his ignorance reflects his philosophical approach of seeking wisdom through questioning and self-reflection.

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  • 44. 

    Socrates responds to Meno's first definition of "virtue" by saying:

    • A.

      How lucky he was to get so many definitions when he asked for just one.

    • B.

      "Zeus, Almighty, now here is a man who know how to define things!"

    • C.

      How strange it was that Meno gave his definition without praying first.

    • D.

      "Wow, Meno, what a bummer; you must really be an idiot!"

    Correct Answer
    A. How lucky he was to get so many definitions when he asked for just one.
    Explanation
    Socrates responds to Meno's first definition of "virtue" by expressing his surprise and gratitude for receiving multiple definitions instead of just one. This suggests that Socrates appreciates the opportunity to explore different perspectives and engage in a deeper discussion about the nature of virtue.

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  • 45. 

    Who did Anytus recommend as perfectly good teachers of virtue?

    • A.

      The Sophists.

    • B.

      The gods.

    • C.

      The followers of Pythagoras.

    • D.

      Any Athenian gentleman.

    Correct Answer
    D. Any Athenian gentleman.
    Explanation
    Anytus recommended any Athenian gentleman as perfectly good teachers of virtue. This suggests that Anytus believed that virtue could be taught by any respectable and educated member of Athenian society. It implies that he did not consider the Sophists, the gods, or the followers of Pythagoras to be suitable teachers of virtue.

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  • 46. 

    The basic problem with all of Meno's definitions, according to Socrates, was:

    • A.

      That he kept forgetting what Gorgias had taught him.

    • B.

      That he kept reciting poetry when he should have answered the questions.

    • C.

      That he kept fumbling around in his pockets and wouldn't speak clearly.

    • D.

      That he kept giving examples or parts of virtue rather than its essence.

    Correct Answer
    D. That he kept giving examples or parts of virtue rather than its essence.
    Explanation
    Meno's basic problem, according to Socrates, was that he kept giving examples or parts of virtue rather than its essence. Instead of providing a clear and concise definition of virtue, Meno would give various examples or describe different aspects of virtue without getting to its fundamental nature. Socrates believed that understanding the essence of virtue was crucial for any meaningful discussion or inquiry into its nature.

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  • 47. 

    Very basically, what math problem did Socrates ask the slave boy to solve?

    • A.

      How to fit a circle into a square without using any triangles.

    • B.

      How to determine the square root of 2, 457, 943.

    • C.

      How much money they would need to buy three big bottles of wine.

    • D.

      How to construct a square with twice the area of a given square.

    Correct Answer
    D. How to construct a square with twice the area of a given square.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is how to construct a square with twice the area of a given square. This is known as the "doubling the cube" problem, which involves finding a geometric construction to create a square that has exactly twice the area of a given square. This problem was posed by Socrates to the slave boy in Plato's dialogue "Meno" as a way to demonstrate the process of recollection and innate knowledge.

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  • 48. 

    In their search for teachers of virtue, Socrates initially suggested that they consider those individuals who profess to profess to teach virtue and who get paid for their instruction.  Who do they identify as individuals fitting this description?

    • A.

      The Olympian gods.

    • B.

      Any of the aristocratic gentlemen of Athens.

    • C.

      Any of a number of wise priests and priestesses.

    • D.

      The Sophists.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Sophists.
    Explanation
    Socrates suggests that individuals who claim to teach virtue and receive payment for their instruction should be considered as potential teachers of virtue. The Sophists fit this description as they were a group of professional teachers in ancient Greece who claimed to possess knowledge and wisdom in various subjects, including virtue. They would offer their services in exchange for payment, making them suitable candidates for Socrates' search for teachers of virtue.

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  • 49. 

    In the "Parable of the Cave," after the released prisoner goes up out of the cave and looks up at the heavens, what does the sun correspond to in Socrates' previous description of "The Divided Line"?

    • A.

      A really big and really hot physical object.

    • B.

      The light of the fire that generates shadows on the cave walls.

    • C.

      The Form of the Good.

    • D.

      The Pythagorean theorem.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Form of the Good.
    Explanation
    In the "Parable of the Cave," the released prisoner goes up out of the cave and looks up at the heavens, where he sees the sun. In Socrates' previous description of "The Divided Line," the sun corresponds to the Form of the Good. The Form of the Good represents the highest level of reality and knowledge, illuminating the other forms and providing the ultimate source of truth and understanding. Therefore, the sun in the "Parable of the Cave" symbolizes the Form of the Good, which the released prisoner encounters and gains true knowledge from.

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  • 50. 

    At the very end of Plato's Meno, what is the last thing Socrates asks Meno to do?

    • A.

      He suggests Meno ought to visit the public baths in downtown Athens before he met with anyone else.

    • B.

      He suggested that Meno should take a few courses in Logic before visiting with him again.

    • C.

      He asked Meno if he wanted to go see one of Aristophanes' plays later that evening.

    • D.

      He asked Meno to track down Anytus and try to calm him down and convince him not to be exasperated.

    Correct Answer
    D. He asked Meno to track down Anytus and try to calm him down and convince him not to be exasperated.
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