Pharmacology - Vitamins

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Quizzes Created: 12 | Total Attempts: 9,079
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Vitamin Quizzes & Trivia

I don't know how much of this information is correct. . . But it's in our notes. . . So. . . .


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which vitamin is mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism?

    • A.

      Riboflavin

    • B.

      Thiamine

    • C.

      Nicotinic Acid

    • D.

      Pyridoxine

    Correct Answer
    B. Thiamine
    Explanation
    Thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism. It plays a crucial role in converting carbohydrates into energy for the body. Thiamine acts as a coenzyme in various metabolic reactions, particularly in the breakdown of glucose, which is the primary source of energy for the body. It helps in the conversion of glucose into usable energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Therefore, thiamine is essential for the proper functioning of the carbohydrate metabolism process.

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  • 2. 

    Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease called by a lack of ________.  Symptoms of this disease include diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia.

    • A.

      Riboflavin

    • B.

      Thiamine

    • C.

      Nicotinic Acid

    • D.

      Pyridoxine

    Correct Answer
    C. Nicotinic Acid
    Explanation
    Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease caused by a lack of nicotinic acid. This vitamin, also known as niacin or vitamin B3, is essential for the proper functioning of the body. The symptoms of pellagra include diarrhea, dermatitis (inflammation of the skin), and dementia. Nicotinic acid plays a crucial role in energy production, DNA repair, and the maintenance of healthy skin, nerves, and digestive system. Therefore, a deficiency in nicotinic acid can lead to the development of pellagra and its associated symptoms.

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  • 3. 

    The major symptoms of thiamine deficiency are related to the nervous system, such as sensory disturbances.  Also a loss of muscle strength, personality disturbances (depression), poor memory, and heart problems may occur.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Thiamine deficiency can cause various symptoms related to the nervous system, such as sensory disturbances. It can also lead to a loss of muscle strength, personality disturbances like depression, poor memory, and heart problems. Therefore, the statement that the major symptoms of thiamine deficiency are related to the nervous system and can also affect other areas of the body is true.

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  • 4. 

    The first sign of this a deficiency in this vitamin is a sore throat; later signs include dermatitis.  It is found in cow's milk, cheese, whole grains, green vegetables, eggs, and organ meats. 

    • A.

      Riboflavin

    • B.

      Thiamine

    • C.

      Nicotinic Acid

    • D.

      Pyridoxine

    Correct Answer
    A. Riboflavin
    Explanation
    Riboflavin is the correct answer because it is a vitamin that can cause a sore throat as the first sign of deficiency. It is also known to cause dermatitis as a later sign of deficiency. Riboflavin is found in various food sources such as cow's milk, cheese, whole grains, green vegetables, eggs, and organ meats. Thiamine, nicotinic acid, and pyridoxine are other vitamins, but they do not match the given symptoms or food sources mentioned in the question.

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  • 5. 

    A deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to vitamin B9 deficiency.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Vitamin B12 and B9 are both essential for the production of red blood cells and DNA synthesis. A deficiency in vitamin B12 can impair the absorption of vitamin B9, leading to a deficiency in vitamin B9 as well. Therefore, it is true that a deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to vitamin B9 deficiency.

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  • 6. 

    This vitamin is found in green leafy vegetables, nuts, yeast products, and liver.

    • A.

      Vitamin D

    • B.

      Vitamin B12

    • C.

      Folic Acid

    • D.

      Nicotinic Acid

    Correct Answer
    C. Folic Acid
    Explanation
    Folic Acid is the correct answer because it is commonly found in green leafy vegetables, nuts, yeast products, and liver. Folic Acid is a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and development, and it plays a crucial role in the production of red blood cells. It is particularly important for pregnant women as it helps prevent birth defects in the baby's brain and spine.

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  • 7. 

    Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by a ______ deficiency.  In Asia, where polished white rice was the common staple food of the middle class, beriberi resulting from lack of __________ was endemic.  Sensory disturbances, loss of muscle strength, heart problems, poor memory, and depression are symptoms of this deficiency.

    • A.

      Riboflavin

    • B.

      Thiamine

    • C.

      Nicotinic Acid

    • D.

      Vitamin B12

    • E.

      Folic Acid

    Correct Answer
    B. Thiamine
    Explanation
    Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by a thiamine deficiency. In Asia, where polished white rice was the common staple food of the middle class, beriberi resulting from lack of thiamine was endemic. Sensory disturbances, loss of muscle strength, heart problems, poor memory, and depression are symptoms of this deficiency. Thiamine is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and is necessary for proper nerve function. A deficiency in thiamine can lead to the development of beriberi and its associated symptoms.

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  • 8. 

    Riboflavin is found in high concentrations in breast milk.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Riboflavin is not found in high concentrations in breast milk. While breast milk is an excellent source of nutrients for infants, it is not particularly high in riboflavin. Riboflavin is primarily found in foods such as dairy products, eggs, meat, and leafy green vegetables. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 9. 

    Riboflavin functions as one of two co-enzymes: FMN and ____.  (three letters)

    Correct Answer
    FAD
    fad
    Explanation
    Riboflavin functions as one of two co-enzymes: FMN and FAD. FAD stands for Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide and is derived from riboflavin. FAD plays a crucial role in various metabolic reactions, particularly in the energy production process. It acts as an electron carrier, facilitating the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. FAD is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, making it an essential co-enzyme for overall cellular function.

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  • 10. 

    Nicotinic acid functions in the body (after conversion) to either NAD or ____. Nicotinic acid functions in the body (after conversion) to either NAD or _____. The NAD and _____ function as coenzymes and as oxidants by accepting electrons and hydrogen from substrates and thus becoming reduced.  Essential for tissue respiration.

    Correct Answer
    NADP
    nadp
    Explanation
    Nicotinic acid, after conversion, functions in the body to either NAD or NADP. Both NAD and NADP serve as coenzymes and oxidants by accepting electrons and hydrogen from substrates, which results in their reduction. These molecules are essential for tissue respiration, playing a crucial role in various metabolic reactions in the body.

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  • 11. 

    A deficiency in nicotinic acid is referred to as ______.

    • A.

      Beriberi

    • B.

      Pernicious anemia

    • C.

      Pellagra

    • D.

      Rickets

    Correct Answer
    C. Pellagra
    Explanation
    Pellagra is a deficiency in nicotinic acid, also known as vitamin B3 or niacin. It is characterized by symptoms such as dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and inflammation of the mucous membranes. The condition is commonly found in populations that rely heavily on maize as a staple food, as maize lacks sufficient amounts of niacin.

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  • 12. 

    Pyridoxine is involved in the metabolic transformation of amino acids.  Symptoms of deficiency include skin lesions and seizures.  A substantial loss of this vitamin occurs during cooking.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids. It is involved in the conversion of amino acids into various important molecules in the body. Deficiency of pyridoxine can lead to symptoms such as skin lesions and seizures. Additionally, pyridoxine is sensitive to heat and can be lost during cooking, causing a substantial decrease in its content in food. Therefore, the statement "Pyridoxine is involved in the metabolic transformation of amino acids. Symptoms of deficiency include skin lesions and seizures. A substantial loss of this vitamin occurs during cooking." is true.

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  • 13. 

    ________ functions as one of two coenzymes, FAD or FMN.  The first sign of deficiency includes a sore throat.  A later sign of deficiency includes dermatitis.

    • A.

      Riboflavin

    • B.

      Thiamine

    • C.

      Nicotinic Acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Riboflavin
    Explanation
    Riboflavin functions as one of two coenzymes, FAD or FMN. It is a vitamin that is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The first sign of riboflavin deficiency is a sore throat, which can be due to the impaired immune function caused by the lack of this vitamin. A later sign of deficiency is dermatitis, which is a skin condition characterized by inflammation and redness. Riboflavin is necessary for maintaining healthy skin and its deficiency can lead to skin problems. Thiamine and nicotinic acid are not associated with these specific signs of deficiency.

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  • 14. 

    Vitamin B__ contains cobalt.  (it's a number)

    Correct Answer
    12
    Explanation
    Vitamin B12 contains cobalt.

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  • 15. 

    This vitamin is involved in the normal function of every cell in the body, including DNA synthesis and regulation.  A deficiency in this disease can cause serious and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system.

    • A.

      Riboflavin

    • B.

      Thiamine

    • C.

      Vitamin B12

    • D.

      Pyridoxine (B9)

    • E.

      Vitamin K

    Correct Answer
    C. Vitamin B12
    Explanation
    Vitamin B12 is the correct answer because it is involved in the normal function of every cell in the body, including DNA synthesis and regulation. A deficiency in vitamin B12 can cause serious and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system.

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  • 16. 

    Pantothenic acid is complexed to beta-alanine.  This derivative is incorporated in coenzyme A.  Neuromuscular degeneration and adrenocortical insuffiency are symptoms of a deficiency in pantothenic acid.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin that is essential for the synthesis of coenzyme A, which plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes. Coenzyme A is formed by attaching pantothenic acid to beta-alanine. Therefore, it is correct to say that pantothenic acid is complexed to beta-alanine. A deficiency in pantothenic acid can lead to symptoms such as neuromuscular degeneration and adrenocortical insufficiency, further supporting the statement that the answer is true.

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  • 17. 

    Biotin is stable to cooking.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that is stable to cooking. This means that it can withstand high temperatures without being destroyed or losing its nutritional value. Cooking foods that contain biotin, such as eggs or meat, will not significantly affect the biotin content. Therefore, the statement "Biotin is stable to cooking" is true.

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  • 18. 

    Symptoms of scurvy include:  (select all that apply)

    • A.

      Gingivitis

    • B.

      Anemia

    • C.

      Losing of teeth

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Gingivitis
    B. Anemia
    C. Losing of teeth
    Explanation
    Scurvy is a condition caused by a deficiency of vitamin C in the diet. The symptoms of scurvy include gingivitis, which is inflammation of the gums, anemia, which is a lack of red blood cells, and losing of teeth, which is the result of weakened connective tissues. These symptoms are all associated with the lack of vitamin C, as it is necessary for the production of collagen, a protein that helps maintain healthy gums, blood vessels, and connective tissues.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is true regarding vitamin C?  (select all that apply)

    • A.

      Deficiency is known as rickets

    • B.

      Important in hormone processing

    • C.

      Important in synthesis of collagen

    • D.

      Antioxidant

    • E.

      Helps absorb iron

    • F.

      A symptom of deficiency includes wound healing failure

    • G.

      A symptom of deficiency is dermatitis

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Important in hormone processing
    C. Important in synthesis of collagen
    D. Antioxidant
    E. Helps absorb iron
    F. A symptom of deficiency includes wound healing failure
    Explanation
    Vitamin C is important in hormone processing because it plays a role in the synthesis of certain hormones in the body. It is also important in the synthesis of collagen, which is a protein that helps maintain the structure of the skin, bones, and blood vessels. Vitamin C acts as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. It also helps in the absorption of iron from plant-based sources, enhancing its availability for the body. A symptom of vitamin C deficiency includes wound healing failure, as the vitamin is necessary for the formation of connective tissue.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is true regarding Vitamin A?  (select all that apply)

    • A.

      Has an essential role in the function of the retina

    • B.

      Is a water soluble vitamin

    • C.

      A symptom of deficiency is night blindness

    • D.

      A symptom of deficiency is a compromised immune system leading to more infections

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Has an essential role in the function of the retina
    C. A symptom of deficiency is night blindness
    D. A symptom of deficiency is a compromised immune system leading to more infections
    Explanation
    Vitamin A has an essential role in the function of the retina because it is necessary for the production of visual pigments in the eyes. A symptom of Vitamin A deficiency is night blindness, which is the inability to see in low light or darkness. Additionally, Vitamin A deficiency can compromise the immune system, leading to more infections.

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  • 21. 

    Vitamin _ is also known as alpha tocopherol.  (hint: it's a letter)

    Correct Answer(s)
    E
    e
    Explanation
    The correct answer is E,e. Vitamin E, also known as alpha tocopherol, is a fat-soluble vitamin that acts as an antioxidant in the body. It helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals and plays a role in immune function, DNA repair, and other important processes. The letter "E" is commonly used to represent this vitamin.

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  • 22. 

    Vitamin C and E are antioxidants.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Vitamin C and E are known for their antioxidant properties. Antioxidants help protect the cells in our body from damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals. Vitamin C and E are both effective in neutralizing these free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of oxidative stress and potential damage to our cells. Therefore, the statement that Vitamin C and E are antioxidants is true.

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  • 23. 

    This vitamin is found in meat and dairy products.  If a patient is deficient in this vitamin, fat is stored in muscle. 

    • A.

      Riboflavin

    • B.

      Choline

    • C.

      Vitamin E

    • D.

      Carnitine

    Correct Answer
    D. Carnitine
    Explanation
    Carnitine is the correct answer because it is a vitamin-like substance found in meat and dairy products. When a patient is deficient in carnitine, fat is stored in muscle. This suggests that carnitine plays a role in the metabolism of fat and its deficiency can lead to abnormal fat storage.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is true regarding Vitamin E?  (select all that apply)

    • A.

      It is present in seeds, including wheat-germ oil

    • B.

      Antioxidant

    • C.

      Water soluble vitamin

    • D.

      The most active of the tocopherols

    • E.

      It has been advocated for many diseases including CAD, muscular dystrophy, habitual abortion, and schizophrenia

    • F.

      Regulates calcium metabolism

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. It is present in seeds, including wheat-germ oil
    B. Antioxidant
    D. The most active of the tocopherols
    E. It has been advocated for many diseases including CAD, muscular dystrophy, habitual abortion, and schizophrenia
    Explanation
    Vitamin E is present in seeds, including wheat-germ oil, making the statement true. It is also an antioxidant, which means it helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin E is the most active form of the tocopherols, making the statement true. It has been advocated for many diseases including CAD (coronary artery disease), muscular dystrophy, habitual abortion, and schizophrenia, indicating its potential benefits in these conditions. However, Vitamin E is not water-soluble and does not regulate calcium metabolism, so those statements are false.

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  • 25. 

    The active forms of vitamin D are ergocalciferol (D2) and cholecalciferol (D3), both of which arise in the body from ingested precursors by exposure of the skin to ultraviolet light.  Vitamin D primarily regulates calcium metabolism by determining the movement of calcium from the intestines to the blood and from the blood to the bone.  It interacts with PTH and ________ in controlling calcium levels. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    calcitonin
    Calcitonin
    CALCITONIN
    ct
    CT
    Explanation
    Vitamin D interacts with calcitonin in controlling calcium levels. Calcitonin is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland that helps to regulate calcium levels in the body. Together, vitamin D and calcitonin work to maintain the balance of calcium in the bloodstream by promoting its absorption from the intestines and preventing excessive release from the bones.

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  • 26. 

    A deficiency of vitamin D results in failure to absorb calcium and phosphorus, causing faulty formation of bone. In children the syndrome is known as RICKETS and is manifested by deformities of the rib cage and skull and by bow legs as a consequence of long bones. Adult rickets, or ___________, is characterized by generalized bone calcification and, eventually, gross bone deformities.

    Correct Answer(s)
    osteomalacia
    OSTEOMALACIA
    Osteomalacia
    Explanation
    A deficiency of vitamin D can lead to the development of osteomalacia, a condition characterized by generalized bone calcification and eventual gross bone deformities. This condition affects adults and is different from rickets, which occurs in children and is also caused by vitamin D deficiency. In osteomalacia, the failure to absorb calcium and phosphorus leads to faulty bone formation, resulting in weakened bones and deformities.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is true regarding pyridoxine (vitamin B6)?  Select all that apply.

    • A.

      Involved in metabolic transformations of amino acids (decarboxylation, transamination, and racemization).

    • B.

      No substantial loss during cooking

    • C.

      A symptom of deficiency includes seizures

    • D.

      A symptom of deficiency includes skin lesions

    • E.

      Food sources include soybeans, vegetables, whole grains, meat, and liver

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Involved in metabolic transformations of amino acids (decarboxylation, transamination, and racemization).
    C. A symptom of deficiency includes seizures
    D. A symptom of deficiency includes skin lesions
    E. Food sources include soybeans, vegetables, whole grains, meat, and liver
    Explanation
    Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is involved in metabolic transformations of amino acids such as decarboxylation, transamination, and racemization. This means that it plays a crucial role in the breakdown and synthesis of amino acids in the body. Additionally, a deficiency of pyridoxine can lead to symptoms such as seizures and skin lesions. Food sources rich in pyridoxine include soybeans, vegetables, whole grains, meat, and liver. It is important to note that there is no substantial loss of pyridoxine during cooking, making these food sources a reliable way to obtain this vitamin.

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  • 28. 

    In humans _______ is a cofactor for the enzymatic carboxylation of four substrates: pyruvate, acetyl coenzyme A (CoA), propionyl CoA, and beta-methylcrotonyl CoA. It plays a an important role in both carbohydtrate and fat metabolism (CO2 fixation).Food sources include organ meats, egg yolk, fish, nuts.Symptoms of deficiency include dermatitis and alopecia (similar to a zinc deficiency).It is stable to cooking.

    • A.

      Thiamine

    • B.

      Riboflavin

    • C.

      Vitamin B12

    • D.

      Carnitine

    • E.

      Pantothetic Acid

    • F.

      Biotin

    • G.

      Pyridoxine

    Correct Answer
    F. Biotin
    Explanation
    Biotin is a cofactor for the enzymatic carboxylation of pyruvate, acetyl coenzyme A (CoA), propionyl CoA, and beta-methylcrotonyl CoA. It is involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism, specifically in CO2 fixation. Biotin can be found in food sources such as organ meats, egg yolk, fish, and nuts. Deficiency in biotin can lead to symptoms such as dermatitis and alopecia, similar to a zinc deficiency. Biotin is also stable to cooking.

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  • 29. 

    Neuromuscular degeneration and adrenocortical insufficiency are symptoms of deficiency in this vitamin.

    • A.

      Thiamine

    • B.

      Carnitine

    • C.

      Folic Acid

    • D.

      Pantothetic Acid

    • E.

      Vitamin C

    Correct Answer
    D. Pantothetic Acid
    Explanation
    Pantothetic Acid deficiency can lead to neuromuscular degeneration and adrenocortical insufficiency. This vitamin plays a crucial role in the production of energy and the synthesis of hormones, which are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system and adrenal glands. Without enough Pantothetic Acid, the muscles and nerves can deteriorate, leading to neuromuscular degeneration. Additionally, the adrenal glands may not be able to produce enough hormones, resulting in adrenocortical insufficiency. Therefore, a deficiency in Pantothetic Acid can cause these symptoms.

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  • 30. 

    _______ is  important for the oxidation of fatty acids. Symptoms of deficiency result in lipid metabolism being severely affected, resulting in storage of  fat in muscle. Chronic renal failure. Food sources include meat and dairy products.

    • A.

      Riboflavin

    • B.

      Thiamine

    • C.

      Carnitine

    • D.

      Pantothetic Acid

    Correct Answer
    C. Carnitine
    Explanation
    Carnitine is important for the oxidation of fatty acids. It plays a crucial role in transporting long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, where they can be broken down and used for energy production. Deficiency of carnitine can severely affect lipid metabolism, leading to the storage of fat in muscle. Chronic renal failure can also result in a deficiency of carnitine. Meat and dairy products are good food sources of carnitine.

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  • 31. 

    Only D-carnitine is synthesized in tissues and possesses biological activity.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    L-carnitine

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  • 32. 

    Thiamine functions in the body in the form of coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and is mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Thiamine, in the form of coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), plays a crucial role in the body's carbohydrate metabolism. It helps convert carbohydrates into energy and is involved in various biochemical reactions related to glucose metabolism. Therefore, the statement "Thiamine functions in the body in the form of coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and is mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism" is true.

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  • 33. 

    In tropical countries, where exposure to sunlight is high, vitamin D deficiency is rare. It is much more common in northern regions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because vitamin D is primarily synthesized in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight. In tropical countries where there is high exposure to sunlight year-round, people are more likely to have sufficient levels of vitamin D. However, in northern regions where there is less sunlight, especially during the winter months, vitamin D deficiency is more common due to limited sun exposure.

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  • 34. 

    Ultraviolet irradiation of food products, a practice common in some countries, increases their vitamin D content.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Ultraviolet irradiation is a common practice in some countries to increase the vitamin D content in food products. This process involves exposing the food products to ultraviolet light, which stimulates the production of vitamin D. Therefore, it can be concluded that ultraviolet irradiation of food products increases their vitamin D content, making the answer "True."

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  • 35. 

    One of the first signs of thiamine deficiency is a sore throat.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    riboflavin

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  • 36. 

    Symptoms of hypervitaminosis D consist of weakness, fatigue, lassitude, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Urinary symptoms occur when calcium deposits build up in the kidneys.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Symptoms of hypervitaminosis D include weakness, fatigue, lassitude, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Additionally, urinary symptoms can occur when there is a buildup of calcium deposits in the kidneys.

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  • 37. 

    This vitamin is especially found in shellfish and liver.

    • A.

      Riboflavin

    • B.

      Carnitine

    • C.

      Vitamin B12

    • D.

      Pyridoxine

    • E.

      Pantothetic Acid

    • F.

      Thiamine

    Correct Answer
    C. Vitamin B12
    Explanation
    Vitamin B12 is the correct answer because it is known to be found in shellfish and liver. It is an essential vitamin that plays a crucial role in the formation of red blood cells, DNA synthesis, and nerve function. Shellfish, such as clams and mussels, and liver, such as beef liver, are particularly rich sources of vitamin B12. This vitamin is not naturally produced by the human body, so it is important to obtain it through dietary sources.

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  • 38. 

    _____________ is complexed to beta-alanine. This derivative is incorporated to Coenzyme A)  Coenzyme A serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions involving transfer of acetyl (two-carbon) groups. Symptoms of deficiency include  neuromuscular degeneration and adrenocortical insufficiency.  It is ubiquitous and mainly found in organ meats and egg yolk.

    • A.

      Pantothetic acid

    • B.

      Pyridoxine

    • C.

      Thiamine

    • D.

      Vitamin E

    • E.

      Carnitine

    Correct Answer
    A. Pantothetic acid
    Explanation
    Pantothetic acid is complexed to beta-alanine and is incorporated into Coenzyme A. Coenzyme A serves as a cofactor for various enzyme-catalyzed reactions involving the transfer of acetyl groups. Pantothetic acid is found ubiquitously and is mainly present in organ meats and egg yolk. Deficiency of pantothetic acid can lead to symptoms such as neuromuscular degeneration and adrenocortical insufficiency.

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  • 39. 

    The risk of toxicity from folic acid is low . However, folic acid supplements can correct the anemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Unfortunately, folic acid will not correct changes in the nervous system that result from vitamin B12 deficiency.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement explains that while folic acid supplements can help with anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, they cannot correct the nervous system changes resulting from this deficiency. It also mentions that the risk of toxicity from folic acid is low. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 40. 

    According to Moskovitz, folic acid is necessary for fertilization.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Folic acid is necessary for fertilization because it plays a crucial role in DNA synthesis and cell division. It helps in the production of genetic material and promotes the development of healthy eggs and sperm. Folic acid deficiency can lead to fertility issues and complications during pregnancy. Therefore, ensuring an adequate intake of folic acid is important for successful fertilization.

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  • 41. 

    Biotin deficiency may cause...

    • A.

      Sore throat

    • B.

      Seizures

    • C.

      Alopecia

    • D.

      Gingivitis

    Correct Answer
    C. Alopecia
    Explanation
    Biotin deficiency may cause alopecia, which refers to hair loss or baldness. Biotin, also known as vitamin B7, plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the hair follicles. When there is a deficiency of biotin, the hair follicles become weaker and more prone to damage, leading to hair loss. Therefore, alopecia is a common symptom of biotin deficiency.

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  • 42. 

    This has an essential role in the function of the retina ( involved in light receptors synthesis: Rods and Cones), required for epithelial tissue and bone growth, reproduction, and embryonic development.

    • A.

      Vitamin E

    • B.

      Vitamin A

    • C.

      Vitamin C

    Correct Answer
    B. Vitamin A
    Explanation
    Vitamin A plays an essential role in the function of the retina, which is involved in the synthesis of light receptors called rods and cones. It is also required for the growth of epithelial tissue and bone, as well as for reproduction and embryonic development.

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  • 43. 

    Pyridoxine deficiency includes which of the following? Select all that apply.

    • A.

      Seizures

    • B.

      Alopecia

    • C.

      Skin lesions

    • D.

      Storage of fat in muscle

    • E.

      Night blindness

    • F.

      Osteomalacia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Seizures
    C. Skin lesions
    Explanation
    Pyridoxine deficiency can lead to seizures and skin lesions. Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. A deficiency in pyridoxine can result in abnormal brain activity, leading to seizures. Additionally, pyridoxine plays a role in maintaining healthy skin, and a deficiency can cause skin lesions. Therefore, both seizures and skin lesions are symptoms associated with pyridoxine deficiency.

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  • 44. 

    A deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to a ____ deficiency.

    • A.

      B1

    • B.

      B2

    • C.

      B3

    • D.

      B9

    Correct Answer
    D. B9
    Explanation
    A deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to a B9 deficiency because both vitamins are involved in the production of red blood cells and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 helps in the absorption of B9, also known as folate, from the diet. Without enough B12, the body may struggle to properly absorb and utilize B9, leading to a deficiency in this vitamin. B9 deficiency can cause a variety of symptoms, including anemia, fatigue, and problems with cell division and growth.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 02, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Caitlinb
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